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Lenawee County, Mich,, 


Full Page Portraits and Biographical Sketches of Prominent 
and Representative Citizens of the County, 






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HAVE completed our labors in writing and compiling the Portrait and Bio- 
f I \PHICAL Album of this county, and wish, in presenting it to our patrons, to speak 
1 iiefly of the importance of local works of this nature. It is certainly the duty 
of the present to commemorate the past, to perpetuatethe names of the pioneers, 
to furnish a record of their eady setdement, and to relate the story of their progress. 
The civilization of our day, the enlightenment of the age, and this solemn duty which 
men of the present time owe to their ancestors, to themselves and to their posterity, 
demand ti,at a record of their lives and deeds should be made. In local history is found a pmvei 
to instruct man by precedent, to enliven the mental faculties, and to waft down the vivd uf time a safe 
vessel in which the names and actions of the people who contributed to raise this region from its 
primitive state may be preserved. Surely and rapidly tlie nolile men, who in their vigor and prime 
came early to the county and claiuied the virgin soil as their heiitage, are passing to their 
graves. The number remaining who can relate the history of tjie first days of settlement is 
becoming small indeed, so that an actual necessity exists tor the collection and preservation of his- 
torical matter without delay, before the settlers of tlie wilderness are cut down by time. Not only 
is itofthegreatestimportance to render history of pioneer tiuics full and ai curate, Init it is also essen- 

lat the history of the county, from its settlement to the ni 

l.iy, should bctteated through its various 
phases, so that a record, complete and impartial, may be handed down to ihe futuie. The present the age 
of progress, is reviewed, standing out in bold relief over the quiet, unostentatious oklcn times; it is a brilliant 
record, which is destined to live in the future; the good works of men, their magnificent enterprises, ijieii 
lives, whether commercial or military, do not sink into oblivion, i)Ut, on the contrary, grow brighter with age, 
and contribute to build up a record which carries with it pieredenls and princiiiles that ivill be advanced and 
observed when the acts of soulless men will be forgotten and their very names hidden in obscurity. 

In the preparation of the personal sketches contained in this volume, unusual care and pains were 
taken to have them accurate, even in the smallest detail. Indeed, nothing was ])assed lightly over or treated 
indifferently; and we flatter ourselves that it is one of the most accurate works of its nature ever published. 

As one of the most interesting features of this work, we present the portraits of numerous represent- 
ative citizens. It has been our aim to have the prominent men of to-day, as well as the pioneers, represented 
in this department; and we congratulate ourselves on the uniformly high character of the gendemen whose 
portraits we present. They are in the strictest sense representative men, and are selected from all the call- 
ings and professions worthy to be given. There are others, it is true, who claim equal piominence with 
those given ; but of course it was imposfible for us to give portraits of all the leading men and pioneers 
of the county. We are under great obligation to many of the noble and generous people of this county 
for kindly and material assistance in the preparation of this Album. 







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1 1 E Father of our Country was 
luni in Westmorland Co., Va., 
-'' I'eb. 22, 1732. His parents 
weie Augustine and Mary 
(Ball) Washington. The family 
to which he belonged has not 
been satisfactorily traced in 
England. His great-grand- 
father, John Washington, em- 
igrated to Virginia about 1657, 
and became a prosperous 
planter. He had two sons, 
Lawrence and John. The 
former married Mildred Warner 
and had three children, John, 
Augustine and Mildred. Augus- 
tine, the father of George, first 
married Jane Butler, who bore 
him four children, two of whom, 
Lawrence and Augustine, reached 
maturity. Of six children by his 
second marriage, George was the 
eldest, the others being Betty, 
Samuel, John Augustine, Charles 
and Mildred. 
Augustine Washington, the father of George, died 
in 1743, leaving a large landed property. To his 
eldest son, Lawrence, he bequeathed an estate on 
the Patomac, afterwards known as Mount Vernon, 
and to George he left the parental residence. George 
received only such education as the neighborhood 
schools afforded, save for a short time after he left 
sciiool, when he received private instruction in 
mathematics. His spelling v,fas rather defective. 
■^ .^ \ 


Remarkable stories are told of his great physical 
strength and development at an early age. He was 
an acknowledged leader among his companions, and 
was early noted for that nobleness of character, fair- 
ness and veracity which characterized his whole life. 

When George was 14 years old he had a desire to go to 
sea, and a midshipman's warrant was secured for him, 
but through the opposition of his mother the idea was 
abandoned. Two years later he was appointed 
surveyor to the immense estate of Lord Fairfax. In 
this business he spent three years in a rough frontier 
life, gaining experience which afterwards proved very 
essential to him. In 1751, though only 19 years of 
age, he was appointed adjutant with the rank of 
major in the Virginia militia, then being trained for 
active service against the French and Indians. Soon 
after this he sailed to the West Indies with his brother 
Lawrence, who went there to restore his health. They 
soon returned, and in the summer of t752 Lawrence 
died, leaving a large fortune to an infant daughter 
who did not long survive him. On her demise the 
estate of Mount Vernon was given to George. 

Upon the arrival of Robert Dinwiddle, as Lieuten- 
ant-Governor of Virginia, in 1752, the militia was 
reorganized, and the province divided into four mili- 
tary districts, of which the northern was assigned to 
Washington as adjutant general. Shortly after this 
a very perilous mission was assigned him and ac- 
cepted, which others had refused. This was to pro- 
ceed to the French post near Lake Erie in North- 
western Pennsylvania. The distance to be traversed 
was lietween 500 and 600 miles. Winter was at hand, 
and the journey was to be made without military 
escort, through a territpiy occupied by Indians. Thq 


trip was a perilous one, and several limes he came near 
losing his life, yet he returned in safety and furnished 
a full and useful report of his expedition. A regiment 
of 300 men was raised in Virginia and put in com- 
mand of Col. Joshua Fry, and Major Washington was 
commissioned lieutenant-colonel. Active war was 
then begun against the French and Indians, in which 
Washington took a most imiwrtant part. In the 
memorable event of July 9, 1755, known as Brad- 
dock's defeat, Washington was almost the only officer 
of distinction who escaped from the calamities of the 
day with life and honor. The other aids of Braddock 
were disabled early in the action, and Washington 
alone was left in that capacity on the field. In a letter 
to his brother he says : " I had four bullets through 
my coat, and two horses shot under me, yet I escaped 
unhurt, though death was leveling, my companions 
on every side." An Indian sharpshooter said he was 
not born to be killed by a bullet, for he had taken 
direct aim at him seventeen times,- and failed to hit 

After having been five years in the military service, 
and vainly sought promotion in the royal army, he 
look advantage of the fall of Fort Duquesnc and the 
expulsion of the French from the valley of the Ohio, 
to resign his commission. Soon after he entered the 
Legislature, where, although not a leader, he took an 
active and important part. January 17, 1759, he 
married Mrs. Martha (Dandridge) Custis, the wealthy 
widow of John Parke Custis. 

When the British Parliament had closed the port 
'jf Boston, the cry went up throughout the provinces 
that "The cause of Boston is the cause of us all." 
It was then, at the suggestion of Virginia, that a Con- 
gress of all the colonies was called to meet at Phila- 
delphia,Sept. 5, 1774, to secure their common liberties, 
peaceably if possible. To this Congress Col. Wash- 
ington was sent as a delegate. On May 10, 1775, the 
Congress re-assembled, when the hostile intentions of 
England were plainly apparent. The battles of Con- 
cord and Lexington had been fought. Among the 
first acts of this Congress was the election of a com- 
mander-in-chief of the colonial forces. This high and 
responsible office was conferred upon Washington, 
who was still a memberof the Congress. He accepted 
it on June 19, but upon the express condition that he 
receive no salary. He would keep an exact account 
of expenses and expect Congress to pay them and 
nothing more. It is not the object of this sketch to 
trace the military acts of Washington, to whom the 
fortunes and liberties of the people of this country 
were so long confided. The war was conducted by 
him under ever}' possible disadvantage, and while his 
forces often met with reverses, yet he overcame every 
obstacle, and after seven years of heroic devotion 
and matchless skill he gained liberty for the greatest 
nation of earth. On Dec. 23, 1783, Washington, in 
a parting address of surpassing beauty, resigned his 

commission as commander-in-chief of the army to 
to the Continental Congress sitting at Annaixjlis. He 
retired immediately to Mount Vernon and resumed 
his occupation as a farmer and planter, shunning all 
connection with public life. 

In February, 1 7 89, Washington was unanimously 
elected President. In his presidential career he was 
subject to the peculiar trials incidental to a new 
government ; trials from lack of confidence on the part 
of other governments; trials from want of harmony 
between the different sections of our own country; 
trials from the impoverished condition of the country, 
owing to the war and want of credit; trials from the 
beginnings of party strife. He was no partisan. His 
clear judgment could discern the golden mean; and 
while perhaps this alone kept our government from 
sinking at the very outset, it left him exposed to 
attacks from both sides, which were often bitter and 
very annoying. 

At the expiration of his first term he was unani- 
mously re-elected. At the end of this term many 
were anxious that he be re-elected, but he absolutely 
refused a third nomination. On the fourth of March, 
1797, at the expiraton of his second term as Presi- 
dent, he returned to his home, hoping to pass there 
his few remaining yeais free from the annoyances of 
public life. Later in the year, however, his repose 
seemed likely to be interrupted by war with France. 
At the prospect of such a war he was again urged to 
take command of the armies. He chose his sub- 
ordinate officers and left to them the charge of mat- 
ters in the field, which he superintended from his 
home. In accepting the command he made the 
reservation that he was not to be in the field until 
it was necessary. In the midst of tiiese preparations 
his life was suddenly cut off. December 12, he took 
a seveie cold from a ride in the rain, which, settling 
ill his throat, produced inflammation, and terminated 
fatally on the night of the fourteenth. On the eigh- 
teenth his body was liorne wi'h military honors to its 
final resting place, and interred in the family vault at 
Mount Vernon. 

Of the character of Washington it is impossible to 
speak but in terms of the highest respect and ad- 
miration. The more we see of the operations of 
our government, and the more deeply we feel the 
difficulty of uniting all opinions in a common interest, 
the more highly we must estimate the force of his tal- 
ent and character, which have been able to challenge 
the reverence of all parties, and principles, and na- 
tions, and to win a fame as extended as the limits 
of the globe, and which we cannot but believe will 
be as lasting as the existence of man. 

The person of Washington was unusally tan, erect 
and well proportioned. His muscular strength was 
great. His features were of a beautiful symmetry. 
He commanded respect without any appearance of 
haughtiness, and ever serious without being dull 




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OHN ADAMS, the second 
I'lesident and the first Vice- 
'rcsident of the United States, 
w IS born in Braintree ( now 
( Uiincy),Mass., and about ten 
miles from Boston, Oct. 19, 
jj^ 1735. His great-grandfather, Henry 
ffl^ Adams, emigrated from England 
about 1 640, with a family of eight 
, sons, and settled at Braintree. The 
parents of John were John and 
Susannah (Boylston) Adams. His 
father was a farmer of limited 
means, to which he added the bus- 
iness of shoemaking. He gave his 
eldest son, John, a classical educa- 
I tion at Harvard College. John 

graduated in 1755, and at once took charge of the 
school in Worcester, Mass. This he found but a 
"school of affliction," from which he endeavored to 
gain relief by devoting himself, in addition, to the 
study of law. For this purix)se he placed himself 
under the tuition of the only lawyer in the town. He 
had thought seriously of the clerical profession 
but seems to have been turned from this l)y what he 
termed " the frightful engines of ecclesiastical coun- 
cils, of diabolical malice, and Calvanistic good nature," 
of the operations of which he had been a witness in 
his native town. He was well fitted for the legal 
profession, possessing a clear, sonorous voice, being 
ready and fluent of speech, and having quick percep- 
tive powers. He gradually gained practice, and in 
1764 married Abigail Smith, a daughter of a minister, 
and a lady of superior intelligence. Shortly after his 
marriage, (1765), the attempt of ParHamentary taxa- 
tion turned him from law to p litics. He took initial 
gteps toward holding a town meeting, and the resolu- 

tions he offered on the subject became very popular 
throughout the Proviaice, and were adopted word for 
word by over forty different towns. He moved to Bos- 
ton in 1768, and became one of the most courageous 
and prominent advocatesof the popular cause, and 
was chosen a member of the General Court (the Leg- 
lislature) in 1770. 

Mr. Adams was chosen one of the first delegates 
from Massachusetts to the first Continental Congress, 
which met in 1774. Here he distinguished himself 
by his capacity for business and for debate, and ad- 
vocated the movement for independence against the 
majority of the members. In May, 1776, he moved 
and carried a resolution in Congress that the Colonies 
should assume the duties of self-government. He 
was a prominent member of the committee of five 
appointed June 11, to prepare a declaration of inde- 
pendence. This article was drawn by Jefferson, but 
on Adams devolved the task of battling it through 
Congress in a three days debate. 

On the day after the Declaration of Independence 
was passed, while his soul was yet warm with the 
glow of excited feeling, he wrote a letter to his wife, 
which, as we read it now, seems to have been dictated 
by the spirit of proiJhecy. "Yesterday," he says, "the 
greatest question was decided that ever was debated 
in America; and greater, perhaps, never was or will 
be decided among men. A resolution was passed 
without one dissenting colony, ' that these United 
States are, and of right ought to be, free and inde- 
pendent states.' The day is passed. The fourth of 
July, 1776, will be a memorable epoch in the history 
of America. I am apt to believe it will be celebrated 
by succeeding generations, as the great anniversary 
festival. It ought to be commemorated as the day of 
deliverance by solemn acts of devotion to Almighty 
God. It ought to be solemnized with pomp, shows, 

. ♦- 




games, sports, guns, bells, bonfires, and illuminations 
from one end of the continent to the other, from this 
time forward for ever. You will think me transported 
with enthusiasm, but I am not. I am well aware of 
the toil, and blood and treasure, that it will cost to 
maintain this declaration, and support and defend 
these States; yet, through all tiie gloom, I can seethe 
rays of light and glory. I can see that the end is 
worth more than all the means; and that posterity 
will triumph, although you and I may rue, which I 
hoi)e we shall not." 

In November, 1777, Mr. Adams was appointed a 
delegate to France and to co-operate with Bemjamin 
Franklin and Arthur Lee, who were then in Paris, in 
the endeavor to obtain assistance in arms and money 
from the French Government. This was a severe trial 
to his patriotism, as it separated him from his home, 
compelled him to cross the ocean in winter, and ex- 
posed him to great peril of capture by the British cruis- 
ers, who were seeking him. He left France June 17, 
1779. In September of the same year he was again 
chosen to go to Paris, and there hold himself in readi- 
ness to negotiate a treaty of peace and of commerce 
with Great Britian, as soon as the British Cabinet 
might be found willing to listen to such pioposels. He 
sailed for France in November, from there he went to 
Holland, where he negotiated important loans and 
formed important commercial treaties. 

Finally a treaty of peace with England was signed 
Jan. 21, 1783. The re-action from the excitement, 
toil and an.xiety through which Mr. Adams had passed 
threw him into a fever. After suffering from a con- 
tinued fever and becoming feeble and emaciated he 
was advised to goto England to drink the waters of 
Bath. A\'hile in England, still drooping and desjxjnd- 
ing, he received dispatches from his own government 
urging the necessity of his going to Amsterdam to 
negotiate another loan. It was winter, his health was 
delicate, yet he immediately set out, and through 
storm, on sea, on horseback and foot, he made the trip. 

February 24, 1785. Congress appointed Mr. Adams 
envoy to the Court of St. James. Here he met face 
to face the King of England, who had so long re- 
garded him as a traitor. As England did not 
condescend to appoint a minister to the United 
States, and as Mr. Adams felt that he was accom- 
plishing but little, he sought permission to return to 
his own country, where he arrived in June, 1788. 

When Washington was first chosen President, John 
Adams, rendered illustiious by his signal services at 
home and abroad, was chosen Vice President, .\gain 
at the second election of Washington as President, 
Adams was chosen Vice President. In 1796, Wash- 
ington retired from public life, and Mr. Adams was 
elected President,though not without much opposition. 
Serving in this office four years, he was succeeded by 
Mr. Jefferson, his opponent in politics. 

While Mr. .4dam5 was Vic§ President the great 

French Revolution shook the continent of Europe, 
and it was upon this point which he was at issue with 
the majority of his countrymen led by Mr. Jefferson. 
Mr. Adams felt no sympathy with the French people 
in their struggle, for he had no confidence in their 
power of self-government, and he utterly abhored the 
classof atheist philosophers who he claimed caused it. 
On the other hand Jefferson's sympathies were strongly 
enlisted in behalf of the French people. Hence or- 
iginated the alienation between these distinguished 
men, and two powerful parties were thus soon organ- 
ized, Adams at the head of the one whose sympathies 
were with England and Jefferson led the other in 
sympathy with France. 

The world has seldom seen a spectacle of more 
moral beauty and grandeur, than was presented by the 
old age of Mr. Adams. The violence of party feeling 
had died away, and he had begun to receive that just 
appreciation which, to most men, is not accorded till 
after death. No one could look upon his venerable 
form, and think of what he had done and suffered, 
and how he had given up all the prime and strength 
of his life to the public good, without the deepest 
emotion of gratitude and respect. It was his peculiar 
good fortune to witness the complete success of the 
institution which he had been so active in creating and 
supiMrting. In 1824, his cup of happiness was filled 
to the brim, by seeing his son elevated to the highest 
station in the gift of the people. 

The fourth of July, 1826, which completed the half 
century since the signing of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, arrived, and there were but three of the 
signers of that immortal instrument left upon the 
earth to hail its morning light. And, as it is 
well known, on that day two of these finished their 
earthly pilgrimage, a coincidence so remarkable as 
to seem miraculous. For a few days before Mr. 
Adams had been rapidly failing, and on the morning 
of the fourth he found himself too weak to rise from 
his bed. On being requested to name a toast for the 
customary celebration of the day, he exclaimed " In- 
dependence FOREVER." When the day was ushered 
in, by the ringing of bells and the firing of cannons, 
he was asked by one of his attendants if he knew 
what day it was? He replied, "O yes ; it is the glor- 
ious fourth of July — God bless it — God bless you all." 
In the course of the day he said, "It is a great and 
glorious day." The last words he uttered were, 
"Jefferson survives." But he had, at one o'clock, re- 
signed his spirit into the hands of his God. 

The personal appearance and manners of Mr. 
Adams were not particularly prejwssessing. His face, 
as his portrait manifests.was intellectual ard expres- 
sive, but his figure was low and ungraceful, and his 
manners were frequently abrupt and uncourteous. 
He had neither the lofty dignity of Washington, nor 
the engaging elegance and gracefulness which marked 
the manner? 3nd address of Jefferson, 

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born Ai)ril 2, i743) *t Sliad- 
iell, Albermarle county, Va. 
Hib i)arents were Peter and 
lane ( Randolph) Jefferson, 
tliL former a native of Wales, 
and the latter born in Lon- 
djn To them were born six 
daughters and two sons, of 
whom Thomas was the elder. 
When 14 years of age his 
father died. He received a 
most liberal education, hav- 
ing been kept diligently at school 
from the time he was five years of 
age. In 1760 he entered William 
and Mary College. Williamsburg was then the seat 
of the Colonial Court, and it was the obode of fashion splendor. Young Jefferson, who was then 17 
years old, lived somewhat expensively, keeping fine 
horses, and much caressed by gay society, yet he 
was earnestly devoted to his studies, andirreproacha- 
able in his morals. It is strange, however, under 
such influences.that he was not ruined. In the sec- 
ond year of his college course, moved by some un- 
exjilained inward impulse, he discarded his horses, 
society, and even his favorite violin, to which he had 
previously given much time. He often devoted fifteen 
hours a day to haid study, allowing himself for ex- 
ercise only a run in the evening twilight of a mile out 
of the city and back again. He thus attained very 
high intellectual culture, alike excellence in philoso- 
phy and the languages. The most difincult Latin and 
Greek authors he read with facility. A more finished 
scholar has seldom gone forth from college halls; and 

there was not to be found, perhaps, in all Virginia, a 
more pureminded, upright, gentlemanly young man. 

Imiiiediately upon leaving college he began the 
study of law. For the short time he continued in the 
practice of his profession he rose ra|)idly and distin- 
guished himself by his energy and accuteness as a 
lawyer. But the times called for greater action. 
The policy of England had awakened the spirit of 
resistance of the American Colonies, and the enlarged 
views which Jefferson had ever entertained, soon led 
him into active political life. In 1769 he was chosen 
a member of the Virginia House of Burgesses. !n 
1772 he married Mrs. Martha Skelton, a very beauti- 
ful, wealthy and highly accomplished young widow. 

Upon Mr. Jefferson's large estate at Shadwell, there 
was a majestic swell of land, called Monticello, which 
commanded a prospect of wonderful extent and 
beauty. This spot Mr. Jefferson selected lor his new 
home; and here he reared a mansion of modest yet 
elegant architecture, which, next to "Mount Vernon, 
became the most distinguished resort in our land. 

In 1775 he was sent to the Colonial Congress, 
where, though a silent member, his abilities as a 
writer and a reasoner soon become known, and he 
was placed upon a number of important committees, 
and was chairman of the one appointed for the draw- 
ing up of a declaration of independence. This com- 
mittee consisted of Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, 
Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman and Robert R. 
Livingston. Jefferson, as chairman, was appointed 
to draw up the paper. Franklin and Adams suggested 
a few verbal changes before it was submitted to Con- 
gress. On June 28, a few slight changes were made 
in it by Congress, and it was passed and signed July 
4, 1776. What must have been the feelings of that 




man — what the emotions that swelled his breast — ■ 
who was charged with the preparation of that Dec- 
laration, which, while it made known the wrongs of 
America, was also to publish her to the world, free, 
soverign and independent. It is one of the most re- 
markable papers ever written ; and did no other effort 
of tiie mind of its author exist, that alone would be 
sufficient to stamj) his name with immortality. 

In 1779 Mr. Jefferson was elected successor to 
Patrick Henry, i.s (Governor of Virginia. At one time 
the British officer, Tarleton, sent a secret expedition to 
Monlicello, to cai)ture the Governor. Scarcely five 
minutes elapsed after the hurried escape of Mr. Jef- 
ferson and his family, ere his mansion was in posses- 
sion of the Bridsh troops. His wife's health, never 
very good, was much injured by this excitement, and 
in the summer of 1782 she died. 

Mr. Jeff'erson was elected to Congress in 1783. 
Two years later he was appointed Minister Pleniiio- 
tentiary to France. Returning to the United States 
in September, 1789, he became Secretary of State 
in Washington's cabinet. This position he resigned 
Jan. r, 1794. In 1797, he was chosen Vice Presi- 
dent, and four years later was elected President over 
Mr. Adams, with Aaron Burr as Vice President. In 
1804 he was re-elected with wonderful unanimity, 
and George Clinton, Vice President. 

The eady part of Mr. Jefferson's second adminstra- 
tion was disturbed by an event which threatened the 
tranquility and peace of the Union; this was the con- 
spiracy of Aaron Burr. Defeated in the late election 
to the Vice Presidency, andled,on by an unprincipled 
ambition, this extraordinary man formed the plan of a 
military expedition into the Spanish territories on our 
southwestern frontier, for the pur[X)se of forming there 
a new republic. This has been generally supposed 
was a mere pretext ; and althougli it has not been 
generally known what his real plans were, there is no 
doubt that they were of a far more dangerous 

In 1809, at the expiration of the second term for 
which Mr. Jefferson had lieen elected, he determined 
to retire from political life. For a period of nearly 
forty years, he had been continually before the pub- 
lic, and all that time had been employed in offices of 
the greatest trust and responsibility. Having tliiis de- 
voted the best part of his life to the service of his 
country, he now felt desirous of that rest which his 
declining years required, and upon the organization of 
the new administration, in March, 1809, he bid fare- 
well forever to public life, and retired to Monticello. 

Mr. Jefferson was profuse in his hospitality. Whole 
families came in their coaches with their horses, — 
fathers and mothers, boys and girls, babies and 
nurses, — and remained three and even six months. 
Life at Mondcello, for years, resembled that at a 
fashionable watering-place. 

The fourth of July, 1826, being the fiftieth anniver- 

sary of the Declaration of American Independence, 
great preparations were made in every part of the 
Union for its celebration, as the nation's jubilee, and 
the citizens of Washington, to add to the solemnity 
of the occasion, invited Mr. Jefferson, as the framer. 
and one of the few surviving signers of the Declara- 
tion, to participate in their festivities. But an ill- 
ness, which had been of several weeks duration, and 
had been continually increasing, compelled him to 
decline the invitation. 

On the second of July, the disease under which 
he was laboring left him, but in such a reduced 
state that his medical attendants, entertained no 
hope of his recovery. From this time he was perfectly 
sensible that his last hour was at hand. On the next 
d:iy, which was Monday, he asked of those around 
him, the day of the month, and on being told it was 
the third of July, he expresjed the earnest wish that 
he might be permitted to breathe the airof the fiftieth 
anniversary. His prayer was heard — that day, whose 
dawn was hailed with such rapture through our land, 
burst upon his eyes, and then they were closed for- 
ever. And what a noble consummation of a noble 
life ! To die on that day, — the birthday of a nation,- - 
the day which his own name and his own act had 
rendered glorious; to die amidst the rejoicings and 
festivities of a whole nation, who looked up to him, 
as the author, under God, of their greatest blessings, 
was all that was wanting to fill up the record his life. 

Almost at the same hour of his death, the kin- 
dred spirit of the venerable Adams, as if to bear 
him company, left the scene of his earthly honors. 
Hand in hand they had stood forth, the champions of 
freedom ; hand in hand, during the dark and desper- 
ate struggle of the Revolution, they had cheered and 
animated their desponding countrymen; for half a 
century they had labored together for the good of 
the country; and now hand in hand they depart. 
In their lives they had been united in the same great 
cause of liberty, and in their deaths they were not 

In person Mr. Jefferson was tall and thin, rather 
above six feet in height, but well formed; his eyes 
were light, his hair originally red, in after life became 
white and silvery; his complexion was fair, his fore- 
head broad, and his whole countenance intelligent and 
thoughtful. He possessed great fortitude of mind as 
well as personal courage; and his command of tem- 
per was such that his oldest and most intimate friends 
never recollected to have seen him in a passion. 
His manners, though dignified, were simple and un- 
affected, and his hospitality was so unbounded that 
all found at his house a ready welcome. In conver- 
sation he was fluent, eloquent and enthusiastic ; and 
his language was remarkably pure and correct. He 
was a finished classical scholar, and in his writings is 
discernable the care with which he formed his style 
upon the best models of antiquity. 

^?>-o^''^ ^C^ ec^<^cc <r^ 


^prriES ni:flDisoi].«i^ 

of the Constitution," and fourth 
^' 1 resident of the United States, 
\\ IS born March i6, 1757, and 
died at his home in Virginia, 
The name of 
James Madison is inseparably con- 
nected with most of the important 
events in that heroic period of our 
country during which the founda- 
tions of this great repubHc were 
lain. He was the last of the founders 
of the Constitution of the United 
States to be called to his eternal 

The Madison family were among 
the early emigrants to the New World, 
landing uixjn the shores of the Chesa- 
peake but 15 years after the settle- 
ment of Jamestown. The father of 
James Madison was an opulent 
planter, residing upon a very fine es- 
tate called "Montpelier," Orange Co., 
Va. The mansion was situated in 
the midst of scenery highly pictur- 
i esque and romantic, on the west side 
of South-west Mountain, at the foot of 
Blue Ridge. It was but 25 miles from the home of 
Jefferson at Monticello. The closest personal and 
political attachment existed between these illustrious 
men, from their early youth until death. 

The early education of Mr. Madison was conducted 
mostly at home under a private tutor. At the age of 
18 he was sent to Princeton College, in New Jersey. 
Here lie applied himself to study with the most im- 

prudent zeal; allowing himself, for months, but tliree 
hours' sleep out of the 24. His health tlius became so 
seriously impaired that he never recovered any vigor 
of constitution. He graduated in 177 i, with a feeble 
body, with a character of utmost purity, and with a 
mind highly disciplined and richly stored with learning 
which embellished and gave proficiency to his subsf 
quent career. 

Returning to Virginia, he commenced the study of 
law and a course of extensive and systematic reading. 
This educational course, the spirit of the times in 
which he lived, and the society with which he asso- 
ciated, all combined to inspire Iiim with a strong 
love of liberty, and to train him for his life-woik of 
a statesman. Being naturally of a religious turn of 
mind, and his frail health leading him to think that 
his life was not to be long, he directed especial atten- 
tion to theological studies. Endowed with a mind 
singularly free from passion and prejudice, and with 
almost unequalled powers of reasoning, he weighed 
all the arguments for and against revealed religion, 
until his faith became so established as never to 
be shaken. 

In the spring of 1776, when 26 years of age, he 
was elected a member of the Virginia Convention, to 
frame the constitution of the State. The next year 
(1777), he was a candidate for the General Assembly. 
He refused to treat the whisky-lovir.g voters, and 
consequently lost his election ; but those who had 
witnessed the talent, energy and public spirit of the 
modest young man, enlisted themselves in his behalf, 
and he was appointed to the Executive Council. 

Both Patrick Henry and Thomas Jefferson were 
Governors of Virginia while Mr. Madison remained 
member of the Council ; and their appreciation of his 



intellectual, social and moral worth, contributed not 
a little to his subsecjuent eminence. In the year 
1780, he was elected a' member of the Continental 
Congress. Here he met the most illustrious men in 
our land, and he was immediately assigned to one of 
the most conspicuous positions among them. 

For three years Mr. Madison continued in Con- 
gress, one of its most active and influential members. 
In the year 1784, his term having expired, he was 
elected a member of the Virginia Legislature. 

No man felt more deeply than Mr. Madison the 
utter inefficiency of the old confederacy, with no na- 
tional government, with no power to form treaties 
which would be binding, or to enforce law. There 
was not any State more prominent than Virginia in 
the declaration, that an efficient national government 
must be formed. In January, 1786, Mr. Madison 
carried a resolution through the General Assembly of 
Virginia, inviting the other States to appoint commis- 
sioners to meet in convention at Annapolis to discuss 
this subject. Five States only were represented. The 
convention, however, issued another call, drawn up 
by Mr. Madison, urging all the States to send their 
delegates to Philadelphia, in May, 1787, to draft 
a Constitution for the United States, to take the place 
of that Confederate League. The delegates met at 
the time appointed. Every State but Rhode Island 
was represented. George Washington was chosen 
president of the convention; and the present Consti- 
tution of the United States was then and there formed. 
There was, perhaps, no mind and no pen more ac- 
tive in framing this immortal document than the mind 
and the pen of James Madison. 

The Constitution, adopted liy a vote 81 to 79, was 
to be presented to tlie several States for acceptance. 
But grave solicitude was felt. Should it be rejected 
we should be left but a conglomeration of independent 
States, with but little jxiwer at home and little respect 
abroad. Mr. Madison was selected by the conven- 
tion to draw up an address to the people of the United 
States, expounding the principles of the Constitution, 
and urging its adoption. There was great opposition 
to it at first, but it at length triumphed over all, and 
went into effect in 1789. 

Mr. Madison was elected to the House of Repre- 
sentatives in the first Congress, and soon became the 
avowed leader of the Reiniblican party. While in 
New York attending Congress, he met Mrs. Todd, a 
young widow of remarkable jiower of fascination, 
whom he married. She was in person and character 
queenly, and probably no lady has thus far occupied 
so prominent a position in the very peculiar society 
which has constituted our rcpulilican court as Mrs. 

Mr. Madison served as Secretary of State under 
Jefferson, and at the close of his administiation 
was chosen President. At this time the encroach- 
ments of England had brought us to the verge of war. 


British orders in council destroyed our commerce, and 
our flag was exposed to constant insult. Mr. Madison 
was a man of peace. Scholarly in his taste, retiring 
in his disposition, war had no charms for him. But the 
meekest spirit can be roused. It makes one's blood 
boil, even now, to think of an American ship brought 
to, upon the ocean, by the guns of an English cruiser. 
A young lieutenant steps on board and orders the 
crew to be paraded before him. With great nonchal- 
ance he selects any number whom he may please to 
designate as British subjects ; orders them down the 
ship's side into his boat; and places them on the gun- 
deck of his man-of-war, to fight, by compulsion, the 
battles of England. This right of search and im- 
pressment, no efforts of our Government could induce 
the British cabinet to relinquish. 

On the i8th of June, r8i2. President Madison gave 
his approval to an act of Congress declaring war 
against Great Britain. Notwithstanding the bitter 
hostility of the Federal party to the war, the country 
in general approved; and Mr. Madison, on the 4th 
of March, i8i3i was re-elected by a large majority, 
and entered upon his second term of office. This is 
not the place to describe the various adventures of 
this war on the land and on the water. Our infant 
navy then laid the foundations of its renown in grap- 
pling with the most formidable power which ever 
swept the seas. The contest commenced in earnest 
by the appearance of a British fleet, early in February, 
1813, in Chesapeake Bay, declaring nearly the whole 
coast of the United States under blockade. 

Tiie Emperor of Russia offered his services as me 
ditator. America accepted ; England refused. A Brit- 
ish force of five thousand men landed on the banks 
of the Patuxet River, near its entrance into Chesa- 
peake Bay, and marched rapidly, by way of Bladens- 
burg, upon Washington. 

The straggling little city of Washington was thrown 
into consternation. The cannon of the brief conflict 
at Bladensburg echoed through the streets of the 
metropolis. The whole population fled from the city. 
The President, leaving Mrs. Madison in the White 
House, with her carriage drawn up at the door to 
await his speedy return, hurried to meet the officers 
in a council of war. He met our troops utterly routed, 
and he could not go back without danger of being 
captured. But few hours elapsed ere the Presidential 
Mansion, the Capitol, and all the public buildings in 
Washington were in flames. 

The war closed after two years of fighting, and on 
Feb. 13, i8i5,the treaty of peace was signed at Ghent. 

On the 4th of March, 1817, his second term of 
office expired, and he resigned the Presidential chair 
to his friend, James Monroe. He retired to his beau- 
tiful home at Montpelier, and there passed the re- 
mainder of his days. On June 28, 1836, then at the 
age of 85 years, he fell asleep in (Jeath, Mrs. Macji- 
sondied July 12, 1849. 






VMES MONROE, the fifth 
esidentof The United States, 
I'j born in Westmoreland Co., 
I , April 28, 1758. His early 
lie was passed at the place of 
nativity His ancestors had for 
many yeais resided in the prov- 
ince in which he was born. When, 
at 17 years of age, in the jtrocess 
of completing his education at 
William and Mary College, the Co- 
lonial Congress assembled at Phila- 
delphia lo deliberate upon the un- 
just and manifold oppressions of 
(Ireat Britian, declared the separa- 
tion of the Colonies, and iiromul- 
I . 

gated the iJeclaration of Indepen- 
dence. Had he been born ten years before it is highly 
probalile that he would have been one of the signers 
of that celebrated instrument. At this time he left 
school and enlisted among the patriots. 

He joined the army when everything looked hope- 
less and gloomy. The number of deserters increased 
from day to day. The invading armies came pouring 
in ; and the tories not only favored the cause of the 
mother country, but disheartened the new recruits, 
who were sulificiently terrified at the prospect of con- 
tending with an enemy whom they had been taught 
to deem invincible. To such brave spirits as James 
Monroe, who went right onward, undismayed through 
difficulty and danger, the United States owe their 
political emancipation. The young cadet joined the 
ranks, and espoused the cause of his injured country, 
with a firm determination to live or die with her strife 

for liberty. Firmly yet sadly he shared in tlie mel- 
ancholy retreat from Harleam Heights and White 
Plains, and accompanied the dispirited army as it fled 
before its foes through New Jersey. In four months 
after the Declaration of Independence, the patriots 
had been beaten in seven battles. At the battle of 
Trenton he led the vanguard, and, in the act of charg- 
ing upon the enemy he received a wound in the left 

As a reward for his bravery, Mr. Monroe was \no- 
moted a captain of infantry ; and, having recovered 
from his wound, he rejoined the army. He, however, 
receded from the line of promotion, by iiecoming an 
officer in the staff of Lord Sterling. During the cam- 
paigns of 1777 and 1778, in the actions of Brandy 
wine, (lermantown and Monmouth, he continued 
aid-de-canip; but becoming desirous to regain his 
position in the army, he exerted himself to collect a 
regiment for the Virginia line. This scheme failed 
owing to the exhausted condition of the State. Upon 
this failure he entered the office of Mr. Jefferson, at 
that period Governor, and pursued, with considerable 
ardor, the study of common law. He did not, however, 
entirely lay aside the knapsack for the green bag; 
but on the invasions of the enemy, served as a volun- 
teer, during the two years of his legal pursuits. 

In 1782, he was elected from King George county, 
a member of the Leglislature of Virginia, and by tliat 
body he was elevated to a seat in the Executive 
Council. He was thus honored with the confidence 
of his fellow citizens at 23 years of age ; and having 
at this early period displayed some of that ability 
and aptitude for legislation, which were afterwards 
employed with unremitting energy for the public good 

»► ■ <• 



he was in the succeeding year chosen a member of 
the Congress of the United States. 

Deeply as Mr. Monroe felt the imperfections of the old 
^Confederacy, he was opposed to the new Constitution, 
thinking, with many others of the Republican party, 
that it gave too much power to the Central Government, 
and not enough to the individual Slates. Still he re- 
tained the esteem of his friends who were its warm 
supporters, and who, notwithstanding his opposition 
secured its adoption. In 1789, he became a member 
of the United States Senate; which office he held for 
four years. Every month the line of distinction be- 
tween the two great parties which divided the nation, 
the Federal and the Republican, was growing more 
distinct. The two prominent ideas which now sep- 
arated them were, that the Republican party was in 
sympathy with France, and also in favor of such a 
strict construction of the Constitution as to give the 
Central Government as little power, and the State 
Governments as much ix)wer, as the Constitution would 
warrant. The Federalists sympathized with England, 
and were in favor of a liberal construction of the Con- 
stitution, which would give as much power to the 
Central Government as that document could possibly 

The leading Federalists and Republicans were 
alike noble men, consecrating all their energies to the 
good of the nation. Two more honest men or more 
pure patriots than John Adams the Federalist, and 
James Monroe the Republican, never breathed. In 
building up this majestic nation, which is destined 
to eclipse all Grecian and Assyrian greatness, the com- 
bination of their antagonism was needed to create the 
light equilibrium. And yet each in his day was de- 
nounced as almost a demon. 

Washington was then President. England had es- 
poused the cause of the Bourbons against the princi- 
ples of the French Revolution. All Europe was drawn 
into the conflict. We were feeble and far away. 
Washington issued a proclamation of neutrality be- 
tween these contending powers. France had helped 
us in the struggle for our liberties. All the despotisms 
of Europe were now combined to prevent the French 
from escaping from a tyranny a thousand-fold worse 
than that which we had endured. Col. Monroe, more 
magnanimous than prudent, was anxious that, at 
whatever hazard, we should help our old allies in 
their extremity. It was the impulse of a generous 
and noble nature. He violently opposed the Pres- 
ident's proclamation as ungrateful and wanting in 
magnanimity. \ 

Washington, who could appretiate such a character, 
developed his calm, serene, almost divine greatness, 
by appointing that very James Monroe, who was de- 
nouncing the policy of the Government, as the minister 
of that Government to the Republic of France. Mr. 
Monroe was welcomed by the National Convention 
in France with the most enthusiastic demonstrations. 

Shortly after his return to this country, Mr. Mon- 
roe was elected Governor of Virginia, and held the 
office for three years. He was again sent to France to 
co-operate with Chancellor Livingston in obtaining 
the vast territory then known as the Province of 
Louisiana, which France had but shortly before ob- 
tained from Spain. Their united efforts were suc- 
cessful. For the comparatively small sum of fifteen 
millions of dollars, the entire territory of Orleans and 
district of Louisiana were added to the United States. 
This was probably the largest transfer of real estate 
which was ever made in all the history of the world. 

From France Mr. Monroe went to England to ob- 
tain from that country some recognition of our 
rights as neutrals, and to remonstrate against those 
odious impressments of our seamen. But Eng- 
land was unrelenting. He again returned to Eng- 
land on tlie same mission, but could receive no 
redress. He returned to his home and was again 
chosen Governor of Virginia. This he soon resigned 
to accept the position of Secretary of Stale under 
Madison. While in this office war with England was 
declared, the Secretary of War resigned, and during 
these trying times, the duties of the War Department 
were also put upon him. He was truly the armor- 
bearer of President Madison, and the most efficient 
business man in his cabinet. Upon the return of 
peace he resigned the Department of War, but con- 
tinued in the office of Secretary of Stale until the ex- 
piration of Mr. Madison's adminstration. At the elec- 
tion held the previous autumn Mr. Monroe himself had 
been chosen President with but little opposition, and 
upon March 4, 18 17, was inaugurated. Four years 
later he was elected for a second term. 

Among the important measures of his Presidency 
were the cession of Florida to the United Slates; the 
Missouri Compromise, and the " Monroe doctrine.'' 

This famous doctrine, since known as the " Monroe 
doctrine," was enunciated by him in 1823. At that 
time the United States had recognized the independ- 
ence of the South American states, and did not \\\i\\ 
to have European powers longer attempting to sub- 
due portions of the American Continent. The doctrine 
is as follows: "That we should consider any attempt 
on the part of European powers to extend their sys- 
tem to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous 
to our peace and safety," and "that we could not 
view any interposition for the purix)se of oppressing 
or controlling American governments or provinces in 
any other light than as a manifestation by European 
powers of an unfriendly disposition toward the United 
States." This doctrine immediately affected the course 
of foreign governments, and has become the approved 
sentiment of the tfnited States. 

At the end of his jecond term Mr. Monroe retired 
to his home in Virginia, where he lived until 1830, 
when he went to New York to live with his son-in- 
law. In that city he died, on the 4th of July, 1831. 

' ^•►Hi 


J, 5, JzL 




■> \ 


> ^^ 

^sixth President of the United 
^ p^Slates, was born in the rural 
' '^ lionie of his honored father, 
John Adams, in Qunicy, Mass., 
on the I ith cf July, 1767. His 
mother, a woman of exalted 
worth, watched over his childhood 
during the almost constant ab- 
sence of his father. When but 
J,,, eight years of age, he stood with 
^ his mother on an eminence, listen- 
ing to the booming of the great bat- 
tle on Bunker's Hill, and gazing on 
upon the smoke and flames billow- 
ing up from the conflagration of 

When but eleven years old he 
took a tearful adieu of his mother, 
to sail with his father for Europe, 
through a fleet of hostile British cruisers. The bright, 
animated boy spent a year and a half in Paris, where 
his f;ither was associated with Franklin and Lee as 
minister plenipotentiary. His intelligence attracted 
the notice of these distinguished men, and he received 
from them flattering marks of attention. 

Mr. John Adams had scarcely returned to this 
country, in 1779, ere he was again sent abroad. Again 
John Quincy accompanied his father. At Paris he 
applied himself with great diligence, for six months, 
to study, then accompained his father to Holland, 
where he entered, first a school in Amsterdam, then 
the University at Leyden. About a year from this 
time, in 1781, when the manly boy was but fourteen 
years of age, he was selected by Mr. Dana, our min- 
ister to the Russian court, as his private secretary. 

In this school of incessant labor and of enobling 
culture he spent fourteen months, and then returned 
to Holland through Sweden, Denmark, Hamburg and 
Bremen. This long journey he took alone, in the 
winter, when in his sixteenth year. Again he resumed 
his studies, under a private tutor, at Hague. Thence, 

in tlie spring of 1782, he accompanied his father to 
Paris, traveling leisurely, and forming aciiuaintance 
with the most distinguished men on the Continent; 
examining architectural remains, galleries of paintings, 
and all renowned works of art. At Paris he again 
became associated with the most illustrious men of 
all lands in the contemplations of the loftiest temporal 
themes which can engross the human mind. After 
a short visit to England he returned to Paris, and 
consecrated all his energies to study until May, 1785, 
when he returned to America. To a brilliant young 
man of eighteen, who had seen much of the world, 
and who was familiar with the etiquette of courts, a 
residence with his father in London, under such cir- 
cumstances, must have been extremely attractive; 
but with judgment very rare in one of his age, he pre- 
ferred to return to America to complete his education 
in an American college. He wished then to study 
law, that with an honorable profession, he might be 
able to obtain an independent support. 

Upon leaving Harvard College, at the age of twenty, 
he studied law for three years. In June, 1794, be- 
ing then but twenty-seven years of age, he was ap- 
pointed by Washington, resident minister at the 
Netherlands. Sailing from Boston in July, he reached 
London in October, where he was immediately admit- 
ted to the deliberations of Messrs. Jay and Pinckney, 
assisting them in negotiating a commercial treaty with 
Great Brilian. After thus spending a fortnight in 
London, he proceeded to the Hague. 

In July, 1797, he left the Hague to go to Portugal as 
minister plenipotentiary. On his way to Portugal, 
upon arriving in London, he met with despatches 
directing him to the court of Berlin, but requesting 
him to remain in London until he should receive his 
instructions. While waiting he was married to an 
American lady to whom he had been previously en- 
gaged, — Miss Louisa Catherine Johnson, daughter 
of Mr. Joshua Johnson, American consul in London ; 
a lady endownd with that beauty and those accom- 
plishment which eminently fitted her to move in the 
elevated sphere for which she was destined. 






He reached Berlin with his wife in November, 1797 ; 
where he remained until July, 1799, when, having ful- 
filled all the purix)ses of his mission, he solicited his 

Soon after his return, in 1802, he was chosen to 
the Senate of Massachusetts, from Boston, and then 
was elected Senator of the United States for six years, 
from the 4th of March, 1804. His reputation, his 
ability and his experience, placed him immediately 
among the most prominent and influential members 
of that body. Especially did he sustain the Govern- 
ment in its measures of resistance to the encroach- 
ments of England, destroying our commerce and in- 
sulting our flag. There was no man in America more 
familiar with the arrogance of the British court upon 
these points, and no one more resolved to present 
a firm resistance. 

In 1809, Madison succeeded Jefferson in the Pres- 
idential chair, and he immediately nominated John 
Quincy Adams minister to St. Petersburg. Resign- 
ing his professorship in Harvard College, he embarked 
at Boston, in August, 1809. 

While in Russia, Mr. Adams was an intense stu- 
dent. He devoted his attention to the language and 
history of Russia; to the Chinese trade; to the 
European system of weights, measures, and coins ; to 
the climate and astronomical observations ; wliile he 
Kept up a familiar acquaintance with the Greek and 
Latin classics. In all the universities of Europe, a 
more accomplished scholar could scarcely be found. 
All through life the Bible constituted an imix)rtant 
part of his studies. It was his rule to read five 
chapters every day. 

On the 4th of March, 1817, Mr. Monroe took the 
Presidential chair, and immediately apix)inted Mr. 
Adams Secretary of State. Taking leave of his num- 
erous friends in public and private life in Europe, he 
sailed in June, i8ig, for the United States. On the 
i8th of August, he again crossed the threshold of his 
home in Quincy. During the eight years of Mr. Mon- 
roe's administration, Mr. Adams continued Secretary 
of State. 

Some time before the close of Mr. Monroe's second 
term of office, new candidates began to be presented 
for the Presidency. The friends of Mr. Adams brought 
forward his name. It was an e.xciting campaign. 
Party spirit was never more bitter. Two hundred and 
sixty electoral votes were cast. Andrew Jackson re- 
ceived ninety-nine; John Quincy Adams, eighty-four; 
William H. Crawford, forty -one; Henry Clay, thirty- 
seven. As there was no choice by the people, the 
question went to the House of Representatives. Mr. 
Clay gave the vote of Kentucky to Mr. Adams, and 
he was elected. 

Thefriends of all the disappointed candidates now 
combined in a venomous and persistent assault upon 
Mr. Adams. There is nothing more disgraceful in 
the past history of our country than the abuse which 

was poured in one uninterrupted stream, upon this 
high-minded, upright, patriotic man. There never was 
an administration more pure in principles, more con- 
scientiously devoted to the best interests of the coun- 
try, than that of John Quincy Adams ; and never, per- 
haps, was there an administration more unscrupu- 
lously and outrageously assailed. 

Mr. Adams was, to a very remarkable degree, ab- 
stemious and temperate in his habits; always rising 
early, and taking much exercise. When at his home in 
Quincy, he has been known to walk, before breakfast, 
seven miles to Boston. In Washington, it was said 
that he was the first man up in the city, lighting his 
own fire and applying himself to work in his library 
often long before dawn. 

On the 4th of March, 1829, Mr. Adams retired 
from the Presidency, and was succeeded by Andrew- 
Jackson. John C. Calhoun was elected Vice Presi- 
dent. The slavery question now began to assume 
ixjrtentous magnitude. Mr. Adams returned to 
Quincy and to his studies, which he pursued with un- 
abated zeal. But he was not long permitted to re- 
main in retirement. In November, 1830, he was 
elected representative to Congress. For seventeen 
years, until his death, he occupied the post as repre- 
sentative, towering above all his peers, ever ready to 
do brave battle' for freedom, and winning the title of 
"the old man eloquent." Upon taking his seat in 
the House, he announced that he should hold him- 
self bound to no party. Probably there never was a 
member more devoted to his duties. He was usually 
the first in his place in the morning, and the last to 
leave his seat in the evening. Not a measure could 
be brought forward and escape his scrutiny. The 
battle which Mr. Adams fought, almost singly, against 
the proslavery party in the Government, was sublime 
in Its moral dating and heroism. For persisting in 
presenting petitions for the abolition of slavery, he 
was threatened with indictment by the grand jury, 
with expulsion from the House, with assassination ; 
but no threats could intimidate him, and his final 
triumph was complete. 

It has been said of President Adams, that when his 
body was bent and his hair silvered by the lapse of 
fourscore years, yielding to the simple faith of a little 
child, he was accustomed to repeat every night, before 
he slept, the pra)er which his mother taught him in 
his infant years. 

On the 2 T St of February, 1848, he rose on the floor 
of Congress, with a paper in his hand, to address the 
speaker. Suddenly he fell, again stricken by paraly- 
sis, and was caught in the arms of those around him. 
For a time he was senseless, as he was conveyed to 
the sofa in the rotunda. With reviving conscious- 
ness, he opened his eyes, looked calmly around and 
said " This is the end of earth ;"then after a moment's 
pause he added, "/ am content" These were the 
last words of the grand " Old Man Eloquent." 

»► ■ <• 




^LVLiith President of the 
United States, was born in 
Waxhaw settlement, N. C, 
March 15, 1767, a few days 
after his father's death. His 
)aients were poor emigrants 
from Irehmd, iiurl took up 
their abode in Waxhaw set- 
tlement, where they lived in 
deepest poverty, 
Andrew, or Andy, as he was 
universally called, grew up a very 
rough, rude, turbulent boy. His 
features were coarse, his form un- 
gainly; and there was but very 
little in his character, made visible, which was at- 

When only thirteen years old he joined the volun- 
teers of Carolina against the British invasion. In 
1781, he and his brother Robert were captured and 
imprisoned for a time at Camden. A British officer 
ordered him to brush his mud-spattered boots. " I am 
a prisoner of war, not your servant," was the reply of 
the dauntless boy. 

The brute drew his sword, and aimed a desperate 
blow at the head of the helpless young jjrisoner. 
Andrew raised his hand, and thus received two fear- 
ful gashes, — one on the hand and the other upon the 
head. The officer then turned to his brother Robert 
with the same demand. He also refused, and re- 
ceived a blow from the keen-edged sabre, which ijuite 
disabled him, and whicli probably soon after caused 
his death. They suffered muchother ill-treatment, and 
were finally stricken with the small-pox. Their 
mother was successful in obtaining their exchange. 

and took her sick boys home. After a long illness 
Andrew recovered, and the death of his mother soon 
left him entirely friendless. 

Andrew supported himself in various ways, such as 
working at the saddler's trade, teaching school and 
clerking in a general store, until 1784, when he 
entered a law office at Salisbury, N. C. He, however, 
gave more attention to the wild amusements of the 
times than to his studies. In 1788, he was appointed 
solicitor for the western district of North Carolina, of 
which Tennessee was then a part. This involved 
many long and tedious journeys amid dangers of 
every kind, but Andrew Jackson never knew fear, 
and the Indians had no desire to repeat a skirmish 
witn the Sharp Knife. 

In 1791, Mr. Jackson was married to a woman who 
supposed herself divorced from her former husband. 
Great was the surprise of both parties, two years later, 
to find that the conditions of the divorce had just been 
definitely settled by the first husband. The marriage 
ceremony was performed a second time, but the occur- 
rence was often used by his enemies to bring Mr. 
Jackson into disfavor. 

During these years he worked hard at his profes- 
sion, and frequently had one or more duels on hand, 
one of which, when he killed Dickenson, was espec- 
ially disgraceful. 

In January, 1796, the Territory of Tennessee then 
containing nearly eighty thousand inhabitants, the 
people met in convention at Knoxville to frame a con- 
stitution. Five were sent from each of the eleven 
counties, .\ndrew Jackson was one of the delegates. 
The new State was entitled to but one member in 
the National House of Rei)resentatives. Andrew Jack- 
son was chosen that member. Mounting his horse he 
rode to Philedelphia, where Congress then held its 



sessions, — a distance of about eight hundred miles. 

Jackson was an earnest advocate of the Demo- 
cnuic party. Jefferson was his idol. He admired 
Bonaparte, loved France and hated England. As Mr. 
Jackson took his seat, Gen. Washington, whose 
second term of office was then expiring, delivered his 
last speech to Congress. A committee drew up a 
complimentary address in reply. Andrew Jackson 
did not approve of the address, and was one of the 
twelve who voted against it. He was not willing to 
say that Gen. Washington's adminstration had been 
" wise, firm and patriotic." 

Mr. Jackson was elected to the United States 
Senate in 1797, but soon resigned and returned home. 
Soon after he was chosen Judge of the Supreme Court 
of his State, which position he held for six years. 

When the war of 1812 with Great Britian com- 
menced, Madison occupied the Presidential chair. 
Aaron Burr sent word to the President that there was 
an unknown man in the West, Andrew Jackson, who 
would do credit to a commission if one were con- 
ferred upon him. Just at tliat time Gen. Jackson 
offered his services and those of twenty-five hundred 
volunteers. His offer was accejrted, and the troops 
were assembled at Nashville. 

As the British were hourly expected to make an at- 
tack u[)on New Orleans, where Gen. Wilkinson was 
in command, he was ordered to descend the river 
with fifteen himdred troojis to aid Wilkinson. The 
expedition reached Natchez; and after a delay of s'ev- 
era! weeks there, without accomplishing anything, 
the men were ordered liack to their homes. But the 
energy Gen. Jackson had displayed, and his entire 
devotion to the comrfort of his soldiers, won him 
golden oi)inious; and- he became the most popular 
man in the State. It was in this expedition that his 
toughness gave him the nickname of " Old Hickory." 

Soon after this, while attempting to horsewhip Col. 
Thomas H. Benton, for a remark that gentleman 
made about his taking a part as second in a duel, in 
which a younger brotiier of Benton's was engaged, 
he received two severe [listol wounds. While he was 
lingering upon a bed of suffering news came that the 
Indians, who had combined under Tecumseh from 
Florida to the Lakes, to exterminate the white set- 
vlers, were committing the most awful ravages. De- 
cisive action became necessary. Gen. Jackson, with 
his fractured bone just beginning to heal, his arm in 
a sling, and unable to mount his horse without assis- 
tance, gave his amazing energies to the raising of an 
army to rendezvous at Fayettesville, Alabama. 

The Creek Indians had established a strong fort on 
one of the bendsof the Tallapoosa River, near the cen- 
ter of Alabama, about fifty miles below Fort Strother. 
With an army of two thousand men, Gen. Jackson 
traversed the pathless wilderness in a march of eleven 
days. He reached their fort, called Toho]3eka or 
Horse-shoe, on the 27th of March. 181a. The bend 

of the river enclosed nearly one hundred acres of 
tangled forest and wild ravine. Across the narrow 
neck the Indians had constructed a formidable brea:,t- 
work of logs and brush. Here nine hundred warriors, 
with an ample suplyof arms were assembled. 

The fort was stormed. The fight was utterly des- 
perate. Not an Indian would accept of quarter. When 
bleeding and dying, they would fight those who en- 
deavored to spare their lives. From ten in the morn- 
ing until dark, the battle raged. The carnage was 
awful and revolting. Some threw themselves into the 
river; but the unerring bullet struck their heads as 
they swam. Nearly everyone of the nine hundred war- 
rios were killed A few probably, in the night, swam 
the river and escaped. This ended the war. The 
power of the Creeks was broken forever. This bold 
plunge into the wilderness, with itsterriffic slaughter, 
so appalled the savages, that the haggard remnants 
of the bands came to the camp, begging for peace. 

This closing of the Creek war enabled' us to con- 
centrate all our militia upon the British, who were the 
allies of tlie Indians No man of less resolute will 
than Gen. Jackson could have conducted this Indian 
campaign to so successful an issue Immediately he 
was appointed major-general. 

Late in August, with an army of two thousand 
men, on a rushing march, Gen. Jackson came to 
Mobile. A British fleet came from Pensacola, landed 
a force upon the beach, anchored near the litde fort, 
and from both ship and shore commenced a furious 
assault The battle was long and doubtful. At length 
one of the ships was blown up and the rest retired. 

Garrisoning Mobile, where he had taken his little 
army, he moved his troops to New Orleans, 
And the battle of New Orleans which soon ensued, 
was in reality a very arduous campaign. This won 
for Gen. Jackson an imperishable name. Here his 
troops, which numbered about four thousand men, 
won a signal victory over the British army of about 
nine thousand. His loss was but thirteen, while the 
loss of the British was two thousand six hundred. 

The name of Gen. Jackson soon began to be men- 
tioned in connection with the Presidency, but, in 1824, 
he was defeated by Mr. Adams. He was, however, 
successful in the election of 1828, and was re-elected 
for a second term in 1832. In 1829, just before he 
assumed the reins of the government, he met with 
the most terrible affliction of his life in the death of 
his wife, whom he had loved with a devotion which has 
perhaps never been surpassed. From the shock of 
herdeath he never recovered. 

His administration was one of the most memorable 
in the annals of our country; applauded by one party, 
condemned by the other. No man had more bitter 
enemies or warmer friends. At the expiration of his 
two terms of office he retired to the Hermitage, where 
he died June 8, 1845. The last years of Mr. Jack- 
son's life were that of a devoted Christian man. 


9 ? 2^'^l^Ot ^-z^-1^ ^^-c^. 


-► '" f ^ 



wimm w"^ BOREi]. p()}# 



eighth President of the 
' United States, was born at 
Kinderhook, N. Y., Dec. 5, 
1782 He died at the same 
phte, July 24, 1S62. His 
l)od) rests in the cemetery 
at Kinderhook. Above it is 
a plain gi mite shaft fifteen feet 
hi!,h, beaimg a simple inscription 
aliout half way up on one face. 
The lot is unfenced, uiibordered 
or unbounded Ijy shrub or flower. 

There is but little in the life of Martin Van Buren 
of romantic interest. He fought no battles, engaged 
in no wild adventures. Though his life was stormy in 
political and intellectual conflicts, and he gained many 
signal victories, his days passed uneventful in those 
incidents which give zest to biography. His an- 
cestors, as his name indicates, were of Dutch origin, 
and were among the earliest emigrants from Holland 
to the banks of the Hudson. His father was a farmer, 
residing in the old town of Kinderhook. His mother, 
also of Dutch lineage, was a woman of superior intel- 
ligence and exemplary piety. 

He was decidedly a precocious boy, developing un- 
usual activity, vigor and strength of mind. At the 
age of fourteen, he had finished his academic studies 
in his native village, and commenced the study of 
law. As he had not a collegiate education, seven 
years of study in a law-office were required of him 
before he could be admitted to the bar. Inspired with 
a lofty ambition, and conscious of his powers, he pur- 
sued his studies with indefatigable industry. After 
spending si.x years in an office in his native village, 

he went to the city of New York, and prosecuted his 
studies for the seventh year. 

In 1803, Mr. Van Buren, then twenty-one years of 
age, commenced the practice of law in his native vil- 
lage. The great conflict between the Federal and 
Republican party was then at its height. Mr. Van 
Buren was from the beginning a politician. He had, 
perhaps, imbibed that spirit while listening to the 
many discussions which had been carried on in his 
father's hotel. He was in cordial sympathy with 
Jefferson, and earnestly and eloquently espoused the 
cause of State Rights ; though at that time the Fed- 
eral party held the supremacy botii in his town 
and State. 

His success and increasing ruputation led him 
after six years of practice, to remove to Hudson, th<: 
county seat of his county. Here he spent seven years, 
constantly gaining strength by contending in tht, 
courts with some of the ablest men who have adorned 
the bar of his State. 

Just before leaving Kinderhook for Hudson, Mi. 
Van Buren married a lady alike distinguished for 
beauty and accomplishments. After twelve short 
years she sank into the grave, the victim of consump- 
tion, leaving her husband and four sons to weep over 
her loss. For twenty-five years, Mr. Van Buren was 
an earnest, successful, assiduous lawyer. The record 
of those years is barren in items of public interest. 
In 18 1 2, when thirty years of age, he was chosen to 
the State Senate, and gave his strenuous support to 
Mr. Madison's adminstration. In 1815, he was ap- 
[lointed Attorney-General, and the next year moved 
to Albany, the capital of the State. 

While he was acknowledged as one of the most 
prominent leaders of the Democratic party, he had 





the moral courage to avow that true democracy did 
not require that " universal suffrage" which admits 
the vile, the degraded, the ignorant, to the right of 
governing the State. In true consistency with his 
democratic principles, he contended that, while the 
path leading to the privilege of voting should be open 
to every man without distinction, no one should be 
invested with that sacred prerogative, unless he were 
in some degree qualified for it by intelligence, virtue 
and some i)roperty interests in the welfare of tlie 

In 182 1 he was elected a member of the United 
States Senate; and in the same year, he took a seat 
in the convention to revise the constitution of his 
native State. His course in this convention secured 
the approval of men of all parties. No one could 
doubt the singleness of his endeavors to promote the 
interests of all classes in the community. In the 
Senate of the United States, he rose at once to a 
conspicuous position as anactive and useful legislator. 

In 1827, John Quincy Adams being then in the 
Presidential chair, Mr. Van Buren was re-elected to 
the Senate. He had been from the beginning a de- 
termined opposer of the Administration, adopting the 
"State Rights" view in opposition to what was 
deemed the Federal proclivities of Mr. Adams. 

Soon after this, in 1828, he was chosen Governorof 
the State of New York, and accordingly resigned his 
seat in the Senate. Probably no one in the United 
States contributed so much towards ejecting John O. 
Adams from the Presidential chair, and placing in it 
Andrew Jackson, as did Martin Van Buren. Whetlier 
entitled to the reputation or not, he certainly was re- 
garded throughout the United States as one of the 
most skillful, sagacious and cunning of politicians. 
It was supposed that no one knew so well as he how 
to touch the secret springs of action; how to pull all 
the wires to put his machinery in motion ; and how to 
organize a political army which would, secretly and 
stealthily accomplish the most gigantic results. By 
these powers it is said that he outv/itted Mr. Adams, 
Mr. Clay, Mr. Webster, and secured results which 
few thought then could be accomplished. 

When Andrew Jackson was elected President he 
appointed Mr. Van Buren Secretary of State. This 
position he resigned in 1831, and was immediately 
appointed Minister to England, where he went the 
same autumn. The Senate, however, when it met, 
refused to ratify the nomination, and he returned 

home, apparently untroubled ; was nominated Vice 
President in the place of Calhoun, at the re-election 
of President Jackson ; and' with smiles for all and 
frowns for none, he took his place at the head of that 
Senate which had refused to confirm his nomination 
as ambassador. 

His rejection by the Senate roused all the zeal of 
President Jackson in behalf of his repudiated favor- 
ite ; and this, probably more than anj other cause, 
secured his elevation to the chair of the Chief Execu- 
tive. On the 20th of May, 1836, Mr. Van Buren re- 
ceived the Democratic nomination to succeed Gen. 
Jackson as President of the United States. He was 
elected by a handsome majority, to the delight of the 
retiring President. " Leaving New York out of the 
canvass," says Mr. Parton, "the election of Mr. Van 
Buren to the Presidency was as much the act of Gen. 
Jackson as though the Constitution had conferred 
upon him the power to appoint a successor." 

His administration was filled with exciting events. 
The insurrection in Canada, which threatened to in - 
volve this country in war with England, the agitation 
of the slavery question, and finally the great commer- 
cial panic which spread over the country, all were 
trials to his wisdom. The financial distress was at- 
tributed to the management of the Democratic party, 
and brought the President into such disfavor that lie 
failed of re-election. 

With the exceplion of being nominated for the 
Presidency by the "Free Soil" Democrats, in 184S, 
Mr. Van Buren lived quietly upon his estate until 
his death. 

He had ever been a prudent man, of frugal habits, 
and living within his income, had now fortunately a 
competence for his declining years. His unblemished 
character, his commanding abilities, his unquestioned 
patriotism, and the distinguished positions whith he 
had occupied in the government of our country, se- 
cured to him not only the homage of his party, but 
the respect ot the whole community. It was on the 
4th of March, 1841, that Mr. Van Buren retired from 
the presidency. From his fine estate at Lindenwald^ 
he still exerted a powerful influence upon the politics 
of the country. From this time until his death, on 
the 24th of July, 1862, at the age of eighty years, he 
resided at Lindenwald, a gentleman of leisure, of 
culture and of wealth; enjoying in a healthy old 
age, probably far more happiness than he had before 
experienced amid the stormy scenes of his active life. 







SON, the ninth President of 
the United States, was born 
it Berkeley, Va., Feb. 9, 1773. 
His father, Benjamin Harri- 
son, was in comparatively op- 
ulent circumstances, and was 
one of the most distinguished 
men of his day. He was an 
nitimate friend of George 
Washington, was early elected 
a memiier of the Continental 
Cont,ress, and was conspicuous 
among the patriots of Virginia in 
resisting the encroachments of the 
kitish crown. In the celebrated 
Congress of 1775, Benjamin Har- 
iison and John Hancock were 
both candidates for the office of 

Mr Harrison was subseiiuently 
chosen Governor of Virginia, and 
was twice re-elected. His son, 
i William Henry, of course enjoyed 

in childhood all the advantages which wealth and 
intellectual and cultivated society could give. Hav- 
ing received a thorough common-school education, he 
entered Hampden Sidney College, where he graduated 
with honor soon after the death of his father. He , 
then repaired to Philadelphia to study medicine under 
the instructions of Dr. Rush and the guardianship of 
Robert Morris, both of whom were, with his father, 
signers of the Declaration of Independence. 

Upon the outbreak of the Indian troubles, and not- 
withstanding the remonstrances of his friends, he 
abandoned his medical studies and entered the army, 
having obtained a commission of Ensign from Presi- I 

dent Washington. He was then but ly years old. 
From that time he passed gradually upward in rank 
until he became aid to General Wayne, after whose 
death he resigned his commission. He was then ap- 
pointed Secretary of the North-western Territory. This 
Territory was then entitl.ed to but one member in 
Congress and Capt. Harrison was chosen to fill that 

In the spring of 1800 the North-western Territory 
was divided by Congress into two portions. The 
eastern portion, comprising the region now embraced 
in the State of Ohio, was called " The Territory 
north-west of the Ohio." The western portion, which 
included what is now called Indiana, lUinois and 
Wisconsin, was called the "Indiana Territory." Wil- 
liam Henry Harrison, then 27 years of age, was ap- 
lX)inted by John Adams, Clovernor of the Indiana 
Territory, and immediately after, also Governor of 
Upper Louisiana. He was thus ruler over almost as 
extensive a realm as any sovereign upon the globe. He 
was Superintendent of Indian Affairs, and was in- 
vested with powers nearly dictatorial over the now 
rapidly increasing white population. The ability and 
fidelity with whicii he discharged these responsible 
duties may be inferred from the fact that he was four 
times appointed to this office — first by John Adams, 
twice by Thomas Jefferson and afterwards by Presi- 
dent Madison. 

When he began his adminstration there were but 
three white settlements in that almost boundless region, 
now crowded with cities and resounding with all the 
tumult of wealth and traffic. One of these settlements 
was on the Ohio, nearly opixjsite Louisville; one at 
Vincennes, on the Wabash, and the third a French 

Tlie vast wilderness over which Gov. Harrison 
reigned was filled with many tribes of Indians, About 



the year 1806, two extraordinary men, twin brothers, 
of the Shawnese tribe, rose among them. One of 
these was called Tccumseh, or " The Crouching 
Panther;" the other, OUiwacheca, or "'I'he Prophet." 
Tecumseh was not only an Indian warrior, but a man 
of great sagacity, far-reaching foresight and indomit- 
able perseverance in any enterprise in which he might 
engage. He was inspired with the highest enthusiasm, 
and had long regarded with dread and with hatred 
the encroachment of the whites upon the hunting- 
grounds of his fathers. His brother, the Prophet, was 
znorator, who could sway the feelings of the untutored 
Indian as the gale tossed the tree-tops beneath which 
they dwelt. 

But the Prophet was not merely an orator: he was, 
in the superstitious minds of the Indians, invested 
with the superhuman dignity of a medicine-man or a 
magician. With an enthusiasm unsurpassed by Peter 
the Hermit rousing Europe to the crusades, he went 
from tribe to tribe, assuming that he was specially sent 
l)y the Great Spirit. 

Gov. Harrison made many attempts to conciUate 
the Indians, but at last the war came, and at Tippe- 
canoe the Indians were routed with great slaughter. 
October 28, 1812, his army began its march. When 
near the Prophet's town three Indians of rank made 
their appearance and inquired why Gov. Harrison was 
approaching them in so hostile an attitude. After a 
short conference, arrangements were made for a meet- 
ing the next day, to agree upon terms of peace. 

But Gov. Harrison was too well acquainted with 
the Indian character to be deceived by such protes- 
tations. Selecting a favorable spot for his night's en- 
campment, he took every precaution against surprise. 
His troops were posted in a hollow square, and slept 
upon their arms. 

The troops threw themselves upon the ground for 
rest; but every man had his accourtrements on, his 
loaded musket by his side, and his bayonet fixed. The 
wakeful Governor, between three and four o'clock in 
the morning, had risen, and was sitting in conversa- 
tion with his aids by the embers of a waning fire. It 
was a chill, cloudy morning with a drizzling rain. In 
the darkness, the Indians had crept as near as possi- 
ble, and just then, with a savage yell, rushed, with all 
the desperation which superstition and passion most 
liighly inflamed could give, upon the left flank of the 
little army. The savages had been amply provided 
with guns and ammunition by the English. Their 
war-whoop was accompained by a shower of bullets. 

The camp-fires were instantly extinguished, as the 
light aided the Indians in their aim. With hide- 
Bus yells, the Indian bands rushed on, not doubting a 
speedy and an entire victory. But Gen. Harrison's 
troops stood as immovable as the rocks around them 
until day dawned : they then made a simultaneous 
charge with the bayonet, and swept every thing be- 
fore them, and completely routing the foe. 


Gov. Harrison now had all his energies tasked 
to the utmost. The British descending from the Can - 
adas, were of themselves a very formidable force ; but 
with their savage allies, rushing like wolves from the 
forest, searching out every remote farm-house, burn- 
ing, plundering, scalping, torturing, the wide frontier 
was plunged into a state of consternation which even 
the most vivid imagination can but faintly conceive, 
Tiie war-whoop was resounding everywhere in the 
forest. The horizon was illuminated with the conflagra- 
tion of the cabins of the setders. Gen Hull had made 
the ignominious surrender of his forces at Detroit. 
Under these despairing circumstances. Gov. Harrison 
was appointed by President Madison commander-in- 
chief of the North-western army, with orders to retake 
Detroit, and to protect the frontiers. 

It would be difficult to place a man in a situation 
demanding more energy, sagacity and courage; but 
General Harrison was found equal to the position, 
and nobly and triumphantly did he meet all the re- 

He won the love of his soldiers by always sharing 
with them their fatigue. His whole baggage, while 
pursuing the foe up the Thames, was carried in a 
valise; and his bedding consisted of a single blanket 
lashed over his saddle. Thirty-five British officers, 
his prisoners of war, supped with him after the battle. 
The only fare he could give them was beef roasted 
before the fire, without bread or salt. 

In 1816, Gen. Harrison was chosen a member of 
the National House of Representatives, to represent 
the District of Ohio. In Congress he proved an 
active member; and whenever he spoke, it was with 
force of reason and power of eloquence, which arrested 
the attention of all the members. 

In 1819, Harrison was elected to the Senate of 
Ohio; and in 1824, as one of the presidential electors 
of that State, he gave his vote for Henry Clay. The 
same year he was chosen to the United States Senate. 

In 1836, the friends of Gen. Harrison brought him 
forward as a candidate for the Presidency against 
Van Buren, but he was defeated. At the close of 
Mr. Van Buren's term, he was re-nominated by his 
party, and Mr. Harrison was unanimously nominated 
by the Whigs, with John Tyler for the Vice Presidency. 
The contest was very animated. Gen. Jackson gave 
all his influence to prevent Harrison's election ; but 
his triumph was signal. 

The cabinet which he formed, with Daniel Webster 
at its head as Secretary of State, was one of the most 
brilliant with which any President had ever "been 
surrounded. Never were the prospects of an admin- 
istration more flattering, or the hopes of the country 
more sanguine. In the midst of these bright and 
joyous prospects. Gen. Harrison was seized by a 
pleurisy-fever and after a few days of violent sick- 
ness, died on the 4th of April ; just one month after 
his inauguration as President of the United States. 

{J-TlAz J^U-(i/. 


»|*5 J®IHK TYLBMo^P 




OHN TYLER, the tenth 
1 lesidentof the United States. 
He was born in Charles-city 
Co., Va., March 29, 1790. He 
w IS the favored child of af- 
fluence and high social po- 
sition. At the early age of 
twelve, John entered \Villiam 
and Mary College and grad- 
u ited with much honor when 
but seventeen years old. After 
L,rtduating, he devoted liim- 
self with great assiduity to the 
stud) of law, partly with his 
fithei and partly with Edmund 
Randolph, one of the most distin- 
guished lawyers of Virginia. 

\t nineteen years of age, lie 
commenced the practice of law. 
His success was rapid and aston- 
ishing It is said that three 
months had not elapsed ere there 
was scarcely a case on the dock- 
1 et of the court in which he was 

not retained. When but twenty-one years of age, he 
was almost unanimously elected to a seat in the State 
Legislature. He connected himself with the Demo- 
cratic party, and warmly advocated the measures of 
Jefferson and Madison. For five successive years he 
was elected to the Legislature, receiving nearly the 
unanimous vote or his county. 

When but twenty-six years of age, he was elected 
a member of Congress. Here he acted earnestly and 
ably with the Democratic party, opposing a national 
bank, internal improvements by the General Govern- 

ment, a protective tariff, and ailvocalmg a strict con- 
struction of the Constitution, and the most careful 
vigilance over State rights. His labors in Congress 
were so arduous that before the close of his second 
term he found it necessary to resign and retire to his 
estate in Charles-city Co., to recruit his health. He, 
however, soon after consented to take his seat in the 
State Legislature, where his influence was powerful 
in promoting public works of great utility. With a 
reputation thus canstantly increasing, he was chosen 
by a very large majority of votes. Governor of his 
native State. His administration was signally a suc- 
cessful. one. His popularity secured his re-election. 

John Randolph, a brilliant, erratic, half-crazed 
man, then represented Virginia in the Senate of the 
United States. A portion of the Democratic party 
was displeased with Mr. Randolph's wayward course, 
and brought forward John Tyler as his opponent, 
considering hiin the only man in Virginia of sufficient 
popularity to succeed against the renowned orator of 
Roanoke. Mr. Tyler was the victor. 

In accordance with his professions, upon taking his 
seat in the Senate, he joined the ranks of the opposi- 
tion. He opposed the tariff; he spoke against and 
voted against the bank as unconstitutional; he stren- 
uously opposed all restrictions upon slavery, resist- 
ing all projects of internal improvements by the Gen- 
eral Government, and avowed his sympathy with Mr. 
Calhoun's view of nullification ; he declared that Gen. 
Jackson, by his opposition to the nuliifiers, had 
abandoned the piinciples of the Democratic party. 
Such was Mr. Tyler's record in Congress, — a record 
in perfect accordance with the principles which he 
had always avowed. 

Returning lo Virginia, he resumed the practice of 
his profession. There was a cplit in the Democratic 




party. His friends still regarded him as a true Jef- 
fersonian, gave him a dinner, and showered compli- 
ments upon him. He had now attained the age of 
forty-six. His career had been very brilliant. In con- 
sequence of his devotion to public business, his pri- 
vate affairs had fallen into some disorder; audit was 
not without satisfaction that he resumed the practice 
of law, and devoted himself to the culture of his plan- 
tation. Soon after this he removed to Williamsburg, 
for the better education of his children ; and he again 
took his seat in the Legislature of Virginia. 

By the Southern Whigs, he was sent to the national 
convention at Harrisburg to nominate a President in 
1839. The majority of votes were given to Gen. Har- 
rison, a genuine Whig, much to the disappointment of 
the South, who wished for Henry Clay. To concili- 
ate the Southern Whigs and to secure their vote, the 
convention then nominated John Tyler for Vice Pres- 
ident. It was well known that he was not in sympa- 
thy with the Whig party in the Noith: but the Vice 
President has but very little power in the Govern- 
ment, his main and almost only duty being to pre- 
side over the meetings of the Senate. Thus it hap- 
pened that a Whig President, and, in reality, a 
Democratic Vice President were chosen. 

In 1841, Mr. Tyler was inaugurated Vice Presi- 
dent of the United States. In one short month from 
that time. President Harrison died, and Mr. Tyler 
thus found himself, to his own surprise and that of 
the whole Nation, an occupant of the Presidential 
chair. This was a new test of the stability of our 
institutions, as it was the first time in the history of our 
country that such an event had occured. Mr. Tyler 
was at home in Williamsburg when he received the 
unexpected tidings of the death of President Harri- 
son. He hastened to Washington, and on the 6th of 
April was inaugurated to the high and responsible 
office. He was placed in a position of exceeding 
delicacy and difficulty. All his long life he had been 
opposed to the main principles of the party which had 
brought him into power. He had ever been a con- 
sistent, honest man, with an unblemished record. 
Gen. Harrison had selected a Whig cabinet. Should 
he retain them, and thus surround himself with coun- 
sellors whose views were antagonistic to his own? or, 
on the other hand, should he turn against the party 
which had elected him and select a cabinet in har- 
mony with himself, and which would oppose all those 
views which the Whigs deemed essential to the pub- 
lic welfare? This was his fearful dilemma. He in- 
vited the cabinet which President Harrison had 
selected to retain their seats. He reccommended a 
day of fasting and prayer, that God would guide and 
bless us. 

The Whigs carried through Congress a bill for the 
incorporation of a fiscal bank of the United States. 
The President, after ten days' delay, returned it with 
his veto. He suggested, however, that he would 

approve of a bill drawn up upon such a plan as he 
proposed. Such a bill was accordingly prepared, and 
privately submitted to him. He gave it his approval. 
It '.vas passed without alteration, and he sent it back 
with his veto. Here commenced the open rupture. 
It is said that Mr. Tyler was provoked to this meas- 
ure by a published letter from_ the Hon. John M. 
Botts, a distinguished Virginia Whig, who severely 
touched the pride of the President. 

The opposition now exultingly received the Presi- 
dent into their arms. The party which elected him 
denounced him bitteriy. AH the members of his 
cabinet, excepting Mr. Webster, resigned. The Whigs 
of Congress, both the Senate and the House, held a 
meeting and issued an address to the people of the 
United States, proclaiming that- all political alliance 
between the Whigs and President Tyler were at 
an end. 

Still the President attempted to conciliate. He 
appointed a new cabmet of distinguished Whigs and 
Conservatives, carefully leaving out all strong party 
men. Mr. Webster soon found it necessary to resign, 
forced out by the pressure of his Whig friends. Thus 
the four years of Mr. Tyler's unfortunate administra- 
tion passed sadly away. No one was satisfied. The 
land was filled with murmurs and vituperation. Whigs 
and Democrats alike assailed him. More and more, 
however, he brought himself into sympathy with his 
old friends, the Democrats, until at the close of his term, 
he gave his whole influence to the support of Mr. 
Polk, the Democratie candidate for his successor. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, he retired from the 
harassments of office, tothe regret of neither party, and 
probably to his own unspeakable relief. His first wife. 
Miss Letitia Christian, died in Washington, in 1842; 
and in June, 1844, President Tyler was again married, 
at New York, to Miss Julia Gardiner, a young lady of 
many personal and intellectual accomplishments. 

The remainder of his days Mr. Tyler passed mainly 
in retirement at his beautiful home, — Sherwood For- 
est, Charles-city Co., Va. A polished gentleman in 
his manners, richly furnished with mformation from 
books and experience in the world, and possessing 
brilliant powers of conversation, his family circle was 
the scene of unusual attractions. With sufficient 
means for the exercise of a generous hospitality, he 
might have enjoyed a serene old age with the few 
friends who gathered around him, were it not for the 
storms of civil war which his own principles and 
policy had helped to introduce. 

When the great Rebellion rose, which the State- 
rights and nullifying doctrines of Mr. John C. Cal- 
houn had inaugurated. President Tyler renounced his 
allegiance to the United States, and joined the Confed- 
erates. He was chosen a member of their Congress; 
and while engaged in active measures to destroy, by 
force of arms, the Government over which he had 
once presided, he was taken sick and soon died. 









r ^ \^- 

\ ®m\ 


)^ WfES K. rOI.K, the eleventh 
J iLMdcnt of the United States, 
w IS horn in Mecklenburg Co., 
^f C , Nov. 2, 1795. His par- 
ents were Samuel and Jane 
(Ivnox) Pulk, the former a son 
of Col Thomas I'olk, who located 
at the above place, as one of the 
first [lioneers, in 1735. 

In the year 1006, with his wife 
and children, and soon after fol- 
lowed by most of the members of 
the Polk fainly, Samuel Polk emi- 
grated some two or three hundred 
miles farther west, to the rich valley 
of the Duck River. Here in the 
midst of the wilderness, in a region 
which was subsequently called Mau- 
ry Co., they reared their log huts, 
and established their homes. In the 
hard toil of a new farm in the wil- 
derness, James K. Polk spent the 
early years of his childhood and 
youth. His father, adding the pur- 
suit of a surveyor to that of a farmer, 
gradually increased in wealth until 
he became one of the leading men of the region. His 
mother was a superior woman, of strong common 
sense and earnest piety. 

Very early in life, James developed a taste for 
reading and expressed the strongest desire to obtain 
a liberal education. His mother's training had made 
him methodical in his habits, had taught him punct- 
uality and industry, and had inspired him with lofty 
principles of morality. His health was frail ; and his 
father, fearing that he might not be able to endure a 


sedentary life, got a situation for him behind the 
counter, hojiing to fit him for commercial pursuits. 

This was to James a bitter disaijpointment. He 
had no taste for these duties, and his daily tasks 
were irksome in the extreme. He remained in this 
uncongenial occupation but a few weeks, when at Iiis 
earnest solicitation his father removed him, and made 
arrangements for him to prosecute his studies. Soon 
after he sent him to Murfreesboro Academy. ^Vith 
ardor which could scarcely be surpassed, he pressed 
forward in his studies, and in less than two and a half 
years, in the autumn of i3is, entered the sophomore 
class in the University of North Carolina, at Chapel 
Hill. Here he was one of the most exemplary of 
scholars, punctual in every exercise, never allowing 
himself to be absent from a recitation or a religious 

He graduated in 18 18, with the highest honors, be- 
ing deemed the best scholar of his class, both in 
mathematics and the classics. He was then twenty- 
three years of age. Mr. Polk's health was at this 
time mucli impaired by the assiduity with which he 
had prosecuted his studies. After a short season of 
relaxation he went to Nashville, and entered the 
office of Felix Grundy, to study law. Here Mr. Polk 
renewed his acquaintance with Andrew Jackson, who 
resided on his plantation, the Hermitage, but a few 
miles from Nashville. They had probably been 
slightly acquainted before. 

Mr. Polk's father was a Jeffersonian Republican, 
and James K. Polk ever adhered to the same politi- 
cal faith. He was a popular public speaker, and was 
constantly called upon to address the meetings of his 
party friends. His skill as a speaker was such that 
he was popularly called the Napoleon of the stump. 
He was a man of unblemished morals, genial and 





xnirteous in his bearing, and with that sympathetic 
iialure in the joj s and griefs of others which ever gave 
liim troops of friends. In 1823, Mr. Polk was elected 
to the Legislature of Tennessee. Here he gave his 
strong influence towards the election of his friend, 
Mr. Jacksoi], to tlie Presidency of the United States. 

In January, 1824, Mr. Polk married Miss Sarah 
Childress, of Rutherford Co., Tenn. His bride was 
altogether worthy of him, — a lady of beauty and cul- 
ture. In the fall of 1825, Mr. Polk was chosen a 
member of Congress. The satisfaction which he gave 
to liis constituents may be inferred from the fact, that 
for fourteen successive years, until 1839, he was con- 
tinued in that office. He tlien, voluntarily withdrew, 
only that he might accept the Gubernatorial chair 
of Tennessee. In Congress he was a laborious 
member, a frequent and a popular speaker. He was 
always in his seat, always courteous; and whenever 
he spoke it was always to the point, and without any 
ambitious rhetorical display. 

During five sessions of Congress, Mr. Polk was 
Speaker of the House Strong passions were roused, 
and stormy scenes were witnessed ; but Mr Polk per- 
formed his arduous duties to a very general satisfac- 
tion, and a unanimous vote of thanks to him was 
passed by the House as he withdrew on the 4th of 
March, 1839. 

In accordance with Southein usage, Mr. Polk, as a 
candidate for Governor, canvassed the State. He was 
elected by a large majority, and on the 14th of Octo- 
ber, 1839, took the oath of office at Nashville. In 1S41, 
his term of office expired, and hewas again the can- 
didate of the Democratic party, but was defeated. 

On the 4th of March, 1845, Mr. Polk was inaugur- 
ated President of the United States. The verdict of 
the countryin favor of the annexation of Texas, exerted 
its influence upon Congress ; and the last aot of the 
administration of President Tyler was to affix his sig- 
nature to a joint resobition of Congress, passed on the 
3d of March, approving of the annexation of Texas to 
the American Union. As Mexico still claimed Texas 
as one of her provinces, the Mexican minister, 
Almonte, immediately demanded his passports and 
left the country, declaring the act of the annexation 
to be an act hostile to Mexico. 

In his first message. President Polk urged that 
Texas should immediately, by act of Congress, be re- 
ceived into the Union on the same footing with the 
other States. In the meantime, Gen. Taylor was sent 

with an army into Texas to hold the country. He was 
sent first to Nueces, which the Mexicans said was the 
western boundary of Texas. Then he was sent nearly 
two hundred miles further west, to the Rio Grande, 
where he erected batteries which commanded the 
Mexican city of Matamoras, which was situated on 
the western banks. 

The anticipated collision soon took place, and war 
was declared against Mexico by President Polk. Tiie 
war was pushed forward by Mr. Polk's administration 
with great vigor. Gen. Taylor, whose army was first 
called one of "observation," then of "occupation," 
then of " in vasion,"was sent forward to Monterey. The 
feeble Mexicans, in every encounter, were hopelessly 
and awfully slaughtered. The day of judgement 
alone can reveal the misery which this war caused. 
It Vv'as by the ingenuity of Mr. Polk's administration 
that the war was brought on. 

'To the victors belong the spoils." Mexico was 
prostrate before us. Her capital was in our liands. 
We now consented 'jo peace upon the condition that 
Mexico should surrender to us, in addition to Texas, 
all of New Mexico, and all of Upper and Lower Cal- 
ifornia. This new demand embraced, exclusive of 
Texas, eight hundred thousand square miles. This 
was an extent of territory equal to nine States of the 
size of New York. Thus slavery was securing eighteen 
majestic States to be added to the Union. There were 
some Americans who thought it all right : there were 
others who thought it all wrong. In the prosecution 
of this war, we expended twenty thousand lives and 
more than a hundred million of dollars. Of this 
money fifteen millions were paid to Mexico. 

On the 3d of March, 1849, Mr. Polk rerired from 
office, having served one term. The next day was 
Sunday. On the 5th, Gen. Taylor was inaugurated 
as his successor. Mr. Polk rode to the Capitol in the 
same carriage with Gen. Taylor; and the same even- 
ing, with Mrs. Polk, he commenced his return to 
Tennessee. He was then but fifty-four years of age. 
He had ever been strictly temperate in all his habits, 
and his health was good. With an ample fortune, 
a choice library, a cultivated mind, and domestic ties 
of the dearest nature, it seemed as though long years 
of tranquility and happiness were before him. But the 
cholera — that fearful scourge — was then sweeping up 
the Valley of the Mississippi. This he contracted, 
and died on the 15th of June, 1849, in the fifty-fourth 
year of his age, greatly mourned by his countrymen. 







\CHARY TAYLOR, twcllih 
Cbident of the United States, 
i'5 born on the 24th of Nov., 
1784, in Orange Co., Va. His 
father, Colonel Taylor, was 
a \ irginian of note, and a dis- 
tinguished patriot and soldier of 
the Revolution. When Zachary 
was an infant, his father with his 
wife and two children, emigrated 
to Kentucky, where he settled in 
the pathless wilderness, a few- 
miles from Louisville. Li this front- 
^^|f ier home, away from civilization and 
I all its refinements, yaung Zachary 
could enjoy but few social and educational advan- 
tages. When six years of age he attended a common 
school, and was then regarded as a bright, active boy, 
rather remarkable for bluntness aixl decision of char- 
acter He was strong, feailess and self-reliant, and 
manifested a strong desire to enter the army to fight 
the Lidians who were ravaging the frontiers. There 
is little to be recorded of the uneventful years of his 
childhood on his father's large but lonely plantation. 
In 1808, his father succeeded in obtaining for him 
the commission of lieutenant in the United States 
army ; and he joined the troops which were stationed 
at New Orleans under Gen. Wilkinson. Soon after 
this he married Miss Margaret Smith, a young lady 
from one of the first families of Maryland. 

Immediately after the declaration of war with Eng- 
land, in 1S12, Capt. Taylor (for he had then been 
promoted to that rank) was put in command of Fort 
Harrison, on the Wabash, about fifty miles above 
Vincennes. This fort had been built in the wilder- 
ness by Gen. Harrison, on his march to Tippecanoe. 
It was one of the first points of attack by the Indians, 
kd by Tecumseh. Its garrison consisted of a broken 


company of infantry ninnbering fifty men 
whom were sick. 

Earl)- in the autumn of 18 ij, the Indians 
and in large numiters, moved upon the fort. Their 
ai)proach was first indicated by the murder of two 
soldiers just outside of the stockade. Capt. Taylor 
made every possible preparation to meet the antici- 
pated assault. On the 4th of September, a Ijand of 
forty painted and plumed savages came to the fort, 
waving a white flag, and informed Capt. Taylor that 
in the morning their chief would con:e to have a talk 
with him. It was evident that their object was merely 
to ascertain the state of things at the fort, and Capt. 
Taylor, well versed in the wiles of tlie savages, kept 
them at a distance. 

The sun went down ; the savages disappeared, the 
garrison slept upon their arms. One liour before 
midnight the war whooii burst from a thousand lips 
in tlie forest around, followed by the discharge of 
musketry, and the rusli of the foe. Every man, sick 
and well, sprang to his i)ost. Every man knew that 
defeat was not merely death, but in the case of cap- 
ture, death by the most agonizing and prolonged tor- 
ture. No pen can describe, no inimagination can 
conceive the scenes which ensued. The savages suc- 
ceeded in setting fue to one of the block-houses- 
Until six o'clock in the morning, this awful conflict 
continued. The savages then, baffled at every point, 
and gnashing their teeth with rage, retired. Capt. 
Taylor, for this gallant defence, was promoted to the 
rank of major by brevet. 

Until the close of the war, MajorTaylor was [liaced 
in such situations that he saw but little more of active 
service. He was sent far away into the depths of the 
wilderness, to Fort Crawford, on Fox River, which 
empties into Green Bay. Here there was but little 
to be done but to wear away the tedious hours as one 
best could. There were no books, no society, no in- 







tellectaal stimulus. Thus with him the uneventful 
years rolled on Gradually he rose to the rank of 
colonel. In the Black-Hawk war, which resulted in 
tlie capture of that renowned chieftain, Col Taylor 
took a subordinate but a brave and efficient part. 

For twenty-four years Col. Taylor was engaged in 
the defence of the frontiers, in scenes so remote, and in 
employments so obscure, that his name was unknown 
beyond the limits of his own immediate acquaintance. 
In the year 1836, he was sent to Florida to compel 
the Seminole Indians to vacate that region and re- 
tire beyond the Mississippi, as their chiefs by treaty, 
had promised they should do. The services rendered 
here secured for Col. Taylor the high appreciation of 
the Government; and as a reward, he was elevated 
to the rank of brigadier-general by brevet ; and soon 
after, in May, 1838, was appointed to the chief com- 
mand of the United States troops in Florida. 

After two years of such wearisome employment 
amidst the everglades of the peninsula. Gen. Taylor 
obtained, at his own request, a change of command, 
and was stationed over the Department of the South- 
west. This field embraced Louisiana, Mississippi, 
Alabama and Georgia. Establishing his headquarters 
at Fort Jessup, in Louisiana, he removed his family 
to a plantation which he purchased, near Baton Rogue. 
Here he remained for five years, buried, as it were, 
from the world, but faithfully discharging every duty 
imposed upon him. 

In 1S46, Gen. Taylor was sent to guard the land 
between the Nueces and Rio Grande, the latter river 
being the boundary of Texas, which was then claimed 
by the United States. Soon the war with Mexico 
was brought on, and at Palo Alto and Resaca de la 
Palma, Gen. Taylor won brilliant victories over the 
Mexicans. The rank of major-general by brevet 
was then conferred upon Gen. Taylor, and his name 
was received with enthusiasm almost everywhere in 
the Nation. Then came the battles of Monterey and 
Buena Vista in which he won signal victories over 
forces much larger than he commanded. 

His careless habits of dress and his unaffected 
simplicity, secured for Gen. Taylor among his troops, 
the sobriquet of " Old Rough and Ready.' 

The tidings of the brilliant victory of Buena Visla 
spread the wildest enthusiasm over the country. The 
name of Gen. Taylor was on every one's lips. The 
Whig party decided to take advantage of this wonder- 
ful popularity in bringing forward the unpolished, un- 
lettered, honest soldier as their candidate for the 
Presidency. Gen. Taylor was astonished at the an- 
nouncement, and for a time would not listen to it; de- 
claring that he was not at all qualified for such an 
office. So little interest had he taken in politics that, 
for forty years, he had not cast a vote. It was not 
without chagrin that several distinguished statesmen 
who had been long years in the public service found 
their claims set aside in behalf of one whose name 

had never been heard of, save in connection with Palo 
Alto, Resaca de la Palma, Monterey and Buena 
Vista. It is said that Daniel Webster, in his haste re- 
marked, " It is a nomination not fit to be made." 

Gen. Taylor was not an eloquent speaker nor a fine 
writer His friends took possession of him, and pre- 
pared such few communications as it was needful 
should be presented to the public. The popularity of 
the successful warrior swept the land. He was tri- 
umphantly elected over two opposing candidates, — 
(ien. Cass and E.\-President Martin Van Buren. 
Though he selected an e.xcellent cabinet, the good 
old man found himself in a very uncongenial position, 
and was, at times, sorely perple-xed and harassed. 
His mental sufferings were very severe, and probably 
tended to hasten his death. The pro-slavery party 
was pusliing its claims with tireless energy , expedi- 
tions were fitting out to capture Cuba ; California was 
pleading for admission to the Union, while slavery 
stood at the door to bar her out. Gen. Taylor found 
the political conflicts in Washington to be far more 
trying to the nerves than battles with Me.xicans or 

In the midst of all these troubles, Gen. Taylor, 
after he had occup-ed the Presidential chair but little 
over a year, took cold, and after a brief sickness of 
but little over five days, died on the 9lh of July, 1850. 
His last woids were, " I am not afraid to die. I am 
ready. I have endeavored to do my duty." He died 
universally respected and beloved. An honest, un- 
pretending man, he had been steadily growing in the 
affections of the people; and the Nation bitterly la- 
mented his death. 

Gen. Scott, who was thoroughly acquainted with 
Gen. Taylor, gave the following graphic and truthful 
description of his character: — " With a good store of 
common sense, Gen. Taylor's mind had not been en- 
larged and refreshed by reading, or much converse 
with the world. Rigidity of ideas was the conse- 
quence. The frontiers and small military posts had 
been his home. Hence he was quite ignorant for his 
rank, and quite bigoted in his ignorance. His sim- 
plicity was child-like, and with innumerable preju- 
dices, amusing and incorrigible, well suited to the 
tender age. Thus, if a man, however respectable, 
chanced to wear a coat of an unusual color, or his hat 
a little on one side of his head; or an officer to leave 
a corner of his handkerchief dangling from an out- 
side pocket, — in any such case, this critic held the 
offender to be a coxcomb (perhaps something worse), 
whom he would not, to use his oft repeated phrase, 
' touch with a pair of tongs.' 

"Any allusion to literature beyond good old Dil- 
worth's spelling-book, on the part of one wearing a 
sword, was evidence, with the same judge, of utter 
unfitness for heavy marchings and combats. In short, 
few men have ever had a more comfortable, labor- 
saving contempt for learning of every kind." 

'•> _ m » 

-*^ T-T3r> 



^■ffllLLftRn FILLMnRE.<4 

"t^^ t ' t ^ 




til if'Jti^r ) States, was 
^Ua C^'^XJ J Hill, Cayuga 
J-^ — ^ — J_ the yth of Ja 

y} 1 teenth President of the United 
if )' States, was born at Summer 
/■uga Co., N. Y ., on 
uiary, iSoo. His 
father was a farmer, and ow- 
to misfortune, in humble cii- 
I / / ' j I Lunistances. Of his mother, the 
l^^^wl daughter of Dr. Abiathar Millard, 
»1SH?"' of Pittsfield, Mass., it has been 
said that she possessed an intellect 
of very high order,, united with much 
personal loveliness, sweetness of dis- 
position, graceful manners and ex- 
(juisite sensibilities. She died in 
1 83 1 ; having lived to see her son a 
' young man of distinguished prom- 
ise, though she was not permitted to witness the high 
dignity which he finally attained. 

In consequence of the secluded home and limited 
means of his father, Millard enjoyed but slender ad- 
vantages for education in his early years. The com- 
mon schools, which he occasionally attended were 
very imperfect institutions; and books were scarce 
and expensive. There was nothing then in his char- 
acter to indicate the brilliant career upon which he 
was about to enter. He was a plain farmer's boy; 
intelligent, good-looking, kind-hearted. The sacred 
influences of home bad taught him to revere the Bible, 
and had laid the foundations of an upright character. 
When fourteen years of age, his father sent him 
some hundred miles from home, to the then wilds of 
Livingston County, to learn the trade of a clothier. 
Neav the mill there was a small villiage, where some 

enterprising man had commenced the collection of a 
village library. Tiiis proved an inestimable blessing 
to young Fillmore. His evenings were spent in read- 
ing. .Soon every leisure moment was occupied with 
books. His thirst for knowledge became insatiate; 
and the selections which he made were continually 
more elevating and instructive. He read history, 
biography, oratory; and thus gradually there was en- 
kindled in his heart a desire to be something more 
than a mere worker with his hands; and he was be- 
coming, almost unknown to himself, a well-informed, 
educated man. 

The young clothier had now attained the age of 
nineteen years, and was of fine personal appearance 
and of gentlemanly demeanor. It so hapjiened that 
there was a gentleman in the neighborhood of ample 
pecuniary means and of benevolence, — Judge Walter 
Wood, — who was struck with the prepossessing ap- 
pearance of young Fillmore. He made his acquaint- 
ance, and was so much impressed with his ability and 
attainments that he advised him to abandon his 
trade and devote himself to the study of the law. The 
young man replied, that he had no means of his own, 
no friends to help him and that his previous educa- 
tion had been very imperfect. But Judge Wood had 
so much confidence in him that he kindly offered to 
take him into his own office, and to loan him such 
money as he needed. Most gratefully the generous 
offer was accepted. 

There is in many minds a strange delusion about 
a collegiate education. A young man is supposed to 
be liberally educated if he has graduated at some col- 
lege. But many a boy loiters through university halls 
ind then enters a law office, who is by no means as 





well prepared to prosecute his legal studies as was 
Millard Fillmore when he graduated at the clothing- 
mill at the end of four years of manual labor, during 
which every leisure moment had been devoted to in- 
tense mental culture. 

In 1S23, when twenty-three years of age, he v/as 
admitted to the Court of Coaimon Pleas, He then 
went to the village of Aurora, and commenced the 
practice of law. In this secluded, peaceful region, 
his practice of course was limited, and there was no 
opportunity for a sudden rise in fortune or in fame. 
Here, in the year 1826, he married a lady of great 
moral worth, and one capable of adorning any station 
she might be called to fill, — ^Miss Abigail Powers. 

His elevation of character, his untiring industry, 
his legal acquirements, and his skill as an advocate, 
gradually attracted attention ; and he was invited to 
enter into partnership under highly advantageous 
circumstances, with an elder member of the bar in 
P)affaIo. Just before removing to Buffalo, in 1829, 
he took his seat in the House of Assembly, of the 
State of New York, as a representative from Erie 
County. Though he had never taken a very active 
part in politics, his vote and his sympathies were with 
the Whig party. The State was then Democratic, 
and he found himself in a helpless minority in the 
Legislature , still the testimony comes from all parties, 
that his courtesy, ability and integrity, won, to a very 
unusual degn e the respect of his associates. 

In the autumn of 1832, he was elected to a seat in 
the United States Congress He entered that troubled 
arena in some of tlie most tumultuous hours of our 
national history. The great conflict respecting the 
national bank and the removal of the deposits, was 
then raging. 

His term of two years closed ; and he returned to 
his profession, which he pursued with increasing rep- 
utation and success. After a lapse of two years 
he again became a candidate for Congress; was re- 
elected, and took his seat in 1837. His past expe- 
rience as a representative gave hmi strength and 
confidence. The first term of service in Congress to 
any man can be but little more than an introduction. 
He was now prepared for active duty. All his ener- 
gies were brought to bear upon the public good. Every 
measure received his impress. 

Mr. Fillmore was now a man of wide repute, and 
his popularity filled the State, and in tiie year 1847, 
he was elected Comptroller of the State. 

Mr. Fillmore had attained the age of forty-seven 
years. His labors at the bar, in the Legislature, in 
Congress and as Comptroller, had given him very con- 
siderable fame. The Whigs were casting about to 
find suitable candidates for President and Vice-Presi- 
dent at the approaching election. Far away, on the 
waters of the Rio Grande, there was a rough old 
soldier, who had fought one or two successful battles 
with the Mexicans, which had caused his name to be 
proclaimed in tiumpet-tones all over the land. But 
it was necessary to associate with him on the same 
ticket some man of reputation as a statesman. 

Under the influence of these considerations, the 
namesof Zachary Taylor and Millard Fillmore became 
the rallying-cry of the Whigs, as their candidates for 
President and Vice-Peesident. The Whig ticket was 
signally triumphant. On the 4th of March, 1849, 
Gen. Taylor was inaugurated President, and Millard 
Fillmore Vice-President, of the United States. 

On the 9th of July, 1850, President Taylor, but 
about one year and four months after his inaugura- 
tion, was suddenly taken sick and died. By the Con- 
stitution, Vice-President Fillmore thus became Presi- 
dent. He appointed a very able cabinet, of which 
the illustrious Daniel Webster was Secretary of State. 

Mr. Fillmore had very serious difficulties to contend 
with, since the opposition had a majority in both 
Houses. He did everything in his power to conciliate 
the South ; but the pro-slavery party in the South felt 
the inadequacy of all measuresof transient conciliation. 
The population of the free States was so rapidly in- 
creasing over that of the slave States that it was in- 
evitable that the power of the Government should 
soon pass into the hands of the free States. The 
famous compromise measures were adopted under Mr. 
Fillmore's adminstration, and the Japan Expedition 
was sent out. On the 4th of March, 1853, Mr. Fill- 
more, having served one term, retired. 

In 1856, Mr. Fillmore was nominated for the Pres- 
idency by the " Know Nothing " party, but was beaten 
by Mr. Buchanan. After that Mr. Fillmore lived in 
retirement. During the terrible conflict of civil war, 
he was mostly silent. It was generally supposed that 
his sympathies were rather with those who were en- 
deavoring to overthrow our institutions. President 
Filhnore kept aloof from the conflict, without any 
cordial words of clieev lo the one party or the other. 
He was thus forgotten by both. He lived to a ripe 
old age, and died in Buffalo. N. Y., March 8, 1874. 


^:^^^W^4, c5^2:^ 




»feir- -^FRANKLIN PIERCE.-^ -^ft: 

.+«A***diA4rfyi»t**t,.t.t.t t^t,t«.t..t:.t. cfet %.X %,^' feAA A-tvfefe A'A-T-ii-. .V-M iwl-. • 

iourteenth President of the 
z-' ij 1 '^ \ v'JJIct' '"^"''^'^ States, was born in 
'^i®!10d^<(II Hillsborough, N. H., Nov. 
23, 1804. His father was a 
Revolutionary soldier, who, 
with his own strong arm, 
hewed out a home in the 
wilderness. He was a man 
of inflexible integrity; of 
strong, though uncultivated 
mind, and an uncompromis- 
ing Democrat. The mother of 
Franklin Pierce was all that a son 
could desire, — an intelligent, pru- 
dent, affectionate. Christian wom- 
an. Franklin was the sixth of eight children. 

Franklin was a very bright and handsome boy, gen- 
erous, warm-hearted and brave. He won alike the 
love of old and young. The boys on the play ground 
loved him. His teachers loved him. The neighbors 
looked upon him with pride and affection. He was 
by instinct a gentleman; always speakingkind words, 
doing kind deeds, with a peculiar unstudied tact 
which taught him what was agreeable. Without de- 
veloping any precocity of genius, or any unnatural 
devotion to books, he was a good scholar ; in body, 
in mind, in affections, a finely-developed boy. 

When sixteen years of age, in the year 1820, he 
entered Bovvdoin College, at Brunswick, Me He was 
one of the most popular young men in the college. 
The purity of his moral character, the unvarying 
courtesy of his demeanor, his rank as a scholar, and 

genial nature, rendered him a universal fivorite. 
There was something very peculiarly winning in his 
address, and it was evidently not in the slightest de- 
gree studied : it was the simple outgushing of his 
own magnanimous and loving nature. 

Upon graduating, in the year 1824, Franklin Pierce 
commenced the study of law in the office of Judge 
Woodbury, one of the most distinguished lawyers of 
the State, and a man of great private worth. The 
eminent social qualities of the young lawyer, his 
father's prominence as a public man, and the brilliant 
political career into which Judge Woodbury was en- 
tering, all tended to entice Mr. Pierce into the faci- 
nating yet perilous path of political life. With all 
the ardor of his nature he espoused the cause of Gen. 
Jackson for tlie Presidency. He commenced the 
practice of law in Hillsborough, and was soon elected 
to represent the town in the State Legislature. Here 
he served for four years. The last two years he was 
chosen speaker of the house by a very large vote. 

In 1833, at the age of twenty-nine, he was elected 
a member of Congress. Without taking an active 
part in debates, he was faithful and laborious in duty, 
and ever rising in the estimation of those with whom 
he was associatad. 

In 1837, being then but thirty-three years of age, 
he was elected to the Senate of the United States; 
taking his seat just as Mr. Van Buren commenced 
his administration. He was the youngest memberin 
the Senate. In the year 1834, he married Miss Jane 
Means Appleton, a lady of rare beauty and accom- 
plishments, and one admirably fitted to adorn every 
station with wliich her husband was honoied. Of the 




three sons who were boin to them, all now sleep with 
their parents in the grave. 

In the year 1838, Mr. Pierce, with growing fame 
and increasing business as a lawyer, took up his 
residence in Concord, the capital of New Hampshire. 
President Polk, upon his accession to office, appointed 
Mr. Pierce attorney-general of the United States; but 
the offer was declined, in consequence of numerous 
professional engagements at home, and the precariaos 
state of Mrs. Pierce's health. He also, about the 
same time declined the nomination for governor by the 
Democratic party. The war with Mexico called Mr. 
Pierce in the army. Receiving the appointment of 
brigadier-general, he embarked, with a portion of his 
troops, at Newport, R. I., on the 27th of May, 1847. 
He took an important part in this war, proving him- 
self a brave and true soldier. 

When Gen. Pierce reached his home in his native 
State, he was received enthusiastically by the advo- 
cates of the Mexican war, and coldly by his oppo- 
nents. He resumed the practice of his profession, 
very frequently taking an active part in political ques- 
tions, giving his cordial support to the pro-slavery 
wing of the Democratic party. The compromise 
measures met cordially with his approval ; and he 
strenuously advofiated the enforcement of the infa- 
mous fugitive-slave law, which so shocked the religious 
sensibilities of the North. He thus became distin- 
guished as a " Northern man with Southern principles.'' 
The strong partisans of slavery in the South conse- 
quently regarded him as a man whom they could 
safely trust in office to carry out their i)lans. 

On the 1 2th of June, 1852, the Democratic conven- 
tion met in Baltimore to nominate a candidate for the 
Presidency. For four days they continued in session, 
and in thirty-five ballotings no one had obtained a 
two-thirds vote. Not a vote thus far had been thrown 
for Gen. Pierce. Then the Virginia delegation 
brought forward his name. There were fourteen 
more ballotings, during which Gen. Pierce constantly 
gained strength, until, at the forty-ninth ballot, he 
received two hundred and eighty-two votes, and all 
other candidates eleven. Gen. Winfield Scott was 
the Whig candidate. Gen. Pierce was chosen with 
great unanimity. Only four States — Vermont, Mas- 
sachusetts, Kentucky and Tennessee — cast their 
electoral votes against him Gen. Franklin Pieice 
was therefore inaugurated President of the United 
States on the 4th of March, 1853. 

His administration proved one of the most stormy our 
country had ever experienced. The controversy be- 
tween slavery and freedom was then approaching its 
culminating point. It became evident that there was 
an "irrepressible conflict" between them, and that 
this Nation could not long exist " half slave and half ' 
free." President Pierce, during the whole of his ad- 
ministration, did every thing he could to conciliate 
the South; but it was all in vain. The conflict every 
year grew more violent, and threats of the dissolution 
of the Union were borne to the North on eveiy South- 
ern breeze. 

Such was the condition of affairs when President 
Pierce approached the close of his four-years' term 
of office. The North had become thoroughly alien- 
ated from him. The anti-slavery sentiment, goaded 
by great outrages, had been rapidly increasing; all 
the intellectual ability and social worth of President 
Pierce were forgotten in deep reprehension of his ad- 
ministrative acts. The slaveholders of the South, also, 
unmindful of the fidelity with which he had advo- 
cated those measures of Government which they ap- 
proved, and perhaps, also, feeling that he had 
rendered himself so unpopular as no longer to be 
able acceptably to serve them, ungratefully dropped 
him, and nominated James Buchanan to succeed him. 

On the 4th of March, 1857, President Pierce re- 
tired to his home in Concord. Of three children, two 
had died, and his only surviving child had been 
killed before his eyes by a railroad accident ; and his 
wife, one of the most estimable and accomplished of 
ladies, was rapidly sinking in consumption. The 
hour of dreadful gloom soon came, and he was left 
alone in the world, without wife or child. 

When the terrible Rebellion burst forth, which di- 
vided our country into two parties, and two only, Mr. 
Pierce remained steadfast in the principles which he 
had always cherished, and gave his sympathies to 
that pro-slavery party with which he had ever been 
allied. He declined to do anything, either by voice 
or pen, to strengthen the hand of the National Gov- 
ernment. He continued to reside in Concord until 
the time of his death, which occurred in October, 
1869. He was one of the most genial and social of 
men, an honored communicant of the Episcopal 
Church, and one of the kindest of neighbors. Gen- 
erous to a fault, he contiibuted liberally for the al- 
leviation of suffering and want, and many of his towns- 
people were often gladened by his material bounty. 


^ ^^ 

■%<^?r^^ (Z 




:^jK^KS'!i-% \^\\i}y 

.*»jt55>>S)«>jii<,.' J 



M '^ 


WIES BUCHANAN, the fif- 
-,-,, LLiith President of the United 
■it itcs, was born in a small 
froitier town, at the foot of the 
eastern ridge of the AUegha- 
nies, in Franklin Co., Penn., on 
the 23d of April, 1791. The ;;lace 
where the humble cabin of his 
father stood was called Stony 
Batter It was a wild and ro- 
mantic spot in a gorge of the moun- 
tains, with towering summits rising 
grandly all around. His father 
was a native of the north of Ireland ; 
a poor man, who had emigrated in 
j 1783) with little property save his 

own strong arms. Five years afterwards he married 
Elizabeth Spear, the daughter of a respectable farmer, 
and, with his young Ijride, plunged into the wilder- 
ness, staked his claim, reared his log-hut, opened a 
clearing with his axe, and settled down there to per- 
form his obscure part in the drama of life. In this se- 
cluded home, where James was born, he remained 
for eight years, enjoying but few social or intellectual 
advantages. When James was eight years of age, his 
father removed to the village of Mercersburg, where 
his son was placed at school, and commenced a 
course of study in English, Latin and Greek. His 
progress was rapid, and at the age of fourteen, he 
entered Dickinson College, at Carlisle. Here he de- 
veloped remarkable talent, and took his stand among 
the first scholars in the institution. His application 
to study was intense, and yet his native powers en- 

abled him to master the most abstruse subjects with 

In the year 1S09, he graduated with the highest 
honors of his class. He was then eighteen years of 
age; tall and graceful, vigorous in health, fond of 
athletic sport, an unerring shot, and enlivened with 
an exuberant flow of animal spirits. He immediately 
commenced the study of law in the city of Lancaster, 
and was admitted to the bar in 1812, when he was 
but twenty-one years of age. Very rapidly he rose 
in his profession, and at once took undisputed stand 
with the ablest lawyers of the State. When but 
twenty-six years of age, unaided by counsel, he suc- 
cessfully defended before the State Senate one of the 
judges of the State, who was tried upon articles of 
impeachment. At the age of thirty it was generally 
admitted that he stood at the head of the bar; and 
there was no lawyer in the State who had a more lu- 
crative practice. 

In 1820, he reluctantly consented to run as a 
candidate for Congress. He was elected, and for 
ten years he remained a member of the Lower House. 
During the vacations of Congress, he occasionally 
tried some important case. In 1831, he retired 
altogether from the toils of his profession, having ac- 
quired an ample fortune. 

Gen. Jackson, upon his elevation to the Presidency, 
appointed Mr. Buchanan minister to Russia. The 
duties of his mission he performed with ability, which 
gave satisfaction to all parties. \]\)on his return, in 
r833, he was elected to a seat in the United States 
Senate. He there met, as his associates, Webster, 
Clay, Wright and Calhoun. He advocated the meas- 
ures proposed by President Jackson, of making repii- 


sals against France, to enforce the payment of our 
claims against that country ; and defended the course 
of the President in his unprecedented and wholesale 
removal from otifice of those who were not the sup- 
porters of his administration. Upon this question he 
was brought into direct collision with Henry Clay. 
He also, with voice and vote, advocated expunging 
from the journal of the Senate the vote of censure 
against Gen. Jackson for removing the deposits. 
Earnestly he opposed the abolition of slavery in the 
District of Columbia, and urged the prohibition of the 
circulation of anti-slavery documents by the United 
States mails. 

As to petitions on the subject of slavery, he advo- 
cated that they should be respectfully received; and 
that the reply should be returned, that Congress had 
no power to legislate upon the subject. " Congress," 
said he, " might as well undertake to interfere with 
slavery under a foreign government as in any of the 
States where it now exists." 

Upon Mr. Polk's accession to the Presidency, Mr. 
Buchanan became Secretary of State, and as such, 
took his share of the responsibility in tlie conduct of 
the Mexican War. Mr. Polk assumed that crossing 
the Nueces by the American troops into the disputed 
territory was not wrong, but for the Mexicans to cross 
the Rio Grande into that territory was a declaration 
of war. No candid man can read with pleasure the 
account of the course our Government pursued in that 

Mr. Buchanan identified himself thoroughly with 
the party devoted to the perpetuation and extension 
of slavery, and brought all the energies of his mind 
to bear against the Wilniot Proviso. He gave his 
cordial approval to the compromise measures of 1S50, 
which included the fugitive-slave law. Mr. Pierce, 
upon his election to the Presidency, honored Mr. 
Buchanan with the mission to England. 

In the year 1856, a national Democratic conven- 
tion nominated Mr. Buchanan for the Presidency. The 
political conflict was one of the most severe in which 
our country has ever engaged. All the friends of 
slavery were on one side; all the advocates of its re- 
striction and final abolition, on the other. Mr. Fre- 
mont, the candidate of the enemies of slavery, re- 
ceived r 14 electoral votes. Mr. Buchanan received 
174, and was elected. The [xspular vote stood 
1,340,618, for Fremont, 1,224,750 for Buchanan. On 
March 4th, 1857, Mr. Buchanan was inaugurated. 

Mr. Buchanan was far advanced in life. Only four 
years were wanting to fill up his threescore years and 
ten. His own friends, those with whom he had been 
allied in political principles and action for years, were 
seeking the destruction of the Government, that they 
might rear upon the ruins of our free institutions a 
nation whose corner-stone should be human slavery. 
[n this emergency, Mr. Buchanan was hopelessly be- 
wildered He could not, with his long-avowed prin- 

ciples, consistently oppose the State-rights party in 
their assumptions. As President of the United States, 
bound by his oath faithfully to administer the laws, 
he could not, without perjury of the grossest kind, 
unite with those endeavoring to overthrow the repub- 
lic. He therefore did nothing. 

The opponents of Mr. Buchanan's administration 
nominaied Abraham Lincoln as their standard bearer 
in the next Presidential canvass. The pro-slavery 
party declared, that if he were elected, and the con- 
trol of the Government were thus taken from their 
hands, they would secede from the Union, taking 
with them, as they retired, the National Capitol at 
Washington, and the lion's share of the territory of 
the United States. 

Mr. Buchanan's sympathy with the pro-slavery 
party was such, that he had been willing to offer them 
far more than they had ventured to claim. All the 
South had professed to ask of the North was non- 
intervention upon the subject of slavery. Mr. Bu- 
chanan had been ready to offer them the active co- 
operation of the Government to defend and extend 
the institution. 

As the storm increased in violence, the slaveholders 
claiming the right to secede, and Mr. Buchanan avow- 
ing that Congress had no power to prevent it, one of 
the most pitiable exhibitions of governmental im- 
becility was exhibited the world has ever seen. He 
declared that Congress had no power to enforce its 
laws in any State which had withdrawn, or which 
was attempting to withdraw from the Union. This 
was not the doctrine of Andrew Jackson, when, with 
his hand upon his sword-hilt, he exclaiined. "The 
Union must and shall be preserved!" 

South Carolina seceded in December, i860; nearly 
three months before the inauguration of President 
Lincoln. Mr. Buchanan looked on in listless despair. 
The rebel flag was raised in Charleston; Fort Sumpter 
was besieged; our forts, navy-yards and arsenals 
were seized ; our depots of military stores were plun- 
dered ; and our custom-houses and post-offices were 
appropriated by the rebels. 

The energy of the rebels, and the imbecility of our 
Executive, were alike marvelous. The Nation looked 
on in agony, waiting for the slow weeks to glide away, 
and close the administration, so terrible in its weak- 
ness At length the long-looked-for hour of deliver- 
ance came, when Abraham Lincoln was to receive the 

The administration of President Buchanan was 
certainly the most calamitous our country has ex- 
perienced. His best friends cannot recall it with 
pleasure. And still more dejilorable it is for his fame, 
that in that dreadful conflict which rolled its billows 
of flame and blood over our whole land, no word came 
from his lips to indicate his wish that our country's 
banner should triumph over the flag of the rebellion. 
He died at his Wheatland retreat, June i, 1868. 
. ■» 


c^^y/w^^^ cc/-t^C' 


<| -^ ABRAHAM !> #>1-<# < LINCOLN. i> % 


sixteenth President of the 

~^^ f'^^Y 5^^United States, was born in 

Ai IfT^^'^ >^ Haidin Co., Ky., Feb. 12, 

1809. About the year 1780, a 

man by the name of Abraham 

"^ Lmcohi left Virginia with his 

I inulv and moved into the then 

wilds of Kentucky. Only two years 

after this emigration, still a young 

man, while working one day in a 

field, was stealthily approached by 

an Indian and shot dead. His widow 

was left in extreme poverty with five 

little children, three boys and two 

f gills Thomas, the youngest of the 
bo>s, was four years of age at his 
father's death. This Thomas was 
J the father of Abraham Lincoln, the 
' Piesident of the United States 
whose name must henceforth fo^-ever be enrolled 
with tlie must prominent in the annals of our world. 

Of course no record has been kept of the life 
of one so lowly as Thomas Lincoln. He was among 
the poorest of the poor. His home was a wretched 
log -cabin; his food the coarsest and the meanest. 
Education he had none; he could never either read 
or write. As soon as he was able to do anything for 
himself, he was compelled to leave the cabin of his 
starving mother, and push out into the world, a friend- 
less, wandering boy, seeking work. He hired him- 
self out, and thus spent the whole of his youth as a 
laborer in the fields of others. 

When twenty-eight years of age he built a log- 
cabin of his own, and married Nancy Hanks, the 
daughter of another family of poor Kentucky emi- 
grants, who had also come from Virginia. Their 
second child was Abraham Lincoln, the subject of 
this sketch. The mother of Abraham was a noble 
woman, gentle, loving, pensive, created to adc^rn 
a palace, doomed to toil and pine, and die in a hovel. 
"All that I am, or hope to be," e.xclaims the grate- 
ful son " I owe to my angel-mother. " 

When he was eight years of age, his father sold his 

cabin and small farm, and moved to Indiana. Where 
two years later his mother died. 

Abraham soon became the scribe of the uneducated 
community around him. He could not have had a 
better school than this to teach him to put thoughts 
into words. He also became an eager reader. The 
books he could obtain were few ; but these he read 
and re-read until they were almost committed to 

As the years rolled on, the lot of this lowly family 
was the usual lot of humanity. There were joys and 
griefs, weddings and funerals. Abraham's sister 
Sarah, to whom he was tenderly attached, was mar- 
ried when a child of but fourteen years of age, and 
soon died. The family was gradually scattered. Mr. 
Thomas Lincoln sold out his squatter's claim in 1830, 
and emigrated to Macon Co., 111. 

Abraham Lincoln was then twenty-one years of age. 
With vigorous hands he aided his father in rearing 
another log-cabin. Abraham worked diligently at this 
until he saw the family comfortably settled, and their 
small lot of enclosed prairie planted with corn, when 
he announced to his father his intention to leave 
home, and to go out into the world and seek his for- 
tune. Little did he or his friends imagine how bril- 
liant that fortune was to be. He saw the value of 
education and was intensely earnest to improve his 
mind to the utmost of his power. He saw the ruin 
which ardent spirits were causing, and became 
strictly temperate; refusing to allow a drop of intoxi- 
cating liquor to pass his lips. And he had read in 
God's word, "Thou shalt not take the name of the 
Lord thy God in vain;" and a profane expression he 
was never heard to utter. Religion he revered. His 
morals were pure, and he was uncontaminated by a 
single vice. 

Young Abraham worked for a time as a hired laborer 
among the farmers. Then he went to Springfield, 
where he was employed in building a large flat-boat. 
In this he took a herd of swine, floated them down 
the Sangamon to the Illinois, and thence by the Mis- 
sissippi to New Orleans. Whatever Abraham Lin- 
coln undertook, he performed so faithfully as to give 
great satisfaction to his employers. In this adven- 




ture his employers were so well pleased, that upon 
his return they placed a store and mill under his care. 

In 1832, at the outbreak of the Black Hawk war, he 
enlisted and was chosen captain of a company. He 
returned to Sangamon County, and although only 23 
years of age, was a candidate for the Legislature, but 
was defeated. He soon after received from Andrew 
Jackson lire appointmentof Postmaster of New Salem, 
His only post-ofSce was his hat. All the letters he 
received he carried there ready to deliver to those 
he chanced to meet. He studied surveying, and soon 
made this his business. In 1834 he again became a 
candidate for the Legislature, and was elected. Mr. 
Stuart, of Springfield, advised him to study law. He 
walked from New Salem to Springfield, borrowed of 
Mr. Stuart a load of books, carried them back and 
began his legal studies. When the Legislature as- 
sembled he trudged on foot with his pack on his back 
one hundred miles to Vandalia, then the capital. In 
1836 he was re-elected to the Legislature. Here it 
was he first met Stephen A. Douglas. In 1839 he re- 
moved to Springfield and began the practice of law. 
His success with the jury was so great that he was 
soon engaged iu almost every noted case in the circuit. 

In 1854 the great discussion began between Mr. 
Lincoln and Mr. Douglas, on the slavery question. 
In the organization of the Republican party in Illinois, 
in 1856, he took an active part, and at once became 
one of the leaders in that party. Mr. Lincoln's 
speeches in oppositiou to Senator Douglas in the con- 
test in 1858 for a seat in the Senate, form a most 
notable part of his history. The issue was on the 
ilavery question, and he took the broad ground of 
;he Declaration of Independence, that all men are 
created equal. Mr. Lincoln was defeated in this con- 
test, but won a far higher prize. 

The great Republican Convention met at Chicago 
on the 1 6th of June, i860. The delegates and 
strangers who crowded the city amounted to twenty- 
five thousand. An immense building called "The 
Wigwam," was reared to accommodate the Conven- 
tion. There were eleven candidates for whom votes 
were thrown. William H. Seward, a man whose fame 
as a statesman had long filled the land, was the most 
orominent. It was generally supposed he would be 
the nominee. Abraham Lincoln, however, received 
the nomination on the third ballot. Little did he then 
dream of the weary years of toil and care, and the 
bloody death, to which that nomination doomed him : 
and as little did he dream that he was to render services 
to his country, which would fix upon him the eyes of 
the whole civilized world, and which would give him 
aplaceinthe affections of his countrymen, second 
only, if second, to that of Washington. 

Election day came and Mr. Lincoln received 180 
electoral votes out of 203 cast, and was, therefore, 
constitutionally elected President of the United States. 
The tirade of abuse that was jwured upon this good 

and merciful man, especially by the slaveholders, was 
greater than upon any other man ever elected to this 
high position. In February, 1861, Mr. Lincoln started 
for Washington, stopping in all the large cities on his 
way making speeches. The wliole journey was frought 
with much danger. Many of the Southern States had 
already seceded, and several attempts at assassination 
were afterwards brought to light. A gang in Balti- 
more had arranged, upon his arrivaUo"get up a row," 
and in the confusion to make sure of his death with 
revolvers and hand-grenades. A detective unravelled 
the plot. A secret and special train was provided to 
take him from HarrisL'urg, through Baltimore, at an 
unexpected hour of the night. The train started at 
half-past ten ; and to prevent any possible communi- 
cation on the part ol the Secessionists with their Con- 
federate gang in Baltimore, as soon as the train had 
started the telegraph-wires were cut. Mr. Lincoln 
reached Washington in safety and was inaugurated, 
although great anxiety was felt by all loyal people. 

In the selection of his cabinet Mr. Lincoln gave 
to Mr. Seward the Department of State, and to other 
prominent opponents before the convention he gave 
important positions. 

During no other administration have the duties 
devolving upon the President been so manifold, and 
the responsibilities so great, as those which fell to 
the lot of President Lincoln. Knowing this, and 
feeling his own weakness and inability to meet, and in 
his own strength to cope with, the difficulties, he 
learned early to seek Divine wisdom and guidance in 
determining his plans, and Divine comfort in all his 
trials, both personal and national. Contrary to his 
own estimate of himself, Mr. Lincoln was one of the 
most courageous of men. He went directly into the 
rebel capital just as the retreating foe was leaving, 
with no guard but a few sailors. From the time he 
had left Springfield, in 1861, however, plans had Ijeen 
made for his assassination, and lie at last fell a victim 
to one of them. April 14, 1865, he, with Gen. Grant, 
was urgently invited to attend Fords' Theater. It 
was announced that they would be present. Gen. 
Grant, however, left the city. President Lincoln, feel- 
ing, witli his characteristic kindliness of heart, that 
it would be a disappointment if he should fail them, 
very reluctantly consented to go. While listening to 
the play an actor by the name of John Wilkes Booth 
entered the box where the President and family were 
seated, and fired a bullet into his brains. He died the 
next morning at seven o'clock. 

Never before, in the history of the world was a nation 
plunged into such deep grief by the death of its ruler. 
Strong men met in the streets and wept in speechless 
anguish. It is not too much to say that a nation was 
in tears. His was a life which will fitly become a 
model. His name as the savior of his country will 
live with that of Washington's, ils father; his country- 
men being unable to decide which is the greater. 




83 -^1 


>^V (X 1) U W'l VY >([)'!( iM ?5 D tX, 


I tilth President of the United 
■ States. The early life of 
Andrew Johnson contains but 
the record of poverty, destitu- 
tion and friendlessness. He 
was born December 29, 180S, 
in Raleigh, N. C. His parents, 
belonging to the class of tlie 
"poor whites " of the Soutli, were 
such circumstances, that they 
could not confer even the slight- 
est advantages of education upon 
their child. Whep Andrew was five 
I years of age, his father accidentally 
lost his life while hevorically endeavoring to save a 
friend from drowning. Until ten years of age, Andrew 
was a ragged boy about the streets, supported by the 
labor of his mother, who obtained her living with 
her own hands. 

He then, having never attended a school one day, 
and being unable either to read or write, was ap- 
prenticed to a tailor in his native town. A gentleman 
was in the habit of going to the tailor's shop occasion- 
ally, and reading to the boys at work there. He often 
read from the speeches of distinguished British states- 
men. Andrew, who was endowed with a mind of more 
than ordinary native ability, became much interested 
in these speeches ; his ambition was roused, and he 
was inspired with a strong desire to learn to read. 

He accordingly applied himself to the alphabet, and 
with tlie assistance of some of his fellow-workmen, 
learned his letters. He then called upon the gentle- 
man to borrow the book of speeches. The owner, 

pleased with his zeal, not only gave him the book, 
but assisted him in learning to combine the letters 
into words. Under such difficulties he pressed on- 
ward laboriously, spending usually ten or twelve hours 
at work in the shoji, and then robbing himself of rest 
and recreation to devote such time as he could to 

He went to Tennessee in 1S26, and located at 
Greenville, where he married a young lady who pos- 
sessed some education. Under her instructions he 
learned to write and cipher. He became prominent 
in the village debating society, and a favorite with 
the students of Greenville College. In 1828, he or- 
ganized a working man's party, which elected him 
alderman, and in 1830 elected him mayor, which 
position he held three years. 

He now began to take a lively interest in political 
affairs ; identifying himself with the working-classes, 
to which he belonged. In 1835, he was elected a 
member of the House of Representatives of Tennes- 
see. He was then just twenty-seven years of age. 
He became a very active member of the legislature, 
gave his adhesion to the Democratic party, and in 
1840 "stumped the State," advocating Martin Van 
Buren's claims to the Presidency, in opposition to those 
of Gen. Harrison. In this campaign he acquired much 
readiness as a speaker, and extended and increased 
his reputation. 

In 1841, he was elected State Senator; in 1843, he 
was elected a member of Congress, and by successive 
elections, held that important post for ten years. In 
1853, he was elected Governor of Tennessee, and 
was re-elected in 1855. In all these responsible posi- 
tions, he discharged his duties with distinguished abil- 




ity, and proved himself the warm friend of the work- 
ing classes. In 1857, Mr. Johnson was elected 
United States Senator. 

Years before, in 1845, he had warmly advocated 
the annexation of Texas, stating however, as his 
reason, that he thought this annexation would prob- 
ably prove " to be the gateway out of which the sable 
sons of Africa are to pass from bondage to freedom, 
and become merged in a population congenial to 
themselves." In 1850, he also supported the com- 
promise measures, the two essenrial features of which 
were, that the white people of the Territories should 
be permitted to decide for themselves whether they 
would enslave the colored people or not, and that 
the free States of the North should return to the 
South persons who attempted to escape from slavery. 

Mr. Johnson was never ashamed ofhis lowly origin: 
on the contrary, he often took pride in avowing that 
he owed his distinction to his own exertions. "Sir," 
said he on the floor of the Senate, " I do not forget 
that I am a mechanic ; neither do I forget that Adam 
was a tailor and sewed fig-leaves, and that our Sav- 
ior was the son of a carpenter." 

In the Charleston- Baltimore convention of i860, he 
was the choice of the Tennessee Democrats for the 
Presidency. In 1861, when the purpose of the South- 
irn Democracy became apparent, he took a decided 
Stand in favor of the Union, and held that " slavery 
must be held subordinate to the Union at whatever 
cost." He returned to Tennessee, and repeatedly 
imperiled his own life to protect the Unionists of 
Tennesee. Tennessee having seceded from the 
Union, President Lincoln, on March 4th, 1862, ap- 
pointed him Military Governor of the State, and he 
established the most stringent military rule. His 
numerous proclamations attracted wide attention. In 

1864, he was elected Vice-President of the United 
States, and uixin the death of Mr. Lincoln, April 15, 

1865, became President. In a speech two days later 
he said, " The American people must be taught, if 
they do not already feel, that treason is a crime and 
must be punished ; that the Government will not 
always bear with its enemies ; that it is strong not 
only to protect, but to punish. * * The people 
must understand that it (treason) is the blackest of 
crimes, and will surely be punished." Yet his whole 
administration, the history of which is so well known, 
was in utter inconsistency with, and the most violent 

opposition to, the principles laid down in that speech. 

In his loose policy of reconstruction and general 
amnesty, he was opposed by Congress ; and he char- 
acterized Congress as a new rebellion, and lawlessly 
defied it, in everything possible, to the utmost. In 
the beginning of 1868, on account of "high crimes 
and misdemeanors," the principal of which was the 
removal of Secretary Stanton, in violation of the Ten- 
ure of Office Act, articles of impeachment were pre- 
ferred against him, and the trial began March 23. 

It was very tedious, continuing for nearly three 
months. A test article of the impeachment was at 
length submitted to the court for its action. It was 
certain that as the court voted upon that article so 
would it vote upon all. Thirty-four voices pronounced 
the President guilty. As a two-thirds vote was neces- 
sary to his condemnation, he was pronounced ac- 
quitted, notwithstanding the great majority against 
him. The change of one vote from the not guilty 
side would tiave sustained the impeachment.' 

The President, for the remainder of his term, was 
but little regarded. He continued, though impotently, 
his conflict with Congress. His own party did not 
think it expedient to renominate him for the Presi- 
dency. The Nation rallied, with enthusiasm unpar- 
alleled since the days of Washington, around the name 
of Gen. Grant. Andrew Johnson was forgotten. 
The ballet of the assassin introduced him to the 
President's chair. Notwithstanding this, never was 
there presented to a man a better opportunity to im- 
mortalize his name, and to win the graritude of a 
nation. He failed utterly. He retired to his home 
in Greenville, Tenn., taking no very active part in 
politics until 1875. On Jan. 26, after an exciting 
struggle, he was chosen by the Legislature of Ten- 
nessee, United States Senator in the forty-fourth Con- 
gress, and took his seat in that body, at the special 
session convened by President Grant, on the 5th of 
March. On the 27th of July, 1875, the ex-President 
made a visit to his daughter's home, near Carter 
Station, Tenn. When he started on his journey, he was 
apparently in his usual vigorous health, but on reach- 
ing the residence of his child the following day, was 
stricken with paralysis, rendering him unconscious. 
He rallied occasionally, but finally passed away at 
2 A.M., July 31, aged sixty-seven years. His fun- 
eral was attended at Geenville, on the 3d of August, 
with every demonstration of respect. 





4i eighteenth President of the 
t' United States, was born on 
y the 2gth of April, 1822, of 
5 Chnstian parents, in a humble 
^^ctS^r&f^'' home, at Point Pleasant, on the 

banks of the Ohio. Shortly after 
his father moved to George- 
town, Brown Co., O. In this re- 
mote frontier hamlet, Ulysses 
received a common-school edu- 
cation. At the age of seven- 
teen, in the year 1839, he entered 
the Military Academy at West 
Point. Here he was regarded as a 
solid, sensible young man of fair abilities, and of 
sturdy, honest character. He took respectable rank 
as a scholar. In June, 1843, he graduated, about the 
middle in his class, and was sent as lieutenant of in- 
fantry to one of the distant military posts in the Mis- 
souri Territory. Two years he past in these dreary 
solitudes, watching the vagabond and exasperating 

The war with Mexico came, l-ieut. Grant was 
sent with his regiment to Corpus Christi. His first 
battle was at Palo Alto. There was no chance here 
for the e)*hibition of either skill or heroism, nor at 
Resaca de la Palma, his second battle. At the battle 
of Monterey, his third engagement, it is said that 
he performed a signal service of daring and skillful 
horsemanship. His brigade had exhausted its am- 
munition. A messenger must be sent for more, along 
a route exposed to the bullets of the foe. Lieut. 
Grant, adopting an expedient learned of the Indians, 
grasped the mane of his horse, and hanging upon one 
side of the aniiTvil, ran the gauntlet in entire safety. 

From Monterey he was sent, with the fourth infantry, 
to aid Gen. Scott, at the siege of Vera Cruz. In 
preparation for the march to the city of Mexico, he 
was appointed quartermaster of his regiment. At the 
battle of Molino del Rey, he was promoted to a 
first lieutenancy, and was brevetted captain at Cha- 

At the close of the Mexican War, Capt. Grant re- 
turned with his regiment to New York, and was again 
sent to one of the military posts on the frontier. The 
discovery of gold in California causing an immense 
tide of emigration to flow to the Pacific shores, Capt. 
Grant was sent with a battalion to Fort Dallas, in 
Oregon, for the protection of the interests of the im- 
migrants. Life was wearisome in those wilds. Capt. 
Grant resigned his commission and returned to the 
States; and having married, entered upon the cultiva- 
tion of a small farm near St. Louis, Mo. He had but 
little skill as a farmer. Finding his toil not re- 
munerative, he turned to mercantile life, entering into 
the leather business, with a younger brother, at Ga- 
lena, 111. This was in the year i860. As the tidings 
of the rebels firing on Fort Sumpter reached the ears 
of Capt. Grant in his counting-room, he said, — 
" Uncle Sam has educated me for the army ; though 
I have served him through one war, I do not feel that 
I have yet repaid the debt. I am still ready to discharge 
my obligations. I shall therefore buckle on my sword 
and see Uncle Sam through this war too." 

He went into the streets, raised a company of vol- 
unteers, and led them as their captain to Springfield, 
the capital of the State, where their services were 
offered to Gov. Yates. The Governor, impressed by 
the zeal and straightforward executive ability of Capt. 
Grant, gave him a desk in his office, to assist in the 
volunteer organization that was being formed in the 
State in behalf of the Government. On the 15th of , 



June, 1 86 1, Capt. Grant received a commission as 
Colonel of the Twenty-first Regiment of Illinois Vol- 
unteers. His merits as a West Point graduate, who 
had served for 15 years in the regular army, were such 
that he was soon promoted to the rank of Brigadier- 
General and was placed in command at Cairo. The 
rebels raised their banner at Paducah, near the mouth 
of the Tennessee River. Scarcely had its folds ap- 
peared in the breeze ere Gen. Grant was there. The 
rebels fled. Their banner fell, and the star and 
stripes were unfurled in its stead. 

He entered the service with great determination 
and immediately began active duty. This was the be- 
ginning, and until the surrender of Lee at Richmond 
he was ever pushing the enemy with great vigor and 
effectiveness. At Belmont, a few days later, he sur- 
prised and routed the rebels, then at Fort Henry 
won another victory. Then came the brilliant fight 
at Fort Donelson. The nation was electrified by the 
victory, and the brave leader of the boys in blue was 
immediately made a M.ijor-General, and the military 
district of Tennessee was assigned to him. 

Like all great captains, Gen. Grant knew well how 
to secure the results of victory. He immediately 
pushed on to the enemies' lines. Then came the 
terrible battles of Pittsburg Landing, Corinth, and the 
siege of Vicksburg, where Gen. Pemberton made an 
unconditional surrender of the city with over thirty 
thousand men and one-hundred and seventy-two can- 
non. The fall of Vicksburg was by far the most 
severe blow which the rebels had thus far encountered, 
and opened up the Mississippi from Cairo to the Gulf. 

Gen. Grant was next ordered to co-operate with 
Gen. Banks in a movement upon Texas, and pro- 
ceeded to New Orleans, where he was thrown from 
his horse, and received severe injuries, from which he 
was laid up for months. He then rushed to the aid 
of Gens. Rosecrans and Tliomas at Chattanooga, and 
by a wonderful series of strategic and technical meas- 
ures put tlie Union Army in fighting condition. Then 
followed the bloody battles at Chattanooga, Lookout 
Mountain and Missionary Ridge, in which the rebels 
were routed with great loss. This won for him un- 
bounded praise in the North. On the 4th of Febru- 
ary, 1864, Congress revived the grade of lieutenant- 
general, and the rank was conferred on Gen. Grant. 
He repaired to Washington to receive his credentials 
r.nd enter upon the duties of his new office. 

Gen. Grant decided as soon as he took charge of 
the army to concentrate the widely-dispersed National 
troops for an attack upon Richmond, the nominal 
capital of the Rebellion, and endeavor there to de- 
stroy the rebel armies which would be promptly as- 
sembled from all quarters for its defence. The whole 
continent seemed to tremble under the tramp of these 
majestic armies, rushing to the decisive battle field. 
Steamers were crowded with troops. Railway trains 
were burdened with closely packed thousands. His 
plans were comprehensive and involved a series of 
campaigns, which were executed with remarkable en- 
ergy and ability, and were consummated at the sur- 
render of Lee, April 9, 1865. 

The war was ended. The Union was saved. The 
almost unanimous voice of the Nation declared Gen. 
Grant to be the most prominent instrument in its sal- 
vation. The eminent services he had thus rendered 
the country brought him conspicuously forward as the 
Republican candidate for the Presidential chair. 

At the Republican Convention held at Chicago, 
May 21, 1868, he was unanimously nominated for the 
Presidency, and at the autumn election received a 
majority of the popular vote, and 214 out of 294 
electoral votes. 

The National Convention of the Republican party 
which met at Philadelphia on the 5th of June, 1872, 
placed Gen. Grant in nomination for a second term 
by a unanimous vote. The selection was emphati- 
cally indorsed by the people five months later, 292 
electoral votes being cast for him. 

Soon after the close of his second term. Gen. Grant 
started upon his famous trip around the world. He 
visited almost every country of the civilized world, 
and was everywhere received with such ovations 
and demonstrations of respect and honor, private 
as well as public and official, as were never before 
bestowed ujwn any citizen of the United States. 

He was the most prominent candidate before the 
Republican National Convention in 1880 for a re- 
nomination for President. He went to New York and 
embarked in the brokerage business under the firm 
nameof Grant & Ward. The latter proved a villain, 
wrecked Grant's fortune, and for larceny was sent to 
the penitentiary. Tiie General was attacked with 
cancer in the throat, but suffered in his stoic-like 
manner, never complaining. He was re-instated as 
General of the Army and retired by Congress. The 
cancer soon finished its deadly work, and July 23, 
1885, the nation went in mourning over the death of 
the illustrious General. 







f "^1 J V'-t^ ' V ''^"^ nineteenth President of 
^ 7| l^^v ^ ij ''''^ United States, was born in 
'^isX'^ JL:grf Delaware, O., Oct. 4, 1822, al- 
ji most three months after the 
■^ deith of his father, Rutherford 
Hx)es His ancestry on both 
the paternal and maternal sides, 
was of the most honorable char- 
acter. It can be traced, it is said, 
as far back as 1280, when Hayes and 
Rutherford were two Scottish chief- 
tains, fighting side by side with 
Baliol, William Wallace and Robert 
Bruce. Both families belonged to the 
nobility, owned extensive estates, 
and had a large following. Misfor- 
tune overtaking the family, George Hayes left Scot- 
land in 1680, and settled in Windsor, Conn. His son 
George was born in Windsor, and remained there 
during his life. Daniel Hayes, son of the latter, mar- 
ried Sarah Lee, and lived from the time of his mar- 
riage until his death in Simsbury, Conn. Ezekiel, 
son of Daniel, was born in 1724, and Was a manufac- 
turer of scythes at Bradford, Conn. Rutherford Hayes, 
son of Ezekiel and grandfather of President Hayes, was 
born in New Haven, in August, 1756. He was a farmer, 
blacksmith and tavern-keeper. He emigrated to 
Vermont at an unknown date, settling in Brattleboro, 
where he established a hotel. Here his son Ruth- 
erford Hayes the father of President Hayes, was 

born. He was married, in September, 1813, to Sophia 
Birchard, of Wilmington, Vt., whose ancestors emi- 
grated thither from Connecticut, they having been 
among the wealthiest and best famlies of Norwich. 
Her ancestry on the male side are traced back to 
1635, to John Birchard, one of the principal founders 
of Norwich. Both of her grandfathers were soldiers 
in the Revolutionary War. 

The father of President Hayes was an industrious, 
frugal and opened-hearted man. He was of a me- 
chanical turn, and could mend a plow, knit a stock- 
ing, or do almost anything else that he choose to 
undertake. He was a member of the Church, active 
in all the benevolent enterprises of the town, and con- 
ducted his business on Christian principles. After 
the close of the war of 181 2, for reasons inexplicable 
to his neighbors, he resolved to emigrate to Ohio. 

The journey from Vermont to Ohio in that day, 
when there were no canals, steamers, nor railways, 
was a very serious affair. A tour of inspection was 
first made, occupying four months. Mr. Hayes deter- 
mined to move to Delaware, where the family arrived 
in 1817. He died July 22, 1822, a victim of malarial 
fever, less than three months before the birth of the 
son, of whom we now write. Mrs. Hayes, in her sore be- 
reavement, found the support she so much needed in 
her brother Sardis, who had been a member of the 
household from the day of its departure from V^er^ 
mont, and in an orphan girl whom she had adopted 
some time before as an act of charity. 

Mrs. Hayes at this period was very weak, and the 




subject of this sketch was so feeble at birth that he 
was not expected to live beyond a month or two at 
most. As the months went by he grew weaker and 
weaker, so that the neighbors were in the habit of in- 
quiring from time to time " if Mrs. Hayes' baby died 
last night." On one occasion a neighbor, who was on 
familiar terms with the family, after alluding to the 
boy's big head, and the mother's assiduous care of 
him, said in a bantering way, " That's right ! Stick to 
him. You have got him along so far, and I shouldn't 
wonder if he would really come to something yet." 

" You need not laugh," said Mrs. Hayes. "You 
wait and see. You can't tell but I shall make him 
President of the United States yet." The boy lived, 
in spite of the universal predictions of his speedy 
death; and when, in 1825, his older brother was 
drowned, he became, if possible, still dearer to his 

The boy was seven years old before lie went to 
school. His education, however, was not neglected. 
He probably learned as much from his mother and 
sister as he would have done at school. His sports 
were almost wholly within doors, his playmates being 
his sister and her associates. These circumstances 
tended, no doubt, to foster that gentleness of dispo- 
sition, and that delicate consideration for the feelings 
of others, which are marked traits of his character. 

His uncle Sardis Birchard took the deepest interest 
in his education ; and as the boy's health had im- 
proved, and he was making good progress in his 
studies, he proposed to send him to college. His pre- 
paration commenced with a tutor at home; but he 
was afterwards sent for one year to a professor in the 
Wesleyan University, in Middletown, Conn. He en- 
tered Kenyon College in 1838, at the age of sixteen, 
and was graduated at the head of his class in 1842. 

Immediately after his graduation he began the 
study of law in the office of Thomas Sparrow, Esq., 
in Columbus. Finding his opportunities for study in 
Columbus somewhat limited, he determined to enter 
the Law School at Cambridge, Mass., where he re- 
mained two years. 

In 1 845 , after graduatmg at the Law School, he was 
admitted to the bar at Marietta, Ohio, and shortly 
afterward went into practice as an attorney-at-law 
with Ralph P. Buckland, of Fremont. Here he re- 
mained three years, acquiring but a limited practice, 
and apparently unambitious of distinction in his pro- 

In 1849 he moved to Cincmnati, where his ambi- 
tion found a new stimulus. For several years, how- 
ever, his progress was slow. Two events, occurring at 
this period, had a powerful influence upon his subse- 
quent life. One of these was his marrage with Miss 
Lucy Ware Webb, daughter of Dr. James Webb, of 
Chilicothe; the other was his introduction to the Cin- 
cinnati Literary Club, a body embracing among its 
members suck men asi^hief Justice Salmon P.Chase, 

Gen. John Pope, Gov. Edward F. Noyes, and many 
others hardly less distinguished in after life. The 
marriage was a fortunate one in every respect, as 
everybody knows. Not one of all the wives of our 
Presidents was more universally admired, reverenced 
and beloved than was Mrs. Hayes, and no one did 
more than she to reflect honor upon American woman- 
hood. The Literary Cluu brought Mr. Hayes iuto 
constant association with young men of high char- 
acter and noble aims, and lured him to display the 
qualities so long hidden by his bashfulness and 

In 1856 he was nominated to the office of Judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas; but he declined to ac- 
cept the nomination. Two years later, the office of 
city solicitor becoming vacant, the City Council 
elected him for the unexpired term. 

In 1 86 1, when the Rebellion broke out, he was at 
the zenith of his professional life. His rank at the 
bar was among the the first. But the news of the 
attack on Fort Sumpter found him eager to take up 
arms for the defense of his country. 

His military record was bright and illustrious. In 
October, 186 1, he was made Lieutenant-Colonel, and 
in August, 1862, promoted Colonel of the 79th Ohio 
regiment, but he refused to leave his old comrades 
and go among strangers. Subsequently, however, he 
was made Colonel of his old regiment. At the battle 
of South Mountain he received a wound, and while 
faint and bleeding displayed courage and fortitude 
that won admiration from all. 

Col. Hayes was detached from his regiment, after 
his recovery, to act as Brigadier-General, and placed 
in command of the celebrated Kanawha division, 
and for gallant and meritorious services in the battles 
of Winchester, Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek, he was 
promoted Brigadier-General. He was also brevetted 
Major-General, "forgallantand distinguished services 
during the campaigns of 1864, in West Virginia." In 
the course of his arduous services, four horses were 
shot from under him, and he was wounded four times. 

In 1864, Gen. Hayes was elected to Congress, from 
the Second Ohio District, which had long been Dem- 
ocratic. He was not present during the campaign, 
and after his election was importuned to resign his 
commission in the army; but he finally declared, " 1 
shall never come to Washington until I can come by 
the way of Richmond." He was re-elected in 1866. 

In 1867, Gen Hayes was elected Governor of Ohio, 
over Hon. Allen G. Thurman, a popular Democrat. 
In 1869 was re-elected over George H. Pendleton. 
He was elected Governor for the third term in 1875. 

In 1876 he was the standard bearer of the Repub- 
lican Party in the Presidential contest, and after a 
hard long contest was chosen President, and was in 
augurated Monday, March 5, 1875. He served his 
full term, not, however, with satisfaction to his party, 
but his admiiristration was an average on? 


,. "^vf^^- 

) '^\ 



gether. Nor was Gen. (rarfield ever ashamed of his 
origin, and he never forgot the friends of his strug- 
gling childhood, youth and manhood, neither did they 
ever forget him. When in the highest seats of honor, 
the humblest fiiend of his boyhood was as kindly 
greeted as ever. The poorest laborer was sureof the 
sympathy of one who had known all the bitterness 
of want and the sweetness of bread earned by the 
sweat of the brow. He was ever the simple, plain, 
modest gentleman. 

The highest ambition of young Garfield until he 
was about sixteen years old was to be a captain of 
a vessel on Lake Erie. He was anxious to go aboard 
a vessel, which his mother strongly opposed. She 
finally consented to his going to Cleveland, with the 
understanding, however, that he should try to obtain 
some other kind of employment. He walked all the 
way to Cleveland. This was his first visit to the city. 
After making many applications for work, and trying 
to get aboard a lake vessel, and not meeting with 
success,* he engaged as a driver for his cousin, Amos 
Letcher, on the Ohio & Pennsylvania Canal. He re- 
mained at this work but a short time when he went 
home, and attended the seminary at Chester for 
about three years, when he entered Hiram and the 
Eclectic Listitute, teaching a few terms of school in 
tlie meantime, and doing other work. This school 
was started by the Disciples of Christ in 1850, of 
which church he was then a member. He became 
janitor and bell-ringer in order to help pay his way. 
He then became both teacher and pupil. He soon 
" exhausted Hiram " and needed more ; hence, in the 
fall of 1854, he entered Williams College, from which 
he graduated in 1856, taking one of the liighest hon- 
ors of his class. He afterwards returned to Hiram 
College as its President. As above stated, he early 
united with the Christian or Diciples Church at 
Hiram, and was ever after a devoted, zealous mem- 
ber, often preaching in its pulpit and places where 
lie happened to be. Dr. Noah Porter, President of 
Yale College, says of him in reference to his religion : 

Vi-Il-S A. GARi-IELD, twen- 
ti th President of the United 
M lies, was born Nov. 19, 
iSji, in the woods of Orange, 
Cuyahoga Co., O His par- 
ents were Abram and Eliza 
lUou) Garfield, both of New 
nglmd ancestry and from fami- 
7)1 lies well known in the early his- 
p^ tory of that section of our coun- 
tiy,bulhad moved to the Western 
Reserve, in Ohio, early in its settle- 

The house in which James A. was 
born was not unlike the houses of 
poor Ohio farmers of that day. It 
was about 20 x 30 feet, built of logs, with the spaces be- 
tween the logs filled with clay. His father was a 
hard working farmer, and he soon had his fields 
cleared, an orchard planted, and a log barn built. 
The household comprised the father and mother and 
their four children — Mehetabel, Thomas, Mary and 
James. In May, 1823, the father, from a cold con- 
tracted in helping to put out a forest fire, died. At 
this time James was about eighteen months old, and 
Thomas about ten years old. No one, perhaps, can 
tell how much James was indebted to his biother's 
toil and self-sacrifice during the twenty years suc- 
ceeding his father's death, but undoubtedly very 
much. He now lives in Michigan, and the two sis- 
ters live in Solon, O., near their birthplace. 

The early educational advantages young Garfield 
enjoyed were very limited, yet he made the most of 
them. He labored at farm work for others, did car- 
penter work, chopped wood, or did anything that 
would bring in a few dollars to aid his widowed 
mother in he' struggles to keep the little family to- 





"President Garfield was more than a man of 
strong moral and religious convictions. His whole 
history, from boyhood to the last, shows that duty to 
man and to God, and devotion to Christ and life and 
faith and spiritual commission were controlling springs 
of his being, and to a more than usual degree. In 
my judgment there is no more interesting feature of 
his character than his loyal allegiance to the body of 
Christians in which he was trained, and the fervent 
sympathy which he ever showed in their Christian 
communion. Not many of the few 'wise and mighty 
and noble who are called' show a similar loyalty to 
the less stately and cultured Christian communions 
in which they have been reared. Too often it is true 
that as they step upward in social and political sig- 
nificance they step upward from one degree to 
another in some of the many types of fashionable 
Christianity. President Garfield adhered to the 
church of his mother, the church in which he was 
trained, and in which he served as a pillar and an 
evangelist, and yet with the largest and most unsec- 
tarian charity for all 'who love our Lord in sincerity.'" 

Mr. Garfield was united in marriage with Miss 
Lucretia Rudolph, Nov. ii, 1858, who proved herself 
worthy as the wife of one whom all the world loved and 
mourned. To them were born seven children, five of 
whom are still living, four boys and one girl. 

Mr. Garfield made his first political speeches in 1856, 
in Hiram and the neighboring villages, and three 
years later he began to speak at county mass-meet- 
ings, and became the favorite speaker wherever he 
was. During this year he was elected to the Ohio 
Senate. He also began to study law at Cleveland, 
and in 1861 was admitted to the bar. The great 
Rebellion broke out in the early part of this year, 
and Mr. Garfield at once resolved to fight as he had 
talked, and enlisted to defend the old flag. He re- 
ceived his commission as Lieut. -Colonel of tl^e Forty- 
second Regiment of Ohio Volunteer Lifantry, Aug. 
14,1861.- He was immediately put into active ser- 
vice, and before he had ever seen a gun fired in action, 
was placed in command of four regiments of infantry 
and eight companies of cavalry, charged with the 
work of driving out of his native State the officer 
(Humphrey Marshall) reputed to be the ablest of 
those, not educated to war whom Kentucky had given 
to the Rebellion. This work was bravely and speed- 
ily accomplished, although against great odds. Pres- 
ident Lincoln, on his success connnissioned him 
Brigadier-General, Jan. 10, 1862; and as "he had 
been the youngest man in the Ohio Senate two years 
before, so now he was the youngest General in the 
army." He was with Gen. Buell's army at Shiloh, 
in its operations around Corinth and its march through 
Alabama. He was then detailed as a member of the 
General Coutt-Martial for the trial of Gen. Fitz-John 
Porter. He was then ordered to report to Gen. Rose- 
crans, and was assigned to the " Chief of Staff." 

The military history of Gen. Garfield closed with 

his brilliant services at Chickamauga, where he won 
the stars of the Major-General. 

Without an effort on his part Gen. Garfield was 
elected to Congress in the fall of 1862 from the 
Nineteenth District of Ohio. This section of Ohio 
had been represented in Congress for si.xty years 
mainly by two men — Elisha Whittlesey and Joshua 
R. Giddings. It was not without a struggle that he 
resigned his place in the army. At the time he en- 
tered Congress he was the youngest member in that 
body. There he remained by successive re- 
elections until he was elected President in 1880. 
Of his labors in Congress Senator Hoar says : " Since 
the year 1864 you cannot think of a question which 
has been debated in Congress, or discussed before a 
tribunel of the American people, in regard to which 
you will not find, if you wish instruction, the argu- 
ment on one side stated, in almost every instance 
better than Ijy anybody else, in some speech made in 
the House of Representatives or on the hustings by 
Mr. Garfield." 

Upon Jan. 14, 1880, Gen. Garfield was elected to 
the U. S. Sen-ate, and on the eighth of June, of liie 
same year, was nominated as the candidate of his 
party for President at the great Chicago Convention. 
He was elected in the following November, and on 
March 4, 1881, was inaugurated. Probably no ad- 
ministration ever opened its existence under brighter 
auspices than that of President Garfield, and every 
day it grew in favor with the people, and by the first 
of July he had completed all the initiatory and pre- 
liminary work of his administration and was prepar- 
ing to leave the city to meet his friends at Williams 
College. While on his way and at the depot, in com- 
pany with Secretary Blaine, a man stepped behind 
liim, drew a revolver, and fired directly at his back. 
Tlie President tottered and fell, and as he did so the 
assassin fired a second shot, the bullet cutting the 
left coat sleeve of his victim, but inflicting no farther 
injury. It has been very truthfully said that this was 
" the shot that was heard round the world " Never 
before in the history of the Nation had anything oc- 
curred which so nearly froze the blood of the people 
for the moment, as this awful deed. He was smit- 
ten on the brightest, gladdest day of all his life, and 
was at the summit of his power and hope. For eighty 
days, all during the hot months of July and August, 
he lingered and suffered. He, however, remained 
master of himself till the last, and by his magnificent 
bearing was teaching the country and the vi'orld the 
noblest of human lessons — how to live grandly in the 
very clutch of death. Great in life, he was surpass- 
ingly great in death. He passed serenely away Sept. 
19, 1883, at EUieron, N. J., on the very bank of the 
ocean, where he had been taken shortly previous. The 
world wept at his death, as it never had done on the 
death of any other man who had ever lived upon it. 
The murderer was duly tried, found guilty and exe 
cuted, in one year after he committed the foul deed. 




<>^r'^ .^ 








twenty-first Presi-LnL of the 

■ United States was born in 

Franklin Cour ty, Vermont, on 

tiiefifthofOdober, 1S30, andis 

■' tiie oldest of a family of two 

sons and five daughters. His 

father was the Rev. Dr. William 

j Arthur, a Baptist cJ'.rgyman, who 

emigrated to tb'.s country fro:n 

1^ the county Ant;im, Ireland, in 

his 18th year, and died in 1875, in 

Newtonville, neai Albany, after a 

long and successfal ministry. 

Young Arthur was educated at 
Union College, S( henectady, where 
he excelled in all his studies. Af- 
ter his graduation he taught school 
t] in Vermont for two years, and at 
, ,3 the expiration of that time came to 
New York, with $500 in his jwcket, 
and entered the office of ex-Judge 
E. D. Culver as student. After 
I being admitted to the bar he formed 
a partnership with his intimate friend and room-mate, 
Henry D. Gardiner, with the intention of practicing 
in the West, and for three months they roamed about 
in the Western States in search of an eligible site, 
but in the end returned to New York, where they 
hung out their shingle, and entered upon a success- 
ful career almost from the start. General Arthur 
soon afterward raarred the daughter of Lieutenant 

Herndon, of the United States Navy, who was lest at 
sea. Congress voted a gold medal to his widow in 
recognition of the bravery he displayed on that occa- 
sion. Mrs. Arthur died shortly before Mr. Arthur's 
nomination to the Vice Presidency, leaving two 

Gen. Arthur obtained considerable legal celebrity 
in his first great case, the famous Lemmon suit, 
brought to recover possession of eight slaves who had 
been declared free by Judge Paine, of the Superior 
Court of New York City. It was in 1852 that Joni 
athan L,emmon, of Virginia, went to New York with 
his slaves, intending to ship them to Texas, when 
they were discovered and freed. The Judge decided 
that they could not be held by the owner under the 
Fugitive Slave Law. A howl of rage went up from 
the South, and the Virginia Legislature authorized the 
Attorney General of that State to assist in an appeal. 
Wm. M. Evarts and Chester A. Arthur were employed 
to represent the People, and they won their case, 
which then went to the Supreme Court of the United 
States. Charles O'Conor here espoused the cause 
of the slave-holders, but he too was beaten by Messrs. 
Evarts and Arthur, and a long step was taken toward 
the emancipation of the black race. 

Another great service was rendered by General 
Arthur in the same cause in 1856. Lizzie Jennings, 
a respectable colored woman, was put off a Fourth 
Avenue car with violence after she had paid her fare. 
General Arthur sued on her behalf, and secured a 
verdict of $500 damages. The next day the compa- 
ny issued an order to admit colored persons to ride 
on their cars, and the other car companies quickly 




followed their example. Before that the Sixth Ave- 
nue Company ran a few special cars for colored per- 
sons and the other lines refused to let them ride at all. 

General Arthur was a delegate to the Convention 
at Saratoga that founded the Republican party. 
Previous to the war he was Judge-Advocate of the 
Second Brigade of the State of New York, and Gov- 
ernor Morgan, of that State, appointed him Engineer- 
in-Chief of his staff. In 1861, he was made Inspec- 
tor General, and soon afterward became Quartermas- 
ter-General. In each of these offices he rendered 
great service to the Government during the war. At 
the end of Governor Morgan's term he resumed the 
practice of the law, forming a partnership with Mr. 
Ransom, and then Mr. Phelps, the District Attorney 
of New York, was added to the firm. The legal prac- 
tice of this well-known firm was very large and lucra- 
tive, each of the gentlemen composing it were able 
lawyers, and possessed a splendid local reputation, if 
not indeed one of national extent. 

He always took a leading part in State and city 
politics. He was appointed Collector of the Port of 
New York by President Grant, Nov. 21 1872, to suc- 
ceed Thomas Murphy, and held the office until July, 
20, 1878, when he was succeeded by Collector Merritt. 

Mr. Arthur was nominated on the Presidential 
ticket, with Gen. James A. Garfield, at the famous 
National Republican Convention held at Chicago in 
June, t88o. This was perhaps the greatest political 
convention that ever assembled on thecontinent. It 
was composed of the leading politicians of the Re- 
publican party, all able men, and each stood firm and 
fought vigorously and with signal tenacity for their 
respective candidates that were before the conven- 
tion for the nomination. Finally Gen. Garfield re- 
ceived the nomination for President and Gen. Arthur 
for Vice-President. The campaign which followed 
was one of the most animated known in the history of 
our country. Gen. Hancock, the standard-bearer of 
the Democratic party, was a popular man, and his 
party made a valiant fight for his election. 

Finally the election came and the country's choice 
was Garfield and Arthur. They were inaugurated 
March 4, 1881, as President and Vice-President. 
A few months only had passed ere the newly chosen 
President was the victim of the assassin's bullet. Then 
came terrible weeks of suffering, — those moments of 
anxious suspense, when the hearts of all civilized na- 

tions were throbbing in unison, longing for the re- 
covery of the noble, the good President. The remark- 
able patience that he manifested during those hours 
and weeks, and even months, of the most terrible suf- 
fering man has often been called upon to endure, was 
seemingly more than human. It was certainly God- 
like. During all this period of deepest anxiety Mr. 
Arthur's every move was watched, and be it said to his 
credit that his every action displayed only an earnest 
desire that the suffering Garfield might recover, to 
serve the remainder of the term he had so auspi- 
ciously begun. Not a selfish feeling was manifested 
in deed or look of this man, even though the most 
honored )X)sition in the world was at any moment 
likely to fall to him. 

At last God in his mercy relieved President Gar- 
field from further suffering, and the world, as never 
before in its history over the death of any other 
man, wept at his bier. Then it became the duty of 
the Vice President to assume the responsibilities of 
the high office,, and he took the oath in New York, 
Sept. 20, i88r. The position was an embarrassing 
one to him, made doubly so from the facts that all 
eyes were on him, anxious to know what he would do, 
what policy he would pursue, and who he would se- 
lect as advisers. The duties of the office had been 
greatly neglected during the President's long illness, 
and many important measures were to be immediately 
decided by him ; and still farther to embarrass him he 
did not fail to realize under what circumstances he 
became President, and knew the feelings of many on 
this point. Under these trying circumstances President 
Arthur took the reins of the Government in his own 
hands; and, as embarrassing as were the condition of 
affairs, he happily surprised the nation, acting so 
wisely that but few criticised his administration. 
He served the nation well and faithfully, until the 
close of his administration, March 4, 1885, and was 
a popular candidate before his party for a second 
term. His name was ably presented before the con- 
vention at Chicago, and was received with great 
favor, and doubtless but for the personal popularity 
of one of the opposing candidates, he would have 
been selected as the standard-bearer of his party 
for another campaign. He retired to private life car- 
rying with him the best wishes of the American peo- 
ple, whom he had served in a manner satisfactory 
to them and with credit to himself. 


/'W-^^^^ C/<. 





1 S. (filwBer %\t^t\mA> I 


LAND, the twenty- second Pres- 
ident of the United States, was 
born in 1837, in the obscure 
town of Caldwell, Essex Co., 
N. J., and in a little two-and-a- 
h df story white house which is still 
standing, characteristically to mark 
the humble birth-place of one of 
Ameiica's great men in striking con- 
trast with the Old World, where all 
men high in office must be high in 
oritjui and born in the cradle of 
wealth. When the subject of this 
sketch was three years of age, his 
father, who was a Presbyterian min- 
ister, with a large family and a small salary, moved, 
by way of the Hudson River and Erie Canal, to 
Fayetteville, in search of an increased income and a 
larger field of work. Fayetteville was then the most 
straggling of country villages, about five miles from 
Pompey Hill, where Governor Seymour was born. 

At the last mentioned place young Grover com- 
menced going to school in the " good, old-fashioned 
way," and presumably distinguished himself after the 
manner of all village boys, in doing the things he 
ought not to do. Such is the distinguishing trait of 
all geniuses and independent thinkers. When he 
arrived at the age of 14 years, he had outgrown the 
capacity of the village school and expressed a most 

emphatic desire to be sent to an academy. To this 
his father decidedly objected. Academies in those 
days cost money; besides, his father wanted him to 
become self-supporting by the quickest possible 
means, and this at that time in Fayetteville seemed 
to be a position in a country store, where his father 
and the large family on his hands had considerable 
influence. Grover was to be paid $50 for his services 
the first year, and if he proved trustworthy he was to 
receive $100 the second year. Here the lad com- 
menced his career as salesman, and in two years he 
had earned so good a reputation for trustworthiness 
that his employers desired to retain him for an in- 
definite length of time. Otherwise he did not ex- 
hibit as yet any particular " flashes of genius " or 
eccentricities of talent. He was simply a good boy. 
But instead of remaining with this firm in Fayette- 
ville, he went with the family in their removal to 
Clinton, where he had an opportunity of attending a 
high school. Here he industriously pursued his 
studies until the family removed with him to a point 
on Black River known as the " Holland Patent," a 
village of 500 or 600 people, 15 miles north of Utica, 
N. Y. At this place his father died, after preaching 
but three Sundays. This event broke up the family, 
and Grover set out for New York City to accept, at a 
small salary, the position of " under-teacher " in an 
asylum for the blind. He taught faithfully for two 
years, and although he obtained a good reputation in 
this capacity, he concluded that teaching was not his 




calling for life, and, reversing the traditional order, 
he left the city to seek his fortune, instead of going 
to a city. He first thought of Cleveland, Ohio, as 
there was some charm in that name for him; but 
before proceeding to that place he went to Buffalo to 
isk the advice of his uncle, Lewis F. Allan, a noted 
stock-breeder of that place. Tlie latter did not 
speak enthusiastically. " What is it you want to do, 
my boy.'" he asked. "Well, sir, I want to study 
law," was the reply. "Good gracious!" remarked 
the old gentleman ; " do you, indeed ? What ever put 
that into your head? How much money have you 
got?" "Well, sir, to tell the truth, I haven't got 

After a long consultation, his uncle offered him a 
place temporarily as assistant herd-keeper, at $50 a 
year, wiiile he could "look around." One day soon 
afterward he boldly walked into the office of Rogers, 
Bowen & Rogers, of Buffalo, and told them what he 
wanted. A number of young men were already en- 
gaged in the office, but Grover's persistency won, and 
he was finally permitted to come as an office boy and 
have the use of the law library, for the nominal sum 
of $3 or %\ a week. Out of this he had to pay for 
his board and washing. The walk to and from his 
uncle's was a long and rugged one; and, although 
the first winter was a memorably severe one, his 
shoes were out of repair and his overcoat — he had 
none — yet he was nevertheless prompt and regular. 
On the first day of his service here, his senior em- 
ployer threw down a copy of Blackstone before him 
with a bang that made the dust fly, saying "That's 
where they all begin." A titter ran around the little 
circle of clerks and students, as they thought that 
was enough to scare young Grover out of his plans ; 
but in due time he mastered that cumbersome volume. 
Then, as ever afterward, however, Mr. Cleveland 
exhibited a talent for cxecutiveness rather than for 
chasing principles through all their metaphysical 
possibilities. " Let us quit talking and go and do 
it," was practically his motto. 

The first public office to which Mr. Cleveland was 
elected was that of Sheriif of Erie Co., N. Y., in 
which Buffalo is situated; and in such capacity it fell 
to his duty to inflict capital punishment upon two 
criminals. In 1881 he was elected Mayor of the 
City of Buffalo, on the Democratic ticket, with es- 
pedal reference to the bringing about certain reforros 

in the administration of the municipal affairs of that 
city. In this office, as well as that of Sheriff, his 
performance of duty has generally been considered 
fair, with possibly a few exceptions which were fer- 
reted out and magnified during the last Presidential 
campaign. As a specimen of his plain language in 
a veto message, we quote from one vetoing an iniqui- 
tous street-cleaning contract: "This is a time for 
plain speech, and my objection to your action shall 
be plainly stated. I regard it as the culmination of 
a mos bare-faced, impudent and shameless scheme 
to betray the interests of the people and to worse 
than squander the people's money." The New York 
Siin afterward very highly commended Mr. Cleve- 
land's administration as Mayor of Buffalo, and there- 
upon recommended him for Governor of the Empire 
State. To the latter office he was elected in 1882, 
and his administration of the affairs of State was 
generally satisfactory. The mistakes he made, if 
any, were made very public throughout the nation 
after he was nommated for President of the United 
States. For this high office he was nominated July 
II, 1884, by the National Democratic Convention at 
Chicago, when other competitors were Thomas F. 
Bayard, Rosvvell P. Flower, Thomas A. Hendricks, 
Benjamin F. Butler, Allen G. Thurman, etc.; and he 
was elected by the people, by a majority of about a 
thousand, over the brilliant and long-tried Repub- 
lican statesman, James G. Blaine. President Cleve- 
land resigned his office as Governor of New Yoric in 
January, 1885, in order to prepare for his duties as 
the Chief Executive of the United States, in which 
capacity his term commenced at noon on the 4th of 
March, 1885. For his Cabinet officers he selected 
the following gentlemen: For Secretary of State, 
Thomas F. Bayard, of Delaware ; Secretary of the 
Treasury, Daniel Manning, of New York; Secretary 
of War, William C. Endicott, of Massachusetts ; 
Secretary of the Navy, William C, Whitney, of New 
York ; Secretary of the Interior, L. Q. C. Lamar, of 
Mississippi; Postmaster-General, William F. Vilas, 
of Wisconsin; Attorney-General, A. H. Garland, of 

The silver question precipitated a controversy be- 
tween those who were in favor of the conrinuance of 
silver coinage and those who were opposed, Mr. 
Cleveland answering for the latter, even before his 







trfj ~»<jii2j2'0^3^"' 




1st Governor of Michigan, was 
son of Gen. John T. Mason, 
of Kentucky, but was born in ■ 
Virginia, in 1812. At the age 
of 19 he was appointed Secre- 
tary of Michigan Territory, and 
served in that capacity during the 
administration of Gov. George B. 
Porter. Upon the death of Gov. 
Porter, which occurred on the 6th of 
July, 1834, Mr. Mason became Act- 
ing Governor. In October, 1835, he 
was elected Governor under the State 
organization, and immediately en- 
tered upon the performance of the 
duties of the office, although the 
State was not yet admitted into the Union. After 
the State was admitted into the Union, Governor 
Mason was re-elected to the position, and served with 
credit to himself and to the advantage of the State. 
He died Jan. 4, 1843. The principal event during 
Governor Mason's official career, was that arising from 
the disputed southern boundary of the State. 

Michigan claimed for her southern boundary aline 
running east across the peninsula from the e,\treme 
southern point of Lake Michigan, extending through 
Lake Erie, to the Pennsylvania line. This she 
claimed as a vested right — a right accruing to her by 
compact. This compact was the ordinance of 1787, 
the parties to which were the original 13 States, and 
the territory northwest of the Ohio ; and, by the suc- 
cession of parties under statutory amendments to the 
ordinance and laws of Congress — the United States on 
the one part, and each Territory northwest of the 
Ohio, as far as affected by their provisions, on the 

other. Michigan, therefore, claimed it under the prior 
grant, or assignation of boundary. 

Ohio, on the other hand, claimed that the ordinance 
had been superseded by the Constitution of the 
United States, and that Congress had a right to regu- 
late the boundary. It was also claimed that the 
Constitution of the State of Ohio having described a 
different hue, and Congress having admitted the State 
under that Constitution, without mentioning the sub- 
ject of the line in dispute. Congress had thereby given 
its consent to the line as laid down by the Constitu- 
tion of Ohio. This claim was urged by Ohio at 
some periods of the controversy, but at others she ap- 
peared to regard the question unsettled, by the fact 
that she insisted upon Congress taking action in re- 
gard to the boundary. Accordingly, we find that, in 
18 1 2, Congress authorized the Surveyor-General to 
survey a line, agreeably to the act, to enable the people 
of Ohio to form a Constitution and State government. 
Owing to Indian hostilities, however, the line was not 
run till 1818. In 1820, the question in dispute 
underwent a rigid examination by the Committee on 
Public Lands. The claim of Ohio was strenuously 
urged by her delegation, and as ably opposed by Mr. 
Woodbridge, the then delegate from Michigan. The 
result was that the committee decided unanimously 
in favor of Michigan; but, in the hurry of business, 
no action was taken by Congress, and the question 
remained open till Michigan organized her State gov- 

The Territory in dispute is about five miles in 
width at the west end, and about eight miles in width 
at the east end, and extends along the whole north- 
ern line of Ohio, west of Lake Erie. The line claimed 
by Michigan was known as the " Fulton line," and 
that claimed by Ohio was known as the " Harris line," 



' ' io6 


from the names of the surveyors. The territory was 
valuable for its rich agricultural lands; but the chief 
value consisted in the fact that the harbor on the 
Maumee River, where now stands the flourishing city 
of Toledo, was included within its limits The town 
originally bore the name of Swan Creek, afterwards 
Port Lawrence, then Vestula, and then Toledo. 

In February, 1835, the Legislature of Ohio passed 
an act extending the jurisdiction of the State over 
the territory in question; erected townships and 
directed them to hold elections in April following. It 
also directed Governor Lucus to appoint three com- 
missioners to survey and re-mark the Harris line ; and 
named the first of April as the day to commence the 
survey. Acting Governor Mason, however, anticipated 
this action on the part of the Ohio Legislature, sent 
a special message to the Legislative Council, appris- 
ing it of Governor Lucas' message, and advised imme- 
diate action by that body to anticipate and counteract 
the proceedings of Ohio. Accordingly, on the 12th 
of February, the council passed an act making it a 
crimmal offence, punishable by a heavy fine, or im- 
prisonment, for any one to attempt to exercise any 
ofificial functions, or accept any office within the juris- 
diction of Michigan, under or by virture of any au- 
thority not derived from the Territory, or the United 
States. On the 9th of March, Governor Mason wrote 
General Brown, then in command of the Michigan 
militia, directing him to hold himself in readiness to 
meet the enemy in the field in case any attempt was 
made on the part of Ohio to carry out the provisions 
of that act of the Legislature. On the 31st of March, 
Governor Lucus, with his commissioners, arrived at 
Perrysburgh, on their way to commence re-surveying 
the Harris line. He was accomi^anied by General 
Bell and staff, of the Ohio Militia, who proceeded to 
muster a volunteer force of about 600 men. This 
was soon accomplished, and the force fully armed and 
equipped. The force then went into camp at Fort 
Miami, to await the Governor's orders. 

In the meantime, Governor Mason, with General 
Brown and staff, had raised a force 800 to 1200 
strong, and were in possession of Toledo. General 
Brown's Staff consisted of Captain Henry Smith, of 
Monroe, Inspector; Major J. J. Ullman, of Con- 
stantine, Quartermaster; William E. Broadman, of 
Detroit, and Alpheus Felch, of Monroe, Aids-de- 
camp. When Governor Lucas observed the deter- 
mined bearing of the Michigan braves, and took note 

of their number, he found it convenient to content 
himself for a time with " watching over the border." 
Several days were passed in this exhilarating employ- 
ment, and just as Governor Lucas had made up his 
mind to do something rash, two commissioners ar- 
rived from Washington on a mission of peace. They 
remonstrated with Gov. Lucus, and reminded him of 
the consequences to himself and his State if he per- 
sisted in his attempt to gain possessionof the disputed 
territory by force. After several conferences with 
both governors, the commissioners submitted proposi- 
tions for their consideration. 

Governor Lucas at once accepted the propositions, 
and disbanded his forces. Governor Mason, on the 
other hand, refused to accede to the arrangement, and 
declined to compromise the rights of his people by a 
surrender of possession and jurisdiction. When Gov- 
ernor Lucus disbanded his forces, however, Governor 
Mason partially followed suit, but still held himself 
in readiness to meet any emergency that might arise. 

Governor Lucus now supposed that his way was 
clear, and that he could re-mark the Harris line with- 
out being molested, and ordered the commissioners 
to proceed with their work. 

In the meantime, Governor Mason kept a watch- 
ful eye upon the proceedings. General Brown sent 
scouts through the woods to watch their movements, 
and report when operations were commenced. When 
the surveying party got within the county of Lena- 
wee, the under-sheriff of that county, armed with a 
warrant, and accompanied by a posse, suddenly made 
his appearance, and succeeded in arresting a portion 
of tlie party. The rest, including the commissioners, 
took to their heels, and were soon beyond the dis- 
puted territory. They reached Perrysburgh the fol- 
lowing day in a highly demoralized condition, and 
reported they had been attacked l)y an overwhelm- 
ing force of Michigan malitia, under command of 
General Brown. 

This summary breaking up of the surveying party 
produced the most tremendous excitement throughout 
Ohio. Governor Lucas called an extra session of the 
Legislature. But little remains to be said in reference 
to the " war." The question continued for sometime 
to agitate the minds of the opposing parties ; and the 
action of Congress was impatiently awaited. Michigan 
was admitted into the Union on the condition that 
she give to Ohio the disputed territory, and accept 
in return the Northern Peninsula, which she did. 

^ *^^W^-V^-xJZ^^XJ 


^fgf — ^(OlLLIAI.I (')')()L)BI^IDGB.^— Rw 



^second Governor of Michigan, 
was born at Norwich, Conn., 
Aug. 20, 1780, and died at 
Detroit Oct. 20, 1861. He 
was of a family of three brothers 
and two sisters. His father, 
Dudley Woodbridge, removed to 
Marietta, Ohio, about 1790. The 
life of Wm. Woodbridge, Ijy Chas. 
Launian, from which this sketcji 
IS largely com piled, mentions noth- 
Hig concerning his early education 
beyond the fact that it was such as 
was afforded by the average school 
of the time, except a year witii the 
French colonists at Gallipolis, 
where he acquired a knowledge of 
H'ltl the French language. It should 
^ S) be borne in mind, however, that 
W(. home education at that time was 
an indispensable feature in the 
training of the young. To this and 
and to a few studies well mastered, 
is due that strong mental discipline which has served 
as a basis for many of the grand intellects that have 
adorned and helped to make our National history. 
Mr. Woodbridge studied law at Marietta, having 
as a fellow student an intimate personal friend, a 
young man subsequently distinguished, but known 
at that time simply as Lewis Cass. He graduated at 
the law school in Connecticut, after a course there of 
nearly three years, and began to practice at Marietta 
in 1806. In June, 1806, he married, at Hartford, Con- 
necticut, Juleanna, daughter of John Triimbell, a 
distinguished author and judge ; and author of the 

peom McFingai, which, during a dark period of the 
Revolution, wrought such a magic change upon the 
spirits of the colonists. He was happy in his domes- 
ticrelationsuntilthedeathofMrs. W., Feb. 2,19, i860. 

Our written biographies necessarily speak more 
fully of men, because of their active participation in 
public affairs, but human actions are stamped upon 
the page of lime and when the scroll shall be unrolled 
the influence of good women u[)on the history of the 
world will be read side by side with the deeds of men. 
How much success and renown in life many men owe 
to their wives is probably little known. Mrs. W. en- 
joyed the best means of early education that the 
country afforded, and her intellectual genius enabled 
her to improve her advantages. During her life, side 
by side with the highest type of domestic and social 
graces, slie manifested a keen intellectuality that 
formed the crown of a faultless chaiacter. She was 
a natural poet, and wrote quite a large number of fine 
verses, some of which are preserved in a printed 
memorial essay written upon the occasion of her 
death. In this essay, it is said of her "to contribute 
even in matters of minor importance, to elevate the 
reputation and add to the well being of her husband 
in the various stations he was called upon to fill, gave 
her the highest satisfaction " She was an invalid 
during the latter portion of her life, but was patient 
and cheerful to the end. 

In 1807, Mr. W. was chosen a representative to the 
General Assembly of Ohio, and in 1809 was elected to 
the Senate, continuing a member Ijy re-election until 
his removal from the State. He also held, by ap- 
pointment, during the time the office of Prosecuting 
Attorney for his county. He took a leading part in 
the Legislature, and in i8i2drew up a declaration and 
resolutions, which passed the two houses unaminously 




and attracted great attention, endorsing, in strongest 
and most emphatic terms, the war measures of Presi- 
dent Madison. During the period from 1804 to 18 14 
the two law students, Woodbridge and Cass, had be- 
come widely separated. Tiie latter was Governor of 
the Territory of Michigan under the historic "Governor 
and Judges" plan, with the indispensable requisite of a 
Secretary of the Territorry. This latter position was, 
in 1814, without solicitation on his part, tendered to 
Mr. W. He accepted the position with some hesita- 
tion, and entered upon its duties as soon as he could 
make the necessary arrangements for leaving Ohio. 
The office of Secretary involved also the duties of 
collectorof customs at the port of Detroit, and during 
the frequent absences of the Governor, the dischargeof 
of his duties, also including those of Superintendent 
of Indian Affairs. Mr. W. officiated as Governor for 
about two years out of the eight years that he held the 
office of Secretary Under the administration of "Gov- 
ernor and Judges," which the people of the Territory 
preferred for economical reasons, to continue some time 
after their numbers entitled them to a mure popular 
representative system, they were allowed no delegate 
in Congress. Mr. W., as a sort of informal agent of 
the people, by correspondence and also by a visit to 
the National capital, so clearly set forth the demand 
for representation by a delegate, that an act was 
passed in Congress in 1 8 1 9 authorizing one tobe chosen. 
Under this act Mr. W. was elected by the concurrence 
of all parties. His first action in Congress was to secure 
the passage of a bill recognizing and confirming the 
old French land titles in the Territory according to 
the terms of the treaty of peace with Great Britain 
at the close of the Revolution; and another for the 
construction of a Government road through the "black 
swamps" from the Miami River to Detroit, thus open- 
ing a means of land transit between Ohio and Mich- 
igan. He was influential in securing the passage of 
bills for the construction of Government roads from 
Detroit to Chicago, and Detroit to Fort Gratiot, and 
for the improvement of La Plaisance Bay. The ex- 
pedition for the exploration of the country around 
Lake Superior and in the valley of the Upper Mis- 
sissippi, projected by Governor Cass, was set on foot 
l)y means of representations made to the head of the 
department by Mr. W. While in Congress he stren- 
uously maintained the right of Michigan to the strip 
of territory now forming the northern boundary of 
Ohio, which formed the subject of such grave dispute 
between Ohio and Michigan at the time of the ad- 
mission of the latter into the Union. He served 
but one term as delegate to Congress, de- 
clining further service on account of personal and 
family considerations. Mr. W. continued to discharge 
the duties of Secretary of the Territory up to the time 
its Government passed into the "second grade." 

In 1824, he was appointed one of a board of 
commissioners for adjusting private land claims in 

the Territory, and was engaged also in the practice of 
his profession, having the best law library in the Ter- 
ritory. In 1828, upon the recommendation of the 
Governor, Judges and others, he was appointed by the 
President, "j. Q. Adams, to succeed Hon. James With- 
erell, who had resigned as a Judge of what is conven- 
tionally called the "Supreme Court" of the Territory. 
This court was apparently a continuation of the Terri- 
torial Court, under the "first grade" or "Governor and 
Judges" system. ,\lthough it was supreme in its ju- 
dicial functions within the Territory, its powers and 
duties were of a very general character. 

In 1832, the term of his appointment as Judge ex- 
piring. President Jackson appointed a successor, it is 
supposed on political grounds, much to the disappoint- 
ment of the public and the bar of the Territory. The 
partisan feeling of the time e.xtended into the Terri- 
tory, and its people began to think of assuming the 
dignity of a State government. Party lines becom- 
ing very sharply drawn, he identified himself with 
the Whigs and was elected a member of the Conven- 
tion of 1835, which formed the first State Consritution. 
In 1837 he was elected a member of the State Senate. 

This sketch has pur|X)sely dealt somewhat in detail 
with what may be called Judge W's. earlier career, 
because it is closely identified with the early his- 
tory of the State, and the development of its politi- 
cal system. Since the organization of the State Gov- 
ernment the history of Michigan is more familiar, and 
hence no review of Judge W's career as Governor 
and Senator will be attempted. He was elected Gov- 
ernor in 1839, under a popular impression that the 
affairs of the State had not been prudently adminis- 
tered by the Democrats. He served as Governor but 
little more than a year, when he was elected to the 
Senate of the United States. 

His term in the Senate practically closed his polit- 
ical life, although he was strongly urged by many 
prominent men for the Whig nomination for Vice 
President in rS48. 

Soon after his appointment as Judge in 1828, Gov- 
ernor W. took up his residence on a tract of land 
which he owned in the township of Spring Wells, a 
short distance below what was then the corporate lim- 
its of Detroit, where he resided during the remainder 
of his life. Both in his public papers and private 
communications, Governor W. shows himself a mas- 
ter of language; he is fruitful in simile and illustra- 
tion, logical in arrangement, happy in the choice and 
treatment of topics, and terse and vigorous in expres- 
sion. Judge W. was a Congregationalist. His opinions 
on all subjects were decided ; he was earnest and 
energetic, courteous and dignified, and at times ex- 
hibited a vein of fine humor that was the more at- 
tractive because not too often allowed to come to the 
surface. His letters and addresses show a deep and 
earnest affection not only for his ancestral home, but 
the home of his adoption and for friends and family. 







I :s'(aaJtife'»i£.v;;jia>'»g;^tiii'tgg'i^(^t 

b.. . ^ 

.Governor of Michigan from 
Jan. 3, 1842, to Jan. 5, 1846, 
and from Jan. 7, 1850, to Jan. 
852, was born at Amherst, 
N. H., Jan. 29, 1802. His par- 
ents, John and Ellen (Steward) 
Barry, early removed to Roclcing- 
liam, Vt., where he remained until 
he became of age, working on his 
father's farm, and pursuing his 
studies at the same time. He mar- 
ried Mary Kidder, of Grafton, Vt., 
fand in 1S24 went to Georgia, Vt., 
where he liad charge of an academy 
T for two years, meanwliile studying 
law. He afterward practiced law in 
that State. While he was in Georgia he was for some 
time a member of the Governor's staff, with the title 
of Governor's Aid, and at a somewhat earlier period 
was Captain of a company of State militia. In 1831 
he removed to Michigan, and settled at White Pigeon, 
where he engaged in mercantile business with I. W. 

Four years after, 1834, Mr. Barry removed to Con- 

stantine and continued his mercantile pursuits. He 
became Justice of the Peace at White Pigeon, Mich., 
in 1S31, and held the office until the year 1835. 
Mr. Barry's first public office was that of a member 
of the first constitutional convention, which assembled 
and framed the constitution upon which Michigan 
was admitted into the Union. He took an imix)rtant 
and prominent part in the proceedings of that body, 
and showed himself to be a man of far more than 
ordinary ability. 

Upon Michigan being admitted into the Union, 
Mr. Barry was chosen State Senator, and so favorably 
were his associates impressed with his abilities at the 
first session of the Legislature that they looked to him 
as a party leader, and that he should head the State 
ticket at the following election. Accordingly he re- 
ceived the nomination for Governor at the hands 
of his party assembled in convention. He was 
elected, and so popular was his administration that, in 
1842, he was again elected. During these years 
Michigan was embarrassed by great financial diffi- 
culties, and it was through his wisdom and sound judg- 
ment that the State was finally placed \\\)on a solid 
financial basis. 

During the first year of Gov. Barry's first term, the 

University at Ann Arbor was opened for the reception 




of students. The Michigan Central and Michigan 
Southern railroads were being rapidly constructed, and 
general progress was everywhere noticeable. In 1842, 
the number of pupils reported as attending the public 
schools was nearly fifty-eight thousand. In 1843, ^ 
State land office was established at Marshall, which 
was invested with the charge and disposition of all 
the lands belonging to the State In 1844, the tax- 
able property of the State was found to be over 
twenty-eight millions of dollars, the tax being at the 
rate of two mills on the dollar. The expenses of the 
State were only seventy thousand dollars, while the 
income from the railroads was nearly three hundred 
thousand dollars. At this lime the University of 
Michigan had become so prosperous that its income 
was ample to pay the interest on the University debt ; 
and the amount of money which the State was able 
to loan the several progressing railroads was one 
hundred and twenty thousand dollars. Efforts were 
made to increase the efficiency of the common schools 
with good results In 1845, when Gov. Barry's sec- 
ond term expired, the population of the State was 
more than th-'ee hundred thousand. 

The constitution of the State forbade more than two 
consecutive terms, but he was called upon to fill the 
position again in 1850 — the only instance of the kind 
in the history of the State. He was a member of the 
Territorial Legislature, of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion, and afterward of the State House of Represent- 

During Mr. Barry's third term as Governor the Nor- 
mal School was established at Ypsilanti, which was 
endowed with lands and placed in charge of a board 
of education consisting of six persons. A new con- 
stitution for the government of the State was also 
adopted and the "Great Railway Conspiracy Case" 
was tried. This grew out of a series of lawless acts 
which had been committed upon the property of the 
Michigan Central Railroad Company, along the line 
of their road, and finally the burning of the depot 
at Detroit, in 1S50. 

At a setting of the grand jury of Wayne County, 
April 24, 1851, 37 men of the 50 under arrest for this 
crime were indicted. May 20, following, the accused 
parties appeared at the Circuit Court of Wayne, of 
which Warner Wing was resident judge. The Rail- 
road Company employed ten eminent lawyers, in- 
cluding David Stuart, John Van Arman, James A. 
Van Dyke, Jacob M. Howard, Alex. D. Fraser, Dan- 
iel Goodwin and William Gray. The defendants were 
represented by six members of the State bar, led by 
William H. Seward, of New York. The trial occupied 
four months, during which time the plaintiffs exam- 
ined 246 witnesses in 27 days, and the defendants 
249 in 40 days. Mr. Van Dyke addressed the jury 
for the prosecution; William H. Seward for the 

The great lawyer was convinced of the innocence 

of his clients, nor did the verdict of that jury and the 
sentence of that judge remove his firm belief that his 
clients were the victims of purchased treachery, 
rather than so many sacrifices to justice. 

The verdict of " guilty " was rendered at 9 o'clock 
p. .M., Sept. 25, 185 I. On the 26th the prisoners were 
put forward to receive sentence, when many of them 
protested their entire innocence, after which the pre- 
siding judge condemned 12 of the number to the fol- 
lowing terms of imprisonment, with hard labor, within 
the State's prison, situate in their county : Ammi 
Filley, ten years; Orlando L. Williams, ten years; 
Aaron Mount, eight years; Andrew J. Freeland, eight 
years; Eben Farnham, eight years; William Corvin, 
eight years ; Richard Price, eight years; Evan Price, 
eight years; Lyman Champlin, five years; Willard 
W. Champlin, five years; Erastus Champlin, five 
years; Erastus Smith, five years. 

In 1840, Gov. Barry became deeply interested in 
the cultivation of the sugar beet, and visited Europe 
to obtain information in reference to its culture. 

He was twice Presidential Elector, and his last 
public service was that of a delegate to the National 
I3emocratic Convention held in Chicago in 1864. 

He was a man who, throughout life, maintained a 
high character for integrity and fidelity to the_ trusts 
bestowed upon him, whether of a public or a private 
nature, and he is acknowledged by all to have been 
one of the most efficient and popular Governors the 
State has ever had. 

Gov. Barry was a man of incorruptible integrity. 
His opinions, which he reached by the most thorough 
investigation, he held tenaciously. His strong con- 
victions and outspoken honesty made it impossible for 
him to take an undefined position when a principle 
was involved. His attachments and prejudices were 
strong, yet he was never accused of favoritism in his 
administration of public affairs. As a speaker he was 
not remarkable. Solidity, rather than brilliancy, char- 
acterized his oratory, which is described as argument- 
ative and instructive, but cold, hard, and entirely 
wanting in rhetorical ornament. He was never elo- 
quent, seldom humorous or sarcastic, and in manner 
rather awkward. 

Although Mr. Barry's educational advantages were 
so limited, he was a life-long student. He mastered 
both ancient and modern languages, and acquired a 
thorough knowledge of history. No man owed less 
to political intrigue as a means of gaining posi- 
tion. He was a true statesman, and gained public es- 
teem by his solid worth. His political connections 
were always with the Democraric party, and his opin- 
ions were usually extreme. 

Mr. Barry retired to private life after the beginning 
of the ascendency of the Republican party, and car- 
ried on his mercantile business at Constantine. He 
died Jan. 14, 1870, his wife's death having occurred a 
year previous, March 30, 1869. They left no children. 

I 1 




_^_ _i^ _^_ -^ -^ -^ -^ ^_ -^^;;^^$;;g-«'^!;$«"S;s«^;;&* 



LPHEUS FELCH, the third 
Governor of Michigan, was 

born in Limerick, Maine, Sep- 
tember 28, 1806. Hisgrand- 
o_ father, Abijah Felch, was a sol- 
-^ dier in the Revolution ; and 
when a young man, having with 
others obtained a grant of land be- 
tween the Great and Little Ossipee 
Rivers, in Maine, moved to that re- 
gion when it was yet a wilderness. 
The father of Mr. Felch embarked in 
mercantile life at Limerick. He was 
the first to engage in that business in 
that section, and continued it until 
lis death. The death of the father, 
' followed within a year by the death of 
the mother, left the subject of this sketch, then three 
years old, to the care of relatives, and he found a 
home with his paternal grandfather, where he re- 
mained until his death. Mr Felch received his early 
education in the district school and a neighboring 
academy. Li 1821 he became a student at Phillips 
Exter Academy, and, subsequently, entered Bowdoin 
College, graduated with the class of 1827. He at 
once began the study of law and was admitted to 
practice at Bangor, Me., in 1830. 

He began the practice of liis profession at Houlton, 
Me., where he remained until [833. The severity 
of the climate impaired his health, never very good, 
and he found it necessary to seek a change of climate. 
He disposed of his library and started to seek 
a new home. His intention was to join his friend, 

SargLMit S. Prentiss, at Vicksburg, Miss., but on his 
arrival at Cincinnati, Mr. Felch was attacked by 
cholera, and when he had tecovered sufficiently to 
permit of his traveling, found that the danger of the 
disease was too great to permit a journey down the 
river. He therefore determined to come to Michi- 
gan. He first began to practice in this State at Mon- 
roe, where he continued until 1843, when he removed 
to Ann Aibor. He was elected to the State Legisla- 
ture in 1835, and continued a member of that body 
during the years 1836 and 1837. While he held this 
office, the general banking law of the State was enact- 
ed, and went into oi)eration. After mature delibera- 
tion, he became convinced that the proposed system 
of banking could not prove beneficial to the public 
interests ; and that, instead of relieving the people 
from the pecuniary difficulties under which they were 
laboring, it would result in still further embarrass- 
ment. He, therefore, opposed the bill, and pointed 
out to the House the disasters which, in his opinion, 
were sure to follow its passage. The public mind, 
however, was so favorably impressed by the measure 
that no other member, in either branch of the Legisla- 
ture, raised a dissenting voice, and but two voted with 
him in opposition to the bill. Early in 1838, he was 
appointed one of the Bank Commissioners of the 
State, and held that office for moie than a year. Dur- 
ing this time, the new banking law had given birth to 
that numerous progeny known as "wild-cat" banks. 
Almost every village had its bank. The country was 
flooded with depressed "wild-cat" money. The ex- 
aminations of the Bank Commissioners brought to 
light frauds at every point, which were fearlessly re- 





ported to the Legislature, and were followed by crim- 
inal prosecutions of the guilty parties, and the closing 
of many of their institutions. The duties of the of- 
fice were most laborious, and in 1839 Mr. Felch re- 
signed. The chartered right of almost every bank 
had, in the meantime, been declared forfeited and 
the law repealed. It was subsequently decided to 
be constitutional by the -Supreme Court of the State. 
In the year 1842 Governor Felch was appointed 
to the office of Auditor General of the State; but 
after holding the office only a few weeks, was com- 
missioned by the Governor as one of the Judges of the 
Supreme Court, to fill a vacancy caused by the resig- 
nation of Judge Fletcher. In January, 1843, he was 
elected to the United States Senate for an unexpired 
term. In 1845 he was elected Governor of Michigan, 
and entered upon his duties at the commencement of 
the next year. In 1847 he was elected a Senator 
in Congress for six years ; and at once retired from 
the office of Governor, by resignation, which took 
effect March 4, 1847, when his Senatorial term com- 
menced. While a member of the Senate he acted on 
the Committee on Public Lands, and for four years 
was its Chairman. He filled the honorable position 
of Senator with becoming dignity, and with great 
credit to the State of Michigan. 

During Governor Felch's administration the two 
railroads belonging to the State were sold to private 
corporations, — the Central for $2,000,000, and the 
Southern for $500,000. The exports of the State 
amounted in 1846 to $4,647,608. The total capacity 
of vessels enrolled in the collection district at Detroit 
was 26,928 tons, the steam vessels having 8,400 and 
the sailing vessels 18,528 tons, the whole giving em- 
ployment to 18,000 seamen. In 1847, there were 39 
counties in the State, containing 435 townships ; and 
275 of these townships were supplied with good libra- 
ries, containing an aggregate of 37,000 volumes. 

At the close of his Senatorial term, in March, 1853, 
Mr. Felch was appointed, by President Pierce, one of 
the Commissioners to adjust and settle the Spanish 

and Mexican land claims in California, under the 
treaty of Gaudalupe Hidalgo, and an act of Congress 
passed for that purpose. He went to California in 
May, 1853, and was ma'de President of the Commis- 
sion. The duties of this office were of the most im- 
portant and delicate character. The interest of the 
new State, and the fortunes of many of its citizens, 
both the native Mexican population and the recent 
American immigration ; the right of the Pueblos to 
tlieir common lands, and of the Catholic Church to 
the lands of the Missions,— the most valuable of the 
State, — wereinvolved in the adjudicationsof this Com- 
mission. In March, 1856, their labors were brought 
to a close by the final disposition of all the claims 
which were presented. The record of their proceed- 
ings, — the testimony which was given in each case, 
and the decision of the Commissioners thereon, — 
consisting of some forty large volumes, was deposited 
in the Department of the Interior at Washington. 

In June of that year. Governor Felch returned to 
Ann Arbor, where he has since been engaged piinci- 
])ji!ly in legal business. Since his return he has 
been nominated for Governor and also for U. S. Sen- 
ator, and twice for Judge of the Supreme Court. But 
the Democratic party, to which he has always been 
attached, being in the minority, he failed of an elec- 
tion. In 1873 he withdrew from the active practice 
of law, and, with the exception of a tour in Europe, 
in 1875 has since led a life of retirement at his home 
in Ann Arbor. In 1877 the University of Michigan 
conferred upon him the degree of LL. D. For 
many years he was one of the Regents of Michigan 
University, and in the spring of 1879 was appointed 
Tappan Professor of Law in the same. Mr. Felch is 
the oldest surviving member of the Legislature from 
Monroe Co., the oldest and only surviving Bank Com- 
missioner of the State, the oldest surviving Auditor 
General of the State, the oldest surviving Governor of 
the State, the oldest surviving Judge of the Supreme 
Court of Michigan, and the oldest surviving United 
States Senator from the State of Michigan. 







^Governor of Michigan for the 
year 1S47, '^^^'s born at Hamil- 
ton, Madison Co., N. Y., Sept. 
1S13. Hegraduatedat Un- 
/ ion College, Schenectady, in 
I . ii lojr, studied law and was ad- 

T^ 7^1 "^'^'s<i '° ^1^'^ ^^"^ '" 1834. In 
"'m I iS^fi. having removed to Michi- 
settled in Adrian, where 
has since resided. The year 
following his arrival in Michigan 
lie was elected State Senator and 
served in that capacity until 1S39. 
In 1845 he was elected Lieut. Gov- 
ernor and became acting Governor 
by the resignation of Gov Fekh, 
who was elected to the United 
States Senate. 

The war with Mexico was brought 
to a successful termination during Gov. Greenly 's 
administration. We regret to say that there are only 
few records extant of the action of Michigan troops 
in the Mexican war. That many went there and 
fought well are points conceded ; but their names and 
nativity are hidden away in United States archives 

and where it is almost innx)ssible to find them. 

The soldiers of this State deserve much of the 
credit of the memorable achievements of Co. K, 3d 
Dragoons, and Cos. A, E, and G of the U. S. Inf. 
The two former of these companies, recruited in this 
State, were reduced to one-third their original num- 

In May, 1846, the Governor of Michigan was noti- 
fied by the War Department of the United States to 
enroll a regiment of volunteers, to be held in readi- 
ness for service whenever demanded. At his sum- 
mons 13 independent volunteer companies, 1 1 of 
infantry and two of cavalry, at once fell into line. Of 
the infantry four companies were from Detroit, bear- 
ing the honored names of Montgomery, Lafayette, 
Scoct and Brady upon their banners. Of the re- 
mainder Monroe tendered two, Lenawee County three, 
St. Clair, Berrien and Hillsdale each one, and Wayne 
County an additional company. Of these alone the 
veteran Bradys were accepted and ordered into ser- 
vice. In addition to them ten companies, making the 
First Regiment of Michigan Volunteers, springing 
from various parts of the State, but embodying to a 
great degree the material of which the first volunteers 
was formed, were not called for until October follow- 
ing. This regiment was soon in readiness and pro- 
ceeded by orders from Government to the seat of war. 




^- f-- 





US RANSOM, the Seventh 
Governor of Michigan, was a 
native of Massachusetts. In 
that State he received a col- 
legiate education, studied law, 
md was admitted to the bar. 
Removing to Michigan about 
the tmie of its admission to the 
Union, he took up his residence 
at Kalamazoo. 

Mr. Ransom served with marked 
. ability for a number of years in the 
State Legislature, and in 1837 he was appointed As- 
sociate Justice of the Supreme Court. In 1843 he 
was promoted to Chief Justice, wiiich office he re- 
tained until 1845, when he resigned. 

Shortly afterwards he became deeply interested in 
the building of plank roads in the western portion of 
the State, and in this business lost the greater portion 
of the property which he had accumulated by years 
of toil and industry. 

Mr. Ransom became Governor of the State of 
Michigan in the fall of 1847, and served during one 
term, performing the duties of the office in a truly 
statesmanlike manner. He subsequently became 
President of the Michigan Agricultural Society, in 
which position he displayed the same ability that 
^ <» 

shone forth so prominently in his acts as Governor. 
He held the office of Regent of the Michigan Univer- 
sity several times, and ever advocated a liberal policy 
in its management. 

Subsequently he was appointed receiver of the 
land office in one of the districts in Kansas, by Pres- 
ident Buchanan, to which State he had removed, and 
where he died before the expiration of his ttrm of 

\Ve sum up tlie events and affairs of the State un- 
der Gov. Ransom's administration as follows: The 
Asylum for the Insane was establised, as also the 
Asylum for the Deaf, Dumb and Blind. Both of 
these institutes were liberally endowed with lands, 
and each of them placed in charge of a board of five 
trustees. The appropriation in 1S49 for the deaf and 
dumb and blind amounted to $81,500. On the first 
of March, 1S4S, the first telegraph line was com- 
pleted from New York to Detroit, and the first dis- 
patch transmitted on that day. The following figures 
show the progress in agriculture : The land reported 
as under cultivation in 1848 was 1,437,460 acres; of 
wheat there were produced 4,749,300 bushels; other 
grains, 8,197,767 bushels; wool, 1,645,756 pounds; 
maple sugar, 1,774,369 pounds; horses, 52,305 ; cat- 
tle, 210,268; swine, 152,541; sheep, 610,534; while 
the flour mills numbered 228, and the lumber mills 
amounted to 730. 1847, an act was passed removing 
the Legislature from Detroit to Lansing, and tempo- 
rary buildings for the use of the Legislature were im- 
mediately erected, at a cost of $12,450. 



■^9 ,, 




OBERT McClelland, 

.trovernor of Michigan from 
Jan. I, 1852,10 March S, 1853, 
w as born at Greencastle, Frank- 
^J hn Co., Penn., Aug. i, 1807. 
Unong his ancestors were several 
otficers of rank in the Revolution- 
ary war, and some of his family con- 
nections were distinguished in the 
war of i8i2, and that with Mexico. 
His father was an eminent physician 
and surgeon who studied under Dr. 
Benj Rush, of Philadelphia, and 
practiced his profession successfully 
until SIX months before his death, at 
i the age of 84 years, .\lthough Mr. 
McClelland's family had been in good circum- 
stances, when he was 17 years old he was thrown 
upon his own resources. After taking the usual pre- 
liminary studies, and teaching school to obtain the 
means, he entered Dickinson College, at Carlisle, 
Penn., from which he graduated among the first in 
his class, in 1829. He then resumed teaching, and 
having completed the course of study for the legal 
profession, was admitted to the bar at Chambersburg, 
Penn., in 1831. Soon afterward he removed to the 
city of Pittsburgh, where he practiced for almost a 

In 1833, Mr. McClelland removed to Monroe, in 


the Territory of Michigan, where, after a severe ex- 
amination, he became a member of the bar of Michi- 
gan, and engaged in practice with bright prospect of 
success. In 1835, a convention was called to frame 
a constitution for the proposed State of Michigan, of 
whTch Mr. McClelland was elected a member. He 
took a prominent part in its deliberations and ranked 
among its ablest debaters. He was appointed the 
first Bank Commissioner of the State, by Gov. Mason, 
and received an offer of the Attorney Generalship, but 
declined both of these offices in order to attend to his 
professional duties. 

In 1838, Mr. McClelland was elected to the State 
Legislature, in which he soon became distinguished 
as the head of several important committees. Speaker 
pro tempore, and as an active, zealous and efficient 
member. In 1840, Gen. Harrison, as a candidate for 
the Presidency, swept the country with an overwhelm- 
ing majority, and at the same time the State of Michi- 
gan was carried by the Whigs under the popular cry 
of " Woodbridge and reform " against the Democratic 
party. At this time Mr. McClelland stood among the 
acknowledged leaders of the latter organization ; was 
elected a member of the State House of Representa- 
tives, and with others adopted a plan to regain a lost 
authority and prestige. 

This party soon came again into power in the State, 
and having been returned to the State Legislature Mr. 
McClelland's leadership was acknowledged by his 
election as Speaker of the House of Representatives \ 



ROBERT McClelland. 

ill 1843. Down to this time Michigan had consti- 
tuted one congressional district. The late Hon. Jacob 
M. Howard had been elected against Hon. Alpheiis 
Felch by a strong majority ; but, in 1843, so thoroughly 
had the Democratic party recovered from its defeat 
of 1840 that Mr. McClelland, as a candidate for Con- 
gress, carried Detroit district by a majority of about 
2,500. Mr. McClelland soon took a prominent pc-:i 
tion in Congress among the veteians of that body, 
During his first term he was placed on Committee on 
Commerce, and organized and carried through what 
were known as the " Harbor bills." The continued 
confidence of his constituency was manifested in his 
election tQ the 29th Congress. At the opening of this 
session he had acquired a National reputation, and so 
favorably was he known as a parlimentarian that his 
name was mentioned for Speaker of the House of Rep- 
resentatives. He declined the offer in favor of J. W. 
Davis, of Indiana, who was elected. During this term 
he became Chairman of Committee on Commerce, in 
which position his reports and advocacy of important 
measures at once attracted public attention. The 
members of this committee, as an evidence of the es- 
teem in which they held his services and of their 
personal regard for him, presented him with a cane 
wiiich he retains as a souvenir of the donors, and of 
his labors in Congress. 

In 1847, Mr. McClelland was re-elected to Con- 
gress, and at the opening of the 3olh Congress be- 
came a member of the Committee on Fore gn Rela- 
tions. While acting in this capacity, what was known 
as the " French Spoliation Bill" came under his spe- 
cial charge, and his management of the same was such 
as to command universal approbation. While in 
Congress, Mr. McClelland was an advocate of the 
right of petition as maintained by John Q. Adams, 
when the petition, was clothed in decorous language 
and presented in the proper manner. This he re- 
garded as the citizens'constitutional right which should 
not be impaired by any doctrines of temporary expe- 
diency. He also voted for the adoption of Mr. Gid- 
dings's bill for the abolishing of slavery in the District 
of Columbia. Mr. McClelland was one of the few 
Democrats associated with David Wilmot, of Penn- 
sylvania, in bringing forward the celebrated "VVilmot 
Proviso," with a view to prevent further extension of 
slavery in new territory which might be acquired by 
the United States. He and Mr. Wilmot were to- 
gether at the rime in Washington, and on intimate 
and confidential terms, Mr, McClelland was in sev- 
eral National conventions and in the Baltimore con- 
vention, which nominated Gen. Cass for President, 
in 1848, doing valiant service that year for the elec- 
tion of that distinguished statesman. On leaving 
Congress, in 1848, Mr. McClelland returned to the 
practice of his profession at Monroe. In 1850 a 
convention of the State of Michigan was called to 
revise the State consritution. He was elected a 


member and was regarded therein as among the ablest 
and most experienced leaders. His clear judgment 
and wise moderation were conspicuous, both in the 
committee room and on the floor, m debate. In 1850, 
he was President of the Democratic State convention 
which adopted resolutions in supixjrt of Henry Clay's 
famous compromise measures, of which Mr, McClel- 
land was a strong advocate. He was a member of 
the Democratic National convention in 1852, and in 
that yearp in company with Gen Cass and Governor 
Felcii, he made a tliorough canvass of the State. 
He continued earnestly to advocate the Clay com- 
promise measures, and took an active part in the 
canvass which resulted in the election of Gen Pierce 
to the Presidency. 

In 185 r, the new State constitution took effect and 
it was necessary that a Governor should be elected 
for one year in order to prevent an interregnum, and 
to bring the State Government into operatic 1 under 
the new constitution, Mr, McClelland was elected 
Governor, and in the fall of 1852 was re-elected for 
a term of two years, from Jan. i, 1853. His admin- 
istration was regarded as wise, prudent and concilia- 
tory, and was as popular as could be expected at a 
time when party spirit ran high. There was really 
no opposition, and when he resigned, in March, 1853, 
the State Treasury was well filled, and the State 
otherwise prosperous. So widely and favorably had 
Mr. McClelland become known as a statesman that on 
the organization of thecabinet by President Pierce, in 
March, 1853, he was made Secretary of the Interior, in 
which capacity he served most creditably during four 
years of the Pierce administration, He thoroughly 
re-organized his department and reduced the expend- 
itures. He adopted a course with the Indians which 
relieved them from the impositions and annoyances 
of the traders, and produced harmony and civilization 
among them. During his administration there was . 
neither complaint from the tribes nor corruption among 
agents, and he left the department in perfect order 
and system In 1867, Michigan again called a con- 
vention to revise the State consritution. Mr. McClel- 
land was a member and here again his long experi- 
ence made him conspicuous as a prudent adviser, a 
sagacious parliamentary leader. As a lawyer he was 
terse and pointed in argument, clear, candid and im- 
pressive in his addresses to the jury. His sincerity 
and earnestness, with which was occasionally mingled 
a pleasant humor, made him an able and effective 
advocate. In speaking before the people on political 
subjects he was especially forcible and happy. In 
1870 ha made the tour of Europe, which, through his 
extensive personal acquaintance with European dip- 
lomates, he was enabled to enjoy much more than 
most travelers 

Mr. McClelland married, in 1S37, Miss Sarah 
E. Sabin, of Williamstown, Mass. They have had 
six children, two of whom now survive. 
_ ' •► 


'33 i. 




\1)RE\V PARSONS, Gover- 
g) uur of Michigan from March 
^*S 1853 to Jan. 3, 1855, was 
lorn in the town of Hoosick, 
County of Rensselaer, and 
Stite of New York, on the 22d 
day ol July, 1817, and died June 
6 185 s, at the eady age of 38 
)eai-5 He was the son of John 
Parsons, born at Newburyport, 
jMt^s Oct. 2, 1782, and who was the 
bonof Andrew Parsons, a Revolutionary 
soldier, who was the son of Phineas 
Parsons, the son of Samuel Parsons, 
a descendant of Walter Parsons, born 
J in Ireland in 1290. 
Of this name and family, some one hundred and 
thirty years ago, Bishop Gilson remarked in his edi- 
tion of Camden's Britannia: "The honorable family 
of Parsons have been advanced to the dignity of 
Viscounts and more lately Earls of Ross." 

The following are descendants of these families : 
Sir John Parsons, born i48i,was Mayor of Hereford; 
Robert Parsons, born in 1546, lived near Bridgewater, 
England. He was educated at Ballial College, Ox- 
ford, and was a noted writer and defender of the 
Romish faith. He established an English College at 
Rome and another at Valladolia. Frances Parsons, 
born in 1556, was Vicar of Rothwell, in Notingham; 
Bartholomew Parsons, born in 1618, was another 
noted member of the family. In 1634, Thomas Parsons 
was knighted by Charles i. Joseph and Benjamin, 
brothers, were born in Great Torrington, England, 

and accompanied their father and others to New 
England about 1630. Samuel Parsons, born at Salis- 
bury, Mass., in 1707, graduated at Harvard College in 
1730, ordained at Rye, N. H., Nov. 3, 1736, married 
Mary Jones, daughter of Samuel Jones, of Boston, 
Oct. 9, 1739, died Jan. 4, 1789, at the age of 82, in 
the 53rd year of his ministry. The grandfather of Mary 
Jones was Capt. John Adams, of Boston, grandson 
of Henry, of Braintree, who was among the first set- 
tlers of MassachusL-tts, and from whom a numerous 
race of the name arc descended, including two Presi- 
dents of the United States. Tlie Parsons have be- 
come very numerous and are found throughout New 
England, and many of the descedants are scattered 
in all parts of the United States, and especially in 
the Middle and Western States. Governor Andrew 
Parsons came to Michigan in 1835, at the age of 17 
years, and spent the first summer at Lower Ann 
Arbor, where for a few months he taught school which 
lie was compelled to abandon from ill health 

He was one of the large number of men of sterling 
worth, who came from the East to Michigan when it 
was an infant State, or, even prior to its assuming 
the dignity of a State, and who, by their wisdom, 
enterprise and energy, have developed its wonderful 
natural resources, until to-day it ranks with the proud- 
est States of the Union. These brave men came to 
Michigan with nothing to aid them in the conquest 
of the wilderness save courageous hearts and strong 
and willing hands. They gloriously conquered, how- 
ever, and to them is due all honor for tlie labors 
so nobly performed, for the solid and sure foundation 
which they laid of, a great Commonwealth. 






111 the fall of 1835, he explored the Grand River 
Valley in a frail canoe, the whole length of the river, 
from Jacivson to Lake Michigan, and spent the following 
winter as clerk in a store at Prairie Creek, in Ionia, 
County, and in the spring went to Marshall, where he 
resided with his brother, the Hon. Luke H. Parsons, 
also now deceased, until fall, when he went to Shia- 
wasseCounty,then with Clinton County, and an almost 
unbroken wilderness and constituting one organized 
township. In 1837 this territory was organized into 
a county and, at the age of only ig years, he (.\n- 
drew) was elected County Clerk. In 1840, he was 
elected Register of Deeds, re-elected in 1842, and 
also in 1844. In 1846, he was elected to the State 
Senate, was appointed Prosecuting Attorney in 1848, 
and elected Regent of the University in 185 r, and 
Lieutenant Governor, and became acting Governor, 
in 1853, elected again to the Legislature in 1854, and, 
overcome by debilitated health, hard labor and the 
resix)nsibilities of his office and cares of his business, 
retired to his farm, where he died soon after. 

He was a fluent and persuasive speaker and well 
calculated to make friends of his acquantances. He 
was always true to his trust, and the whole world 
could not persuade nor drive him to do what he con- 
ceived to be wrong. When Governor, a most power- 
ful railroad influence was brought to bear upon him, 
to induce him to call an extra session of the Legisla- 
ture. Meetings were held in all parts of the State 
for that purpose. In some sections the resolutions 
were of a laudatory nature, intending to make him do 
their bidding by resort to friendly and flattering words. 
In other places the resolutions were of a demanding 
nature, while in others they were threatening beyond 
measure. Fearing that all these influences might 
fail to induce him to call the extra session, a large 
sum of money was sent him, and liberal offers ten- 
dered him if he would gratify the railroad interest of 
the State and call the extra session, but, immovable, 
he returned the money and refused to receive 
any favors, whether from any party who would at- 
tempt to corrupt him by laudations, liberal offers, or 

by threats, and in a short letter to the people, after 
giving overwhelming reasons that no sensible man 
could dispute, showing the circumstances were not 
"extraordinary," he refused to call the extra session. 
This brought down the wrath of various parties upon 
his head, but they were soon forced to acknowledge 
the wisdom and the justice of his course. One of 
his greatest enemies said, after a long acquaintance : 
"though not always coinciding with his views I never 
doubted his honesty of purpose. He at all times 
sought to perform his duties in strict accordance, 
with the dictates of his conscience, and the behests 
of his oath." The following eulogium from a politcal op- 
ponent is just in its conception and creditable to its 
author: "Gov. Parsons was a politician of the Dem- 
ocratic school, a man of pure moral character, fixed 
and exemplary habits, and entirely blameless in every 
public and private relation of life. As a politician he 
was candid, frank and free from bitterness, as an ex- 
ecutive officer firm, constant and reliable." The 
highest commendations we can pay the deceased is 
to give his just record, — that of being an honest man. 
In the spring of 1S54, during the administration of 
Governor Parsons, the Republican party, at least 
as a State organization, was first formed in the United 
States " under the oaks " at Jackson, by anti-slavery 
men of both the old parties. Great excitement pre- 
vailed at this time, occasioned by the settling of 
Kansas, and the issue thereby brought up, whether 
slavery should exist there. For the purpose of permit- 
ting slavery there, the " Missouri compromise " (which 
limited slavery to the south of 36° 30') was re- 
repealed, under the leadership of Stephen A, Douglas. 
This was repealed l.)y a bill admitting Kansas and 
Nebraska into the Union, as Territories, and those who 
were opposed to this repeal measure were in short 
called "anti-Nebraska" men. The epithets, "Ne- 
braska" and "anti-Nebraska," were temporally em- 
ployed to designate the slavery and anti-slavery 
parties, pending the desolution of the old Democratic 
and Whig parties and the organization of the new 
Democratic and Republican parties of the present. 






Governor of Michigan from 
1855 to 1859, and United 
States Senator, was born in 
^'faX^^^''''^^ Camillus, Onondaga County, 
1^' ^'"-J N. Y., Dec. 16, 1808. His 
nrniT - lather was a fanner, and his own 

early life was consequently de- 
s^ voted to agricultural pursuits, but 
)\ notwithstanding the disadvan- 
\^ tages related to the acquisition 
of knowledge in the life of a farmer 
he managed to secure a good aca- 
demic education in his native State 
and studied law in the office of 
Gen. James R. Lawrence, now of 
Syracuse, N. Y. In the spring of 
1833, he married an estimable lady 
who had recently arrived from Scot- 
land, and obeying the impulse of a 
naturally enterprising disposition, 
he emigrated to Michigan and 
purchased a new farm in company 
' with his brother-in-law, Mr. Robert 
Worden, in Green Oak, Livingston County. Here, on 
the border of civilization, buried in the primeval for- 
est, our late student commenced the arduous task of 
preparing a future home, clearing and fencing, put- 
ting up buildings, etc., at such a rate that the land 

chosen was soon reduced to a high state of cultivation. 

Becoming deservedly prominent, Mr. Bingham was 
elected to the office of Justice of the Peace and Post- 
master under the Territorial government, and was the 
first Probate Judge in the county. In the year 1836, 
when Michigan became a State, he was elected to the 
first Legislature. He was four times re-elected, and 
Speaker of the House of Rejiresentatives three years. 
In 1846 Ire was elected on the Democratic ticket, Rei> 
resentative to Congress, and was the only practical 
farmer in that body. He was never forgetful of the 
interest of agriculture, and was in particular opposed 
to the introduction of " Wood's Patent Cast Iron 
Plow " which he completely prevented. He was re- 
elected to Congress in 1848, during which time he 
strongly opposed th'e extension of slavery in the 
territory of the United States and was committed to 
and voted for the Wilmot Proviso. 

In 1854, at the first organization of the Republican 
party, in consequence of his record in Congress as a 
Free Soil Democrat, Mr. Bingham was nominated 
and elected Governor of the State, and re-elected in 
1856. Still faithful to the memory of his own former 
occupation, he did not forget the farmers during his 
administration, and among other profits of his zeal in 
their behalf, he became mainly instrumental in the 
establishment of the Agricultural College at Lansing. 

In 1859, Governor Bingham was elected Senator in 
Congress and took an active part in the stormy cam- 
paign in the election of Abraham Lincoln. He wit- 




nessed the commencement of the civil war while a 
member of the United States Senate. After a com- 
paratively short life of remarkable promise and pub- 
lic activity he was attacked with appoplexy and died 
suddenly at his residence, inCireen Oak, Oct. 5, 186:. 

The most noticable event in Governor Bingham's 
first term was the completion of the ship canal, at the 
Falls of St. Mary. In 1852, August 26, an act of 
Congress was approved, granting to the State of Mich- 
igan seven hundred and fifty thousand acres of land 
for the purpose of constructing a ship canal between 
Lakes Huron and Superior. In 1853, the Legislature 
accepted the grant, and provided lor the appointment 
of commissioners to select the donated lands, and to 
arrange for building the canal. A company of enter- 
prising men was formed, and a contract was entered 
into by which it was arranged that the canal should 
be finished in two years, and the work was pushed 
rapidly forward. Every article of consumption, ma- 
chinery, working implements and materials, timber 
for the gates, stones for the locks, as well as men and 
supplies, had to be transported to the site of the canal 
from Detroit, Cleveland, and other lake ports. The 
rapids which had to be surmounted have a fall of 
seventeen feet and are about one mile long. The 
length of the canal is less than one mile, its width one 
hundred feet, depth twelve feet and it has two locks 
of solid masonary. In May, 1855, the work was com- 
pleted, accepted by the commissioners, and formally 
delivered to the State authorities. 

The disbursements on account of the construction 
of the canal and selecting the lands amounted to one 
million of dollars ; while the lands which were as- 
signed to the company, and selected through the 
agency at the Sault, as well as certain lands in the 
Upper and Lower Peninsulas, filled to an acre the 
Government grant. The opening of the canal was 
an important event in the history of the improvement 
of the State. It was a valuable link in the chain of 
lake commerce, and particulady important to the 
interests of the Upper Peninsula. 

There were several educational, charitable and re- 
formatory institutions inaugurated and opened during 
Gov. Bingham's administrations. The Michigan Ag- 
ricultural College owes its establishment to a provision 
of the State Constitution of 1850. Article 13 says, 
" The Legislature shall, as soon as practicable, pro- 
vide for the establishment of an agricultural school." 
For the purpose of carying into practice this provision, 
legislation was commenced in 1855, and the act re- 
quired that the school should i)e within ten miles of 
Lansing, and that not more than $15 an acre should 
be paid for the farm and college grounds. The col- 
lege was opened to students in May, 1857, the first of 
existing argricultural colleges in the United States. 
Until the spring of 1 861, it was under the control 
of the State Board of Education; since that time it 
has been under the management of the State Board 

of Agriculture, which was created for that purpose. 

In its essential features, of combining study and 
labor, and of uniting general and professional studies 
in its course, the college has remained virtually un- 
changed from the first. It has a steady growth in 
number of students, in means of illustration and 
efficiency of instruction. 

The Agricultural College is three miles east of 
Lansing, comprising several fine buildings; and there 
are also very beautiful, substantial residences for tiie 
professors. There are also an extensive, well-filled 
green-house, a very large and well-equipped chemical 
laboratory, one of the most scientific apiaries in the 
United States, a general museum, a meseum of me- 
chanical inventions, another of vegetable products, 
extensive barns, piggeries, etc., etc., in fine trim for 
the purposes designed. The farm consists of 676 
acres, of which about 300 are under cultivation in a 
systematic rotation of crops. 

Adrian College was established by the Wesleyan 
Methodists in 1859, now under the control of the 
Methodist Church. The grounds contain about 20 
acres. There are four buildings, capable of accom- 
modating about 225 students. Attendance in 1875 
was 179; total number of graduates for previous year, 
121 ; ten professors and teachers are enj ployed. Ex- 
clusive of the endowment fund ($80,000), the assets 
of the institution, including grounds, buildings, furni- 
ture, apparatus, musical instruments, outlying lands, 
etc., amount to more than $137,000. 

Hillsdale College was established in 1S55 by the 
Free Baptists. The Michigan Central College, at 
Spring Arbor, was incorporated in 1845 It was kept 
in operation until it was merged into the present 
Hillsdale College. The site comprises 25 acres, 
beautifully situated on an eminence in the western 
part of the city of Hillsdale. The large and impos- 
ing building first erected was nearly destroyed by fire 
in 1874, and in its place five buildings of a more 
modern style have been erected. They are of brick, 
three stories with basement, arranged on three sides 
of a quadrangle. The size is, respectively, 80 by 80, 
48 by 72, 48 by 72, 80 by 60, 52 by 72, and they con- 
tain one-half more room than the original buildmg. 
The State Reform School. This was established 
at Lansing in 1855, in the northeastern portion of the 
city, as the House of Correction for Juvenile Of- 
fenders, having about it many of the features of a 
prison. In 1859 the name was changed to the State 
Reform School. The government and dicipline, have 
undergone many and radical changes, until all the 
prison features have been removed except those that 
remain in the walls of the original structure, and 
which remain only as monuments of instructive his- 
tory. No bolts, bars or guards are employed. The 
inmates are necessarily kept under the surveillance of 
officers, but the attempts at escape are much fewer 
than under the more rigid regime of former days. 


^ '1 

o^^.je^ :k'-L^-<i^i^^c^-y-^ 



OSES WISNER. Governor of 
.Michigan from 1S59 to 1861, 
was bom in Springport, Cayu- 
ga Co., N Y., June 3, 1815. 
His early education was only 
'-^ what could he obtained at a 
_• I uinmoii school. Agricultural labor 
nid frugality of his parents gave 
1 hun a physical constitution of unus- 
Iv udl strength and endurance, which 
(was ever preserved by temperate hab- 
In 1837 he emigrated to Michi- 
gan and purchased a farm in Lapeer 
County It was new land and he at 
once set to work to clear it and plant 
crops. He labored diligently at his 
' task for two years, when he gave up 
the idea of being a farmer, and removed to Pontiac, 
Oakland Co. Here he commenced the study of law 
in the office of his brother, George W. Wisner, and 
Rufus Hosmer. In i8.|i he was admitted to the 
and established himself in his new vocation at the 
village of Lapeer. While there he was apppointed 
by Gov. Woodbridge Prosecuting Attorney for that 
county, in which capacity he acquitted himself well 
and gave promise of that eminence he afterward at- 
tained in the profession. He remained at Lapeerlnit 
a short time, removing to Pontiac, where he became 
a member of a firm and entered fully upon the 

In politics he was like his talented brother, a Whig 
of the Henry Clay stamp, but with a decided anti- 
slav^rj- bias. His practice becoming extensive, he 

took little part in politics until after the election of 
Mr. Pierce to the Presidency in 1S52, when lie took an 
active part against slavery. As a lawyer he was a 
man of great ability, liut relied less upon mere book 
learning than upon his native good sense. Liberal 
and courteous, was he yet devoted to the interest of 
his client, and no facts escaped his attention or his 
memory which bore upon the case. He was no friend 
of trickery or artifice in conducting a case As an ad- 
vocate he had few equals. When fully aroused by the 
merits of his subject his eloquence was at once grace- 
ful and powerful. His fancies supplied the most 
original, the most [xsinted illustrations, and his logic 
became a battling giant under whose heavy blows the 
adversary shrank and withered. Nature had be- 
stowed upon him rare qualities, and his powers as a 
jxjpular orator were of a high order. 

On the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 
1854, repealing the Missouri compromise and opening 
the Territories to slavery, he was among the foremost 
in Michigan to denounce tlie shamful scheme. He 
actively participated in organizing and consolidating 
the elements opposed to it in that State, and was a 
member of the popular gathering at Jackson, in July, 
1854, wliich was the first formal Republican Conven- 
tion held in the United States. At this meeting the 
name " Republican " was adopted as a designation of 
the new party consisting of Anti-slavery, Whigs, 
Liberty men. Free Soil Democrats and all others op- 
posed to the extension of slavery and favorable to its 
expulsion from the Territories and the District of 
Columbia. At this convention Mr. W. was urged to 
accept the nomination for Attorney General of th? 






State, but declined. An entire State ticket was nom- 
inated and at the annual election in November was 
elected by an average majority of nearly 10,000. 
Mr. W. was enthusiastic in the cause and brought to 
its support all his personal influence and talents. In 
his views he was bold and radical. He believed from 
the beginning that the political power of the slave- 
holders would have to be overthrown before quiet 
could be secured to the country. In the Presidential 
canvass of 1856 he supported the Fremont, or Re- 
publican, ticket. At the session of the Legislature of 
1857 he was a candidate for United States Senator, 
and as such received a very handsome support. 

In 1858, he was nominated for Governor of tlie 
State by the Republican convention that met at De- 
troit, and at the subsequent November election was 
chosen by a very large majority. Before the day of 
the election he had addressed the people of almost 
every county and his majority was greater even than 
that of his popular predecessor, Hon. K. S. Bingham. 
He served as Governor two years, from Jan. 1, 1859, 
to Jan. I, 1861. His first message to the Legislature 
was an able and statesman-like production, and was 
read with usual favor. It showed that he was awake 
to all the interests of the State and set forth an en- 
lightened State policy, that had its view of the rapid 
settlement of our uncultivated lands and the devel- 
opment of our immense agricultural and mineral re- 
sources. It was a document that reflected the highest 
credit upon the author. 

His term having expired Jan. i, 1861, he returned 
to his home in Pontiac, and to the practice of his 
profession. There were those in the State who 
counselled the sending of delegates to the peace con- 
ference at Washington, but Mr. W. was opposed to all 
such temporizing expedients. His counsel was to 
send no delegate, but to prepare to fight. 

After Congress had met and passed the necessary 
legislation he resolved to take part in the war. In 
the spring and summer of 1862 he set to work to 
raise a regiment of infantry, chiefly in Oakland 
County, where he resided. His regiment, the 22d 
Michigan, was armed and equipped and ready to 
march in September, a regiment whose solid quali- 
ties were afterwards proven on many a bloody field. 
Col. W's. commission bore the date of Sept. 8, 1862. 
Before parting with his family he made his will. His 
regiment was sent to Kentucky and quartered at 

Camp Wallace. He had at the breaking out of the 
war turned his attention to military studies and be- 
came proficient in the ordinary rules and discipline. 
His entire attention was now devoted to his duties. 
His treatment of his men was kind, though his disci- 
pline was rigid. He possessed in an eminent degree 
the spirit of command, and had he lived he would 
no doubt have distinguished himself as a good 
officer. He was impatient of delay and chafed at 
being kept in Kentucky where there was so little 
prospect of getting at the enemy. But life in camp, 
so different from the one he had been leading, and 
his incessant labors, coupled with that impatience 
which was so natural and so general among the vol- 
unteers in the early part of the war, soon made their 
influence felt upon his health. He was seized with 
typhoid fever and removed to a private house near 
Lexington. Every care which 'medical skill or the 
liand of friendship could bestow was rendered him. 
In the delirious wanderings of his mind he was dis- 
ciplining his men and urging them to be prepared for 
an encounter with the enemy, enlarging upon the jus- 
tice of their cause and the necessity of their crush- 
ing the Rebellion. But the source of his most poig- 
nant gnei was the prospect of not being able to come 
to a hand-to-hand encounter with the "chivalry." 
He was proud of his regiment, and felt that if it could 
find the enemy it would cover itself with glory, — a 
distinction it afterward obtained, but not until Col \V. 
was no more. The malady baffled all medical treat- 
ment, and on the 5th day of Jan., 1863, he breathed 
his last. His remains were removed to Michigan and 
interred in the cemetery at Pontiac, where they rest 
by the side of the brave Gen. Richardson, who re- 
ceived his mortal wound at the batde of Antietam. 
Col. AV. was no adventurer, although he was doubtless 
ambitious of military renown and would have striven 
for it with characteristic energy. He went to the war 
to defend and uphold the principles he had so much 
at heart. Few men were more familiar than lie with 
the causes and the underlying principles that led to 
the contest. He left a wife, who was a daughter of 
Gen. C. C. Hascall, of Flint, and four children to 
mourn his loss. Toward them he ever showed the 
tenderest regard. Next to his duty their love and 
welfare engrossed his thoughts. He was kind, gen- 
erous and brave, and like thousands of others he 
sleeps the sleep of the martyr for his country. 





^siTSJFs^^ -^ 



USTIN BLAIR, Governor 
-^- 1 W#-*V r-a°^ Michigan from Jan. 2, 
A . /i^\ ?f'86i, to Jan. 4, 1865, and 
kown as the War Governor, is 
and illustration of the benifi- 
cent influence of republican in- 
'^ stitutions, having inherited neith- 
er fortune nor fame. He was born 
m 1 log cabin at Caroline, Tomp- 
kins Co., N. Y., Feb. 8, iSiS. 
His ancestors came from Scot- 
land in the time of George I, and 
for many generations followed the 
pursuit of agriculture. His father, 
George Blair, settled in Tompkins 
County in iSog, and felled the trees and erected the 
first cabin in the county. The last 60 of the four- 
score years of his life were spent on that spot. He 
married Rhoda Beackman, who now sleeps with him 
in the soil of the old homestead. The first 17 years 
of Mr. Blair's life were spent there, rendering his 
father what aid he could upon the farm. He then 
spent a year and a half in Cazenovia Seminary ])re- 
paring for college; entered Hamilton College, in 
Clinton, prosecuted his studies until tlie middle of 
the junior year, when, attracted liy the fame of Dr. 
Nott, he changed to Union College, from which he 
graduated in the class of I S39. Upon leaving col- 
lege Mr. Blair read law two years in the office of Sweet 
& Davis, Oswego, N Y., and was admitted to practice 
in 1841, and th§ same year moved to Michigan, locat- 

ing in Jackson. During a temiwrary residence in 
Eaton Rapids, in 1842, he was elected Clerk of ?:alun 
County. At the close of the official term he returned to 
Jackson, and as a Whig, zealously espoused the cause 
of Henry Clay in the campaign of 1 844. He was chosen 
Representative to the Legislature in 1845, at which 
session, as a member of the Judiciary Committee, he 
rendered valuable service in the revision of the gen- 
eral statutes ; also made an able support in favor of 
abolishing the color distinction in relation to the elec- 
tive franchise, and at the same session was active in 
securing the abolition of capital punishment. In 1848 
Mr. Blair refused longer to affiliate with the Whig 
party, because of its refusial to endorse in convention 
any anti-slavery sentiment. He joined the Free-soil 
movement, and was a delegate to their convention 
which nominated Van Buren for President that year. 
Upon the birth of the Republican party at Jackson, 
in 1854, by the coalition of t!ie Whig and Free-soil 
elements, Mr. Blair was in full sympathy with the 
movement, and acted as a member of the Committee 
on Platform. He was elected Prosecuting Attorney 
of Jackson County in 1852; was chosen State Senator 
two years later, taking his seat with the incoming Re- 
publican administration of 1855, and holding the 
position of parliamentary leader in the Senate. He 
was a delegate to the National Convention which 
nominated Abraham Lincoln in i860. Mr. Blair 
was elected Governor of Michigan in i860, and re- 
elected in 1862, faithfully and honorably discharging 
the arduous duties of the office during that most mo- 






mentous and stormy period of the Nation's life. Gov. 
Blair possessed a clear comprehension of the perilous 
situation from the inception of the Rebellion, and his 
inaugural address foreshadowed the prompt executive 
policy and the administrative ability which charac- 
terized his gubernatorial career. 

Never perhaps in the history of a nation has a 
brighter example been laid down, or a greater sacri- 
fice been made, than that which distinguished Mich- 
igan during the civil war. All, from the " War Gov- 
ernor," down to the poorest citizen of the State, were 
animated with a patriotic ardor at once magnificiently 
sublime and wisely directed. 

Very early in 1861 tiie coming struggle cast its 
shadow over the Nation. Governor Blair, in his mes- 
sage to the Legislature in January of that year, dwelt 
very forcibly upon the sad prospects of civil war; and 
as forcibly pledged the .State to support the principles 
of the Republic. After a review of the conditions 
of the State, he passed on to a consideration of the 
relations between the free and slave States of the 
Republic, saying: " While we are citizens of the State 
of Michigan, and as such deeply devoted to her in- 
terests and honor, we have a still prouder title. We 
are also citizeas of the United States of America. By 
this title we are known among the nations of the earth. 
In remote quarters of the globe, where the names of 
the States are unknown, the flag of the great Republic, 
the banner of the stars and stripes, honor and protect 
her citizens. In whatever concerns the honor, the 
prosperity and the perpetuity of this great Govern- 
ment, we are deeply interested. The people of Mich- 
igan are loyal to that Government — faithful to its con- 
stitution and its laws. Under it they have had peace 
and prosperity; and under it they mean to abide to 
the end. Feeling a just pride in the glorious history 
of the past, they will not renounce the equally glo- 
rious hopes of the future. But they will rally around 
the standards of the Nation and defend its integrity 
and its constitution, with fidelity." The final para- 
graph being: 

" I recommend you at an early day to make mani- 

fest to the gentlemen who represent this State in the 
two Houses of Congress, and to the country, that 
Michigan is loyal to the Union, the Constitution, and 
the laws and will defend them to the uttermost; and 
to proffer to the President of the United States, the 
whole military power of the State for that purpose. 
Oh, for the firm, steady hand of a Washington, or a 
Jackson, to guide the ship of State in this perilous 
storm ! Let us hope that we will find him on the 4th 
of March. Meantime, let us abide in the faith of our 
fathers — ' Liberty and Union, one and inseparable, 
now and forever.' " 

How this stirring appeal was responded to by the 
people of Michigan will be seen by the statement 
that the State furnished 88,111 men during the war. 
Money, men, clothing and food were freely and abun- 
dantly supplied by this State during all these years of 
darkness and blood shed. No State won a brighter 
record for her devotion to our country than the Pen- 
insula State, and to Gov. Blair, more than to any 
other individual is due the credit for its untiring zeal 
and labors in the Nation's behalf, and for the heroism 
manifested in its defense. 

Gov. Blair was elected Representative to the 
Fortieth Congress, and twice re-elected, to the Forty- 
first and Forty-second Congress, from the Third Dis- 
trict of Michigan. While a member of that body he 
was a strong supporter of reconstruction measures, 
and sternly opposed every form of repudiation. His 
speech upon the national finances, delivered on the 
floor of the House March 2\, 1868, was a clear and 
convincing argument. Since his retirement from Con- 
gress, Mr. Blair has been busily occupied with his ex- 
tensive law practice. Mr. Blair married Sarah L. 
Ford, of Seneca County N. Y., in February, 1849. 
Their family consists of 4 sons — George H., a law 
partner of A. J. Gould ; Charles A., a law partner with 
hir father, and Fred. J. and Austin T. Blair, at home. 
Governor Blair's religion is of the broad type, and 
centers in the "Golden Rule." In 1883, Gov. Blair 
was nominated for Justice of the Supreme Court 
of the State by the Republican party, but was defeated. 






-fi® Ht 

Governor of Michigan from 
1865 to 1869, was born May 
24, 1804, at Dartmouth, Bris- 
tol Co., Mass., and died at 
Fhnt, Mich., July 22, 1S69. 
WIS the eldest son of Jesse 
and Phccbe (Howland) Crapo. 
Hib father was of French descent 
' and was very poor, sustaining his 
family by tlie cultivation of a farm in 
Dartmouth township, which yielded 
notlimg beyond a mere livelihood. 
His early life was consequently one 
of toil and devoid of advantages for 
intellectual culture, but his desire for 
an education seemed to know no bounds. The in- 
cessant toil for a mere subsistence upon a compara- 
tively sterile farm, had no charm for him ; and, longing 
for greater usefulness and better things, he looked for 
them in an education. His struggles to secure this 
end necessitated sacrifices and hardships that would 
have discouraged any but the most courageous and 
persevering. He became an ardent student and 
worker from his boyhood, though the means of carry- 
ing on his studies were exceedingly limited. He 
sorely felt the need of a dictionary, and, neither having 
money wherewith to purchase it, nor being able to 
procure one in his neighborhood, he set out to compile 
one for himself. In order to acquire a knowledge of 
the English language, he copied into a book every 
word whose meaning he did not comprehend, and 
upon meeting the same word again in the newspapers 
and books, which came into his hands, from the 

* and books 

context, would then record the definition. Whenever 
unable otherwise to obtain the signification of a word 
in which he had become interested he would walk 
from Dartmouth to New Bedford for that purpose 
alone, and after referring to the books at the library 
and satisfying himself thoroughly as to its definition, 
would walk back, a distance of about seven miles, 
the same night. This was no unusual circumstance. 
Under such difficulties and in this manner he com- 
piled quite an extensive dictionary in manuscript 
which is believed to be still in existence. 

Ever in pursuit of knowledge, he obtained posses- 
sion of a book upon surveying, and applying himself 
diligently to its study became familiar with this art, 
which he soon had an opportunity to practice. The 
services of a land surveyor were wanted, and he was 
called upon, but had no compass and no money with 
which to purchase one. A compass, however, he 
must and would have, and going to a blacksmith shop 
near at hand, upon the forge, with such tools as he 
could find in the shop, while the smith was at dinner, 
he constructed the compass and commenced life as a 
surveyor. Still continuing his studies, he fitted him- 
self for teaching, and took charge of the village school 
at Dartmouth. When, in the course of time and un- 
der the pressure of law, a high school was to be 
opened, he passed a successful examination for its 
principalship and received the appointment. To do 
this was no small task. The law re(|uired a rigid 
examination in various subjects, which necessitated 
days and nights of study. One evening, after con- 
cluding his day's labor of teaching, he traveled on foot 
to New Bedford, some seven or eight miles, called 
upon the preceptor of Friend's Academy and passed 




a severe examination. Receiving a certificate that 
he was qualified, he wallced back to his home the 
same night, highly elated in being possessed of the 
acquirements and requirements of a master of the 
high school. 

In 1832, at the age of 28 years, he left his native 
town and went to reside at New Bedford, where he 
followed the occupation of land surveyor, and oc- 
casionally acted as an auctioneer. Soon after becom- 
ing a citizen of this place, he was elected Town Clerk, 
Treasurer, and Collector of ta.\es, which office he held 
until the municipal government was changed, — about 
fifteen years, — when, upon the inauguration of the city 
government, he was elected Treasurer and Collector 
of taxes, a position which he held two or three years. 
He was also Justice of the Peace for many years. 
He was elected Alderman of New Bedford ; was 
Chairman of Council Committee on Education, and 
as such prepared a report upon which was based the 
order for the establishment of the free Public Library 
of New Bedford. On its organization, Mr. Crapo was 
chosen a member of the Board of Trustees. This 
was the first free public library in Massachusetts, if 
not in the wodd. The Boston Free Library was es- 
tablished, however, soon afterwards. While a resident 
in New Bedford, he was much interested in horticul- 
ture, and to obtain the land necessary for carrying out 
his ideas he drained and reclaimed several acres of 
rocky and swampy land adjoining his garden. Here 
he started a nursery, which he filled with almost every 
description of fruit and ornamental trees, shrubs, 
flowers, etc. In this he was very successful and took 
great pride. He was a regular contributorto the New 
England Horticultural Journal, a position he filled 
as long as he lived in fi^assachusetts. As an indica- 
tion of the wide reputation he acquired in that field 
of labor, it may be mentioned that after his death an 
affecting eulogy to his memory was pronounced by the 
President of the National Horticultural Society at its 
meeting in Philadelphia, in 1869. During his resi- 
dence in New Bedford, Mr. Crapo was also engaged 
in the whaling business. A fine barque built at Dart- 
mouth, of which he was part owner, was named the 
"H. H. Crapo" in compliment to him. 

Mr. C. also took part in the State Militia, and for 
several years held a commission as Colonel of one of 
the regiments. He was President of the Bristol 
County Mutual Fire Insurance Co., and Secretary of 
the Bedford Commercial Insurance Company in New 
Bedford; and while an officer of the municipal gov- 
ernment he com piled and published, lietwcen the years 
1836 and rS45, five numbers of the New Bedford 
Directory, the first work of the kind ever published 

Mr. C. removed to Michigan in 1856, having been 
induced to do so by investments made principally in 
pine lands, first in 1837 and subsequently in 1856. 
He took up his residence in the city of Flini, and en- 

gaged largely in the manufacture and sale of lumber 
at Flint, Fentonville, Holly and Detroit, becoming 
one of the largest and most successful business men 
of the State. He was mainly instrumental in the 
construction of the Flint & Holly R. R., and was 
President of that corporation nniil its consolidation 
with the Flint & Pere Marquette R. R. Company. 
He was elected Mayor of that city after he had been 
a resident of the place only five cr six years. In 
1862 he was elected State Senator. In the fall of 
1864 he received the nomination on the Republican 
ticket for Governor of the State, and was elected by a 
large majority. He was re elected in 1866, holding 
the office two terms, and retiring in January, 1869, 
having given the greatest satisfaction to all parties. 

While serving his last term he was attacked with a 
disease which terminated his life within one year 
afterwards. During much of this time he was an in- 
tense sufferer, yet often while in great pain gave his 
attention to public matters. A few weeks previous 
to his death a successful surgical operation was per- 
formed which seemed rapidly to restore him, but he 
overestimated his strength, and by too much exertion 
in business matters and State affairs suffered a relapse 
from which there was no rebound, and he died July 
ZZ, 1869. ■ 

In the early part of his life. Gov. Crapo affiliated 
with the Whig party in politics, but became an active 
member of the Republican party after its organization. 
He was a member of the Christian (sometimes called 
the Disciples') Church, and took great interest in its 
welfare and prosperity. 

Mr. C. married, June 9, 1825, Mary A. Slocum, 
of Dartmouth. His marriage took place soon after 
he had attained his majority, and before his struggles 
with fortune had been rewarded with any great meas- 
ure of success. But his wife was a woman of great 
strength of character and possessed of courage, hope- 
fulness and devotion, qualities which sustained and 
encouraged her husband in the various pursuits of 
his early years. For several years after his marriage 
he was engaged in teaching school, his wife living 
with her parents at the time, at whose home his two 
older children were born. While thus situated he 
was accustomed to walk home on Saturday to sec 
his family, returning on Sunday in order to be ready 
for school Monday morning. As the walk for a good 
part of the time was 20 miles each way, it is evident 
that at that period of his life no common obstacles 
deterred him from performing what he regarded 
as a duty. His wife was none the less consci- 
entious in her sphere, and with added responsibilities 
and increasing requirements she labored faithfully 
in the jierfonnance of all her duties. They had 
ten children, one son and nine daughters. His son, 
Hon. Wm. W. Crapo, of New Bedford, is now an 
honored Representative to Congress from the First 
Congressional District of Massachusetts, 



^ '^"'^ I 


^!^J>^'t>t<i^ (^ <!^O^C;^U^.,^--Cu 




#1| HBNM¥ P, BAIDWIN. \mm 

nor of Michigan from Jan. 
1869, to Jan. I, 1873, is a 
lineal descendant of Nathan- 
iel Baldwin, a Puritan, of Buck- 
inghamshire, England, who set- 
tled at Milford, Conn., in 1639. 
His father was John Baldwin, 
a graduate of Dartmouth Col- 
lege. He died at North Provi- 
dence, R. I., in 1826. His 
paternal grandfather was Rev. 
Moses Baldwin, a graduate of 
Princeton College, in 1757, and the 
first who received collegiate hon- 
ors at that ancient and honored institution. He died 
at Parma, Mass., in 1813, where for more than 50 
years he had been pastor of the Presbyterian Church. 
On his mother's side Governor B. is descended from 
Robert Williams, also a Puritan, who settled in Rox- 
bury, Mass., about 1638. His mother was a daughter 
of Rev. Nehemiah Williams, a graduate of Harvard 
College, who died at Brimfield, Mass., in 1796, where 
for 2r years he was pastor of the Congregationalist 
Church. The subject of this sketch was born at 
Coventry, R. I., Feb. 22, 1814. He received a New 
England common-school education until the age of 
12 years, when, both his parents having died, he be- 
came a clerk in a mercantile establishment. He re- 
mained there, employing his leisure hours in study, 
until 20 years of age. 

At this early period Mr. B. engaged in business on 
his own account. He made a visit to the West, in 
1837, which resulted in his removal to Detroit in the 
spring of 18158. Here he established a mercantile 
house which has been successfully conducted until 
the present time. Although he successfully conducted 

a large business, he has ever taken a deep interest in 
all tilings affecting the prosperity of the city and 
State of his adoption. He was for several years a 
Director and President of the Detroit Young Men's 
Society, an institution with a large library designed 
for the benefit of young men and citizens generally. 
An Episcopalian in religious belief, he has been 
prominent in home matters connected with that de- 
nomination. The large and flourishing parish of St. 
John, Detroit, originated with Governor Baldwin, who 
gave the lot on which the parish edifice stands, and 
also contributed the larger share of the cost of their 
erection. Governor B. was one of the foremost in 
the establishment of St. Luke's Hospital, and has 
always been a liberal contributor to moral and relig- 
ious enterprises whether connected with his own 
Church or not. There have been, in fact, but few- 
public and social improvements of Detroit during the 
past 40 years with which tlovernor B.'s name is not 
in some way connected. He was a director in the 
Michigan State Bank until the expiration of its char- 
ter, and has been President of the Second National 
Bank since its organization. 

In 1S60, Mr. Baldwin was elected to the State 
Senate, of Michigan ; during the years of iS6i-'2 he 
was made Chairman of the Finance Committee, a 
member of Committee on Banks and Incorporations, 
Chairman of the Select Joint Committee of the two 
Houses for the investigation of the Treasury Depart- 
ment and the official acts of the Treasurer, and of 
the letting of the contract for the improvement of 
Sault St. Marie Ship Canal. He was first elected 
Governor in 186S and was re-elected in 1870, serving 
from 1869 to 1872, inclusive. It is no undeserved 
eulogy to say that Governor B.'s happy faculty of es- 
timating the necessary means to an end — the knowing 
of how much effort or attention to bestow upon the 
thing in hand, has been the secret of the uniform 


If -J 



success that has attended his efforts in all relations 
of life. The same industry and accuracy that dis- 
tinguished him prior to this term as Governor was 
manifest in his career as the chief magistrate of the 
State, and while his influence appears in all things 
with which he has had to do, it is more noticeable in 
the most prominent position to which he was called. 
With rare exceptions the important commendations 
of Governor B. received the sanction of the Legislat- 
ure. During his administration marked improve- 
ments were made in the charitable, penal and reforma- 
tory institutions of the State. The State Public School 
for dependent children was founded and a permanent 
commission for the supervision of the several State 
institutions. The initiatory steps toward building the 
Eastern Asylum for the Insane, the State House of 
Correction, and the establishment of the State Board 
of Health were recommended by Governor B. in his 
message of 1873. The new State Capitol also owes 
its origen to him. The appropriation for its erection 
was made upon his recommendation, and the contract 
for the entire work let under this administration. 
Governor B. also appointed the commissioners under 
whose faithful supervision the building was erected in 
a manner most satisfactory to the peoi)le of the State. 
He advised and earnestly urged at different times 
such amendments of the constitution ^s would per- 
mit a more equitable compensation to State officers 
and judges. The law of 1869, and prior also, permitting 
municipalities to vote aid toward the construc- 
tion of railroads was, in 1870, declared unconstitu- 
tional by the Supreme Court. Many of the munici- 
palities having in the meantime issued and sold their 
bonds in good faith, Governor B. felt that the honor 
and credit of the State were in jeopardy. His sense 
of justice impelled him to call an e.\tra session of the 
Legislature to propose the submission to the people a 
constitutional amendment, authorizing the payment 
of such bonds as were already in the hands of hona- 
fidc holders. In his special message he says : "The 
credit of no State stands higher than that of Michigan, 
and the people can not afford, and I trust will not 
consent, to have her good name tarnished by the repu- 
diation of either legal or moral obligations." A spe- 
cial session was called in March, 1872, principally for 
the division of the State into congressional districts. 
A number of other important suggestions were made, 
however, and as an evidence of the Governor's la- 
borious and thoughtful care for the financial condition 

of the State, a series of tables was prepared and sub- 
mitted by him showing, in detail, estimates of receipts, 
expenditures and appropriations for the years 1872 to 
1878, inclusive. Memorable of Governor B.'s admin- 
istration were the devastating fires which swept over 
many portions of the Northwest in the fall of 187 i. 
A large part of the city of Chicago having been re- 
duced to ashes. Governor B. promptly issued a proc- 
lamation calling upon the people of Michigan for 
liberal aid in behalf of the afflicted city. Scarcely had 
this been issued when several counties in his State 
were laid waste by the same destroying element. 
A second call was made asking assistance for the suf- 
fering people of Michigan. The contributions for 
these objects were prompt and most liberal, more than 
$700,000 having been received in money and supplies 
for the relief of Michigan alone. So ample were 
these contributions during the short period of about 
3 months, that the Governor issued a proclamation 
expressing in behalf of the people of tlie State grate- 
ful acknowldgment, and announcing that further 
aid was unnecessary. 

Governor B. has traveled extensively in his own 
country and has also made several visits to Europe 
and other portions of the Old World. He was a pas- 
senger on the Steamer Arill, which was captured and 
bonded in the Carribean Sea, in December, 1862, by 
Capt. Semraes, and wrote a full and interesting ac- 
count of the transaction. The following estimate of 
Governor B. on his retirement from office, by a leading 
newspaper, is not overdrawn: "The retiring message 
of Governor B., will be read with interest. It is 
a characteristic document and possespes the lucid 
statement, strong, and clear pracrical sense, which 
have been marked features of all preceding documents 
from the same source. Governor B. retired to private 
life after four years of unusually successful adminis- 
tration amid plaudits that are universal throughout the 
State. For many years eminent and capable men 
have filled the executive chair of this State, but in 
painstaking vigilance, in stern good sense, in genuine 
public spirit, in thorough integrity and in practical 
capacity, Henry P. Baldwm has shown himself to be 
the peer of any or all of them. The State has been un- 
usually prosperous during his two terms, and the State 
administration has fully kept pace with the needs of 
the times. The retiring Governor has fully earned 
the public gratitude and confidence which he to-day 
possesses to such remarkable degree. ' 








Mmmn J, BAeiEi 


' ( . )vernor of Michigan from 
1 1^7 3 to 1877, was born in 

j Medina, Orleans Co., N. Y., 
1 ilv 24, 1832. His father, John 

Lagley, was a native of New 


Hampshire, his mother, Mary M. 
Bagle}, of Connecticut. He at- 
tended the district school of Lock- 
ix)rt, N Y., until he was eight years 
old xt which time his father moved 
to Const mtine, Mich., and he at- 
tended the common schools of that 
village His early experience was 
like that of many country boys whose 
parents removed from Eastern States 
to the newer portion of the West. 
His father being in very poor circum- 
stances, Mr. B. was obliged to work 
as soon as he was able to do so. 
Leaving school when 13 years of age 
he entered a country store in Constan- 
tine as clerk. His father then re- 
moved toOwosso, Mich.,andhe again 
engaged as clerk in a store. From 
early youth Mr. B. was extravagantly fond of reading 
and devoted every leisure moment to tlie perusal of 
such books, papers and periodicals as came within 
his reach. In 1847, he removed to Detroit, where he 
secured employment in a tobacco nfanufactory and 
remained in this position for about five years. 

In 1853, he began business for himself in the man- 
ufacturing of tobacco. His establishment has become 

one of the largest of the kind in the West. Mr. B. 
has also been greatly interested in other manufactur- 
ing enterprises, as well as in mining, banking and in- 
surance corporations. He was President of the 
Detroit Safe Company for several years. He was one 
of the organizers of the Michigan Mutual Life Insur- 
ance Company of Detroit, and was its President from 
1867 to 1872. He was a director of the Amer- 
ican National Bank for many years, and a stock- 
holder and director in various other corporations. 
Mr. B. was a member of the Board of Education two 
years, and of the Detroit Common Council the same 
length of time. In 1S65 he was appointed by Gover- 
nor Crapo one of the first commissioners of the 
Metropolitian police force of the city of Detroit, serv- 
ing six years. In November, 1872, he was elected 
Governor of Michigan, and two years later was re- 
elected to the same office, retiring in January, 1877. 
He was an active worker in the Republican party, and 
for many years was Cliairman of tiie Re|3ublican 
State Central committee. 

Governor Bagley was quite liberal in his religious 
views and was an attendant of the Unitarian Church. 
He aimed to be able to hear and consider any new 
thought, from whatever source it may come, but was not 
bound by any religious creed or formula. He held 
in respect all religious opinions, believing that no one 
can be injured by a firm adherence to a faith or de- 
nomination. He was married at Dubuque, Iowa, Jan. 
16, 1855, to Frances E. Newberry, daughter of Rev. 
Samuel Newberry, a pioneer missionary of Michigan, 
who took an active part in the early educational mat- 
ters of the State and in the establishment of its ex- 
cellent'^' system of education. It was principally 




John J. bagley. 

t^.rough his exertions that the State University was 
founded. Mr. B.'s family consists of seven children. 
As Governor his administration was charac- 
terized by several important features, chief among 
which were his efforts to improve and make popular 
the educational agencies of the State by increasing 
the faculty of the University for more thorough in- 
struction in technical studies,by strengthening the hold 
of the Agricultural College upon the public good will 
and making the general change which has manifested 
itself in many scattered primary districts. Among 
others were an almost complete revolution in the 
management of the penal and charitable institutions 
of the State; the passage of the liquor-tax law, taking 
the place of the dead letter of prohibition; the estab- 
lishing of the system of dealing with juvenile offend- 
ers through county agents, which has proved of great 
good in turning the young back from crime and plac- 
ing the State in the attitude of a moral agent ; in se- 
curing for the militia the first time in the history of 
Michigan a systematized organization upon a service- 
able footing. It was upon the suggestion of Gov. B. 
in the earlier part of his administration that the law 
creating the State Board of Health, and also the law 
creating a fish commission in the inland waters of the 
State, were passed, both of which have proved of great 
benefit to the State. The successful representation 
of Michigan at the Centennial Exhibition is also an 
honorable part of the record of Gov. B.'s adminis- 

As Governor, he felt that he represented the State 
— not in a narrow, egotistical way, but in the same 
sense that a faithful, trusted, confidential agent rep- 
resents his employer, and as the Executive of the 
State he was her " attorney in fact." And his intelli- 
gent, thoughtful care will long continue the pride of 
the people he so much loved. He was ambitious — 
ambitious for place and power, as every noble mind 
is ambitious, because these give opportunity. How- 
ever strong the mind and powerful the will, if there 
be no ambition, life is a failure. He was not blind to 
the fact that the more we have the more is required 
of us. He accepted it in its fullest meaning. He 
had great hopes for his State and his country. He had 
his ideas of what they should be. With a heart as 
broad as humanity itself; with an intelligent, able and 
cultured brain, the will and the power to do, he 
asked his fellow citizen to give him the opportunity to 

^ . labor for them. Self entered not into the calculation. 


His whole life was a battle for others ; and he entered 
the conflict eagerly and hopefully. 

His State papers were models of compact, busi- 
ness-like statements, bold, original, and brimful of 
practical suggestions, and his administrations will long 
be considered as among the ablest in this or any 
other State. 

His noble, generous nature made his innumerable 
benefactions a source of continuous pleasure. Liter- 
ally, to him it was " more blessed to give than to 

His greatest enjoyment was in witnessing the com- 
fort and happiness of others. Not a tithe of his char- 
ities were known to his most intimate friends, or even 
to his family. Many a needy one has been the recipi- 
ent of aid at an opportune moment, who never knew 
the hand that gave. 

At one time a friend had witnessed his ready re- 
sponse to some charitable request, and said to him : 
"Governor, you give away a large sum of money ; about 
how much does your charities amount to in a year.'" 
He turned at once and said: " I do not know, sir; I 
do not allow myself to know. I hope I gave more 
this year than I did last, and hope I shall give more 
next year than I have this." This expressed his idea 
of charity, that the giving should at all times be free 
and spontaneous. 

During his leasure hours from early life, and espe- 
cially during the last few years, he devoted much time 
to becoming acquainted with the best authors. Biog- 
ra]jhy was his delight; the last he read was the "Life 
and Woik of John Adams," in ten volumes. 

\n all questions of business or public affairs he 
seemed to have the power of getting at the kernel of 
the nut in the least possible time. In reading he 
would spend scarcely more time with a volume than 
most persons would devote to a chapter. After what 
seemed a cursory glance, he would have all of value 
the book contained. Rarely do we see a business 
man so familiar with the best English authors. He 
was a generous and intelligent patron of the arts, and 
his elegant home a study and a pleasure 
to his many friends, who always found there a 
hearty welcome. At Christmas time he would spend 
days doing the \Vork of Santa Claus. Every Christmas 
eve he gathered his children about him and, taking 
I he youngest on his lap, told some Christmas story, 
closing the entertainment with "The Night Before 
Christmas," or Dickens's "Christmas Carol." 




r6i V 


^ -\eji2fi/®-^^"r*^^»o ' --<<i-i7J5 , 




(Governor of Michigan from 
,' [an 3, 1877 to Jan. i, 1881, 
f was born at Newburg, Orange 
-'-' Count}, N. Y., Oct. 31, 1825. 
lie IS the only son of John and 
Sxlhe (Hicks) Croswell. His 
I father, who was of Scotcli-Irish 
I extraction, was a paper-maker, 
Jl and carried on business in New 
iL York City. His ancestors on 
his mother's side were of Knicker- 
bockei descent. The Croswell 
family may be found connected 
with prominent events, in New York 
and Connecticut, in tlie early exis- 
tence of the Republic. Harry Cros- 
well, during the administration of 
President Jefferson, published a pa- 
per called the Balance, and was 
^(j^ prosecuted for Hbeling the President 
{¥M. under the obnoxious Sedition Law. 
^(ly He was defended by the celebrated 
I Alexander Hamilton, and the decis- 
iof. ){ the case establised the important ruling that 
the truth might be shown in cases of libel. Another 
member of the family was Edwin Croswell, the fam- 
ous editor of the Albany Argus j also, Rev. William 
Croswell, noted as a divine and poet. 

When Charles M. Croswell was seven years of age, 
his father was accidentally drowned in the Hudson 
River, at Newburg ; and, within three months preced- 
ing that event, his mother and only sister had died, — 
thus leaving him the sole surviving member of the 
family, without fortune or means. Upon the death 

of his father he went to live witli an uncle, who, in 
1837, emigrated with him to Adrain, Michigan. At 
sixteen years of age, he commenced to learn the car- 
penter's trade, and worked at it very diligently for 
four years, maintaining liimself, and devoting his spare 
time to reading and the acquirement of knowledge. 
In 1846, he began the study of law, and was ap- 
pointed Deputy Clerk of Lenawee County. The du- 
ties of this office he performed four years, when he 
was elected Register of Deeds, and was re-elected 
in 1852. In 1854, he took part in the first movements 
for the formation of the Republican party, and was a 
member and Secretary of the convetion held at Jack- 
son in that year, which put in the field the first Re- 
publican State ticket in Michigan. In 1855, he 
lormed a law partnership with the present Chief- Jus- 
tice Cooley, which continued until the removal of 
Judge Cooley to Ann Arbor. 

In 1862, Mr. Croswell was appointed City Attorney 
of Adrian. He was also elected Mayor of tlie city 
in the spring of the same year; and in the fall was 
chosen to represent Lenawee County in the State 
Senate. He was re-elected to the Senate in 1864, 
and again in 1866, during each term filling the posi- 
tions above mentioned. Among various reports made 
by him, one adverse to the re-establishment of the 
death penalty, and another against a proposition to 
pay the salaries of State officers and judges in coin, 
which then commanded a very large premium, may 
be mentioned. He also drafted the act ratifying the 
Thirteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution, 
for the abolishment of slavery, it being the first 
amendment to the instrument ratified by Michigan. 
In 1863, from his seat in the State Senate, he de- 
livered an elaborate speech in favor of the Proclama- 





tion of Emancipation issued by President Lincoln, 
and of his general jwlicy in the prosecution of the 
war. This, at the request of his Republican associ- 
ates, was afterwards published. In 1867, he was 
elected a member of the Constitutional Convention, 
and chosen its presiding officer. This convention 
was composed of an able body of men ; and though, 
in the general distrust of constitutional changes 
which for some years had been taking possession of 
the people, their labors were not accepted by the pop- 
ular vote, it was always conceded that the constitu- 
tion they proposed had been prepared with great care 
and skill. 

In 1868, Mr. Croswell was chosen an Elector on 
the Republican Presidential ticket; in 1872, was 
elected a Representative to the State Legislature 
from Lenawee County, and was chosen Speaker of 
the House of Representatives. At the close of the 
session of that body his abilities as a parliamentarian, 
and the fairness of his rulings were freely and fonn- 
ally acknowledged by his associates ; and he was pre- 
sented with a superb collection of their portraits 
handsomely framed. He was, also, for several years. 
Secretary of the State Board for the general supervis- 
ion of the charitable and penal institutions of Michi- 
gan ; in which position, his propositions for the amel- 
ioration of the condition of the unfortunate, and the 
reformation of the criminal classes, signalize the be- 
nevolence of his nature, and the practical character 
of his mind. 

In 1876, the general voice of the Republicans of 
the State indicted Mr. Croswell as their choice for 
Governor; and, at the State Convention of the party 
in August of the same year, he was put in nomination 
by acclamation, without the formality of a ballot. At 
the election in November following, he was chosen to 
the high position for which he had been nominated, 
by a ver)' large majority over all opposing candidates. 
His inaugural message was received with general 
favor ; and his career as Governor was marked with 
the same qualiries of head and heart that have ever 
distinguished him, both as a citizen and statesman. 

Governor Groswell has always prepared his ad- 
dresses with care ; and, as his diction is terse, clear, 
and strong, wthout excess of ornament, and his de- 
liver)- impressive, he is a popular speaker; and many 
of his speeches have attracted favorable comment in 
the public prints, and have a permanent value. He 
has always manifested a deep interest in educational 
matters, and was foryears a member and Secretar)' of 
the Board of Education of Adrain. At the formal 
opening of the Central School building in that city, 
on the 24th day of April, 1869, he gave, in a public 
address, an " Historical Sketch of the Adrian Public 

In his private life, Governor Croswell has been as 
exemplar)' as in his public career he has been suc- 
cessful and useful. In February, 1852, he was mar- 
ried to a daughter of Morton Eddy, Lucy M. Eddy, 
a lady of many amiable and sunny qualiries. She 
suddenly died, March 19, 1868, leaving two daugh- 
ters and a son. Governor Croswell is not a member 
of any religious body, but generally attends the Pres- 
byterian Church. He pursues the profession of law, 
but of late has been occupied mainly in the care of his 
own interests, and the quiet duties of advice in 
business difficulties, for which his unfailing pru- 
dence and sound judgment eminently fit him. Gov- 
ernor Croswell is truly popular, not only with those of 
like pxalitical faith with himself, but with those who 
differ from him in this regard. 

During Gov. Croswell's administration the public 
debt was greatly reduced ; a policy adopted requiring 
the State insritutions to keep within the limit of ap- 
propriations ; laws enacted to provide more effectually 
for the punishment of corruption and bribrer)' in elec- 
rions; the State House of Correction at Ionia and the 
Eastern Asylum for the Insane at Pontiac were opened, 
and the new capital at Lansing was completed and 
occupied. The first act of his second term was to pre- 
side at the dedication of this building. The great riot 
at Jackson occured during his administration, and it 
was only bv his promptness that great distruction of 
both life and property was prevented at that time. 




,, ^.<^ff 




'.^ §|\1!B ^i. jBPvDrna •••#': ^ ^^ 

1=^ -t A. AAd'At-fcJ-^Vt»fe.tA»tt&A.»4J-«**.t^ -t.t. *((^4^'^ 

«nor of from Jan. i, 1881, to 
Jan I, 1883, was born at De- 
tioit, Mich,, Nov. 17, 1829. 
Hib parents emigrated to 
Michigan from Trumansburg, 
Tompkms Co., N. Y., in 1828, 
locating at Detroit. His father 
died March 30, 1831, leaving 
nine children. He had been 
twice married, and four of the 
children living at the time of his 
death were grown up sons, the off- 
spring of his first union. Of the 
five children by his second marriage, David H. was 
the youngest. Shortly after Mr. Jerome's death, his 
widow moved back to New York and settled in 
Onondaga County near Syracuse, where they remained 
until the fall of 1834, the four sons by the first wife 
continuing their residence in Michigan. In the fall 
of 1834, Mrs. Jerome came once more to Michigan, 
locating on a farm in St. Clair County. Here the 
Governor formed those habits of industry and ster- 
ling integrity that have been so characteristic of the 
man in the active duties of life. He was sent to the 
district school, and in the acquisition of the funda- 
mental branches of learning he displayed a precocity 
and an application which won for him the admiration 
of his teachers, and always placed him at the head 
of his classes. In the meantime he did chores on 
the farm, and was always ready with a cheerful heart 
and willing hand to assist his widowed mother. The 
heavy labor of the farm was carried on by his two 


older brothers, Timothy and George, and when 13 
years of age David received his mother's permission to 
attend school at the St. Clair Academy. While attend- 
ing there he lived with Marcus H. Miles, now de- 
ceased, doing chores for his board, and the following 
winter performed the same service for James Ogden, 
also deceased. The next summer Mrs. Jerome 
moved into the village of St. Clair, for the purpose of 
continuing her son in school. While attending said 
academy one of his associate students was Sena- 
tor Thomas W. Palmer, of Detroit, a rival candidate 
before the gubernatorial convention in 1880. He 
completed his education in the fall of his i6th year, 
and the following winter assisted his brother Timothy 
in hauling logs in the pine woods. The next summer 
he rafted logs down the St. Clair River to Algonac. 

In iS47,M. H. Miles being Clerk in St. Clair Coun- 
ty, and Volney A. Ripley Register of Deeds, David 
H. Jerome was appointed Deputy to each, remaining 
as such during i848-'49, and receiving much praise 
from his employers and the people in general for the 
ability displayed in the discharge of his duties. He 
spent his summer vacation at clerical work on board 
the lake vessels. 

In 1849- '50, he abandoned office work, and for the 
proper development of his physical system spent 
several months hauling logs. In the spring of 1850, 
his brother " Tiff " and himself chartered the steamer 
"Chautauqua," and "Young Dave" became her mas- 
ter. A portion of the season the boat was engaged 
in the passenger and freight traffic between Port 
Huron and Detroit, but during the latter part was 
used as a tow boat. At that time there was a serious 
obstruction to navigation, known as the "St. Clair 
Flats," between Lakes Huron and Erie, over which 




vessels could carry only about 10,000 bushels of grain. 
Mr. Jerome conceived the idea of towing vessels 
from one lake to the other, and put his plan into 
operation. Through the influence of practical men, — 
among them the subject of this sketch, — Congress 
removed the obstruction above referred to, and now 
vessels can pass them laden with 60,000 or 80,000 
bushels of grain. 

During the season, the two brothers succeeded 
in making a neat little sum of money by the sum- 
mer's work, but subsequently lost it all on a contract 
lo raise the "Gen. Scott," a vessel that had sunk in 
Lake St. Clair. David H. came out free from debt, 
but possessed of hardly a dollar of capital. In the 
spring of 1851, he was clerk and acting master of the 
steamers "Franklin Moore" and "Ruby," plying be- 
tween Detroit and Port Huron and Goderich. The 
following year he was clerk of the propeller "Prince- 
ton," running between Detroit and Buffalo. 

In January, 1853, Mr. Jerome went to California, 
by way of the Isthmus, and enjoyed extraordinary 
success in selling goods in a new place of his selec- 
tion, among the mountains near Marysville He re- 
mained there during the summer, and located the 
Live Yankee Tunnel Mine, which has since yielded 
millions to its owners, and is still a paying investment. 
He planned and put a tunnel 600 feet into the mine, 
but when the water supply began to fail with the dry 
season, sold out his interest. He left in the fall of 
1853, and in December sailed from San Francisco for 
New York, arriving at his home in St. Clair County, 
about a year after his departure. During his absence 
his brother "Tiff" had located at Saginaw, ana in 
1854 Mr. Jerome joined him in his lumber operations 
in the valley. In 1855 the brothers bought Black- 
mer cS: Eaton's hardware and general supply stores, 
at Saginaw, and David H. assvimed the management 
of the business. From 1855 to 1873 he was also ex- 
tensively engaged in lumbering operations. 

Soon after locating at Saginaw he was nominated 
for Alderman against Stewart B. Williams, a rising 
young man, of strong Democratic principles. The 
ward was largely Democratic, but Mr. Jerome was 
elected by a handsome majority. When the Repub- 
iican party was born at Jackson, Mich., David H. 
Jerome was, though not a delegate to the convention, 
one of its "charter members." In 1862, he was com- 
missioned by Gov. Austin Blair to raise one of the 

-4« '. 

six regiments apportioned to the State of Michigan. 
Mr. Jerome immediately went to work and held 
meetings at various points. The zeal and enthusiasm 
displayed by this advocate of the Union awakened a 
feeling of patriotic interest in the breasts of many 
brave men, and in a short space of time the 23d 
Regiment of Michigan Volunteer Infantry was placed 
in the field, and subsequently gained for itself a bril- 
liant record. 

In the fall of 1862, Mr. Jerome was nominated by 
the Republican party for State Senator from the 26th 
district, Appleton Stevens, of Bay City, being his op- 
ponent. The contest was very exciting, and resulted 
in the triumphant election of Mr. Jerome. He was 
twice renominated and elected both times by in- 
creased majorities, defeating George Lord, of Bay 
City, and Dr. Cheseman, of Gratiot County. On tak- 
ing his seat in the Senate, he was appointed Chair- 
man of the Committee on State Affairs, and was ac- 
tive in raising means and troops to carry on the war. 
He held the same position during his three terms of 
service, and introduced the bill creating the Soldiers' 
Home at Harper Hospital, Detroit. 

He was selected by Gov. Crapo as a military aid, 
and in 1865 was appointed a member of the State 
Military Board, and served as its President for eight 
consecutive years. In 1873, he was appointed by 
Gov. Bagley a member of the convention to prepare 
a new State Constitution, and was Chairman of the 
Committee on Finance. 

In 1875, Mr. Jerome was appointed a member of 
the Board of Indian Commissioners. In IS76 he was 
Chairman of a commission to visit Chief Joseph, the 
Nez Perce Indian, to arrange an amicable settlement 
of all existing difficulties. The commission went to 
Portland, Oregon, thence to the Blue Hills, in Idaho, 
a distance of 600 miles up the Columbia River. 

At the Republican State Convention, convened at 
Jackson in August, 1880, Mr. Jerome was placed in 
the field for nomination, and on the 5th day of the 
month received the highest honor the convention 
could confer on any one. His opponent was Freder- 
ick M. Holloway, of Hillsdale County, who was sup- 
ported by the Democratic and Greenback parties. 
The State was thoroughly canvassed by both parties, 
and when the polls were closed on tlie evening of 
election day, it was found that David H. Jerome had 
been selected by the voters of the Wolverine State to 
occupy the highest position within their gift. 








OblAH \V. BEGOLE, the 

present (1883), dovernor of 
Michigan was born in Living- 
ston, County, N. Y., Jan. 20, 
J 18 15. His ancestors were of 
French descent, and settled at 
an early period in the State of 
l^i't^in Matyland. Hisgrandfather,Capt. 
?^^^f Bolles, of that State, was an offi- 
'Ifl^'JJ '-'^'' '" ''''^ American army during 
the war of the Revolution. About 
the beginning of the present cent- 
uiy both his grandparents, having 
)tLome dissatisfied witji the insli- 
|i tution of slavery, althougli slave- 
holders themselves, emigrated to 
Livingston County, N. Y., then 
1 new country, taking with them a 
J Q number of their former slaves, who 
volunteered to accompany them. 
His father was an officer in the 
Vmerican army, and served during 
the war of 1S12. 
Mr. B. received his early education in a log school- 
house, and subsequently attended the Temple Hill 
.\cademy, at Geneseo, N. Y. Being the eldest of a 
family of ten children, whose parents were in moder- 
ate though comfortable circumstances, he was early 
taught habits of industry, and when 21 years of age, 
being ambitious to better his condition in life, he re- 
solved to seek his fortune in the far West, as it was 

then called. In August, 1836, he left the parental 
roof to seek a home in the Territory of Michigan^ 
then an almost unbroken wilderness. He settled in 
Genesee County, and aided with his own hands in 
building some of the early residences in what is now 
known as the city of Flint. There were but four or 
five houses where this flourishing city now stands 
when he selected it as his home. 

In the spring of 1839 he married Miss Harriet A. 
Miles. The marriage proved a most fortunate one, 
and to the faithful wife of his youth, who lives to en- 
joy with him the comforts of an honestly earned com- 
petence, Mr. Begole ascribes largely his success in 
life. Immediately after his marriage he commenced 
work on an unimproved farm, where, by his perse- 
verance and energy, he soon established a good home, 
and at the end of eighteen years was the owner of a 
well improved farm of five hundred acres. 

Mr. Begole being an anti-slavery man, became a 
member of the Republican party at its organization. 
He served his townsmen in various offices, and was 
in 1856, elected County Treasurer, which office he 
held for eight years. 

At the breaking out of the Rebellion he did not 
carry a musket to the front, but his many friends will 
bear witness that he took an active part in recruiting 
and furnishing supplies for the army, and in looking 
after the interests of soldiers' families at home. The 
death of his eldest son near Atlanta, Ga., by a Confed- 
rate bullet, in 1864, was the greatest sorrow of his life. 
When a few years later he was a member in Congress 


!i. 170 


Gov. Begole voted and worked for the soldiers' 
bounty equalization bill, an act doing justice to the 
soldier who bore the burden and heat of the day, and 
who should fare equally with him who came in at the 
eleventh hour. That bill was defeated in the House 
on account of the large appropriation that would be 
required to pay the same. 

In 1870, Gov. Begole was nominated by acclama- 
tion for the office of .State Senator, and elected by a 
large majority. In that body he served on the Com- 
mittees of Finance and Railroads, and was Chairman 
of the Committee on the Institute for the Deaf and 
Dumb and Blind. He took a liberal and public- 
spirited view of the importance of a new capitol 
building worthy of the State, and was an active mem- 
ber of the Committee that drafted the bill for the 
same. He was a delegate to the National Republi- 
can Convention held at Philadelphia in 1872, and 
was the chosen member of that delegation to go to 
Washington and inform Gen. Grant and Senator 
Wilson of their nominations. It was while at that 
convention that, by the express wish of his many 
friends, he was induced to offer himself a can- 
didate for the nomination of member to the 43d Con- 
gress, in which he was successful, after competing for 
the nomination with several of the most worthy, able 
and experienced men in the Sixth Congressional Dis- 
trict, and was elected by a very large majority. In 
Congress, he was a member of the Committee on 
Agricultural and Public Expenditures. Being one of 
the 17 farmers in that Congress, he took an active 
part in the Committee of Agriculture, and was ap- 
pointed by that committee to draft the most impor- 
tant report made by that committee, and upon the 
only subject recommended by the President in his 
message, which he did and the report was printed in 
records of Congress ; he took an efficient though an 
unobtrusive part in all its proceedings. 

He voted for the currency bill, remonetization of 
silver, and other financial measures, many of which, 
though defeated then, have since become the settled 
policy of the country. Owing to the position which 
Mr. Begole occupied on these questions, he became a 

In the Gubernatorial election of 1882, Mr. Begole 
was the candidate of both the Greenback and Dem- 
ocratic parties, and was elected by a vote of 154,269, 
the Republican candidate, Hon. David H. Jerome, 

receiving 149,697 votes. Mr, Begole, in entering 
upon his duties as Governor, has manifested a spirit 
that has already won him many friends, and bids fair 
to make his administration both successful and pop- 

The very best indications of what a man is, is what 
his own townsmen think of him. We give the fol- 
lowing extract from the Flint Globe, the leading Re- 
publican paper m Gov. Begole's own county, and it, 
too, written during the heat of a political campaign, 
which certainly is a flattering testimonial of his ster- 
ling worth : 

" So far, however, as Mr. Begole, the head of the 
ticket, is concerned, there is nothing detrimental to 
his character that can be alleged against him. He 
has sometimes changed his mind in politics, but for 
sincerity of his beliefs and the earnestness of his pur- 
pose nobody who knows him entertains a doubt. He 
is incapable of bearing malice, even against his bit- 
terest ix)litical enemies. He has a warm, generous 
nature, and a larger, kinder heart does not beat in 
the bosom of any man in Michigan. He is not much 
given to making speeches, but deeds are more signif- 
icant of a man's character than words There are 
many scores of men in all parts of the State where 
Mr. Begole is acquainted, who have had practical 
demonstrations of these facts, and who are liable to 
step outside of party lines to show that they do not 
forget his kindness, and who, no doubt, wish that he 
was a leader in what would not necessarily prove a 
forlorn hope. But the Republican party in Michigan 
is too strong to be beaten by a combination of Demo- 
crats and Greenbackers, even if it is marshaled by so 
good a man as Mr. Begole." 

This sketch would be imperfect without referring 
to the action' of Mr. B. at the time of the great calamity 
that in 1881 overtook the people of Northeastern 
Michigan, in a few hours desolating whole counties 
by fire and destroying the results and accumulations 
of such hard work as only falls to the lot of pioneers. 
While the Port Huron and Detroit committees were 
quarreluig over the distribution of funds, Mr. Begole 
wrote to an agent in the "jbumt district " a letter, from 
which we make an extract of but a single sentence : 
"Until the differences between the two committees 
are adjusted and you receive your regular supplies 
from them, draw on me. Let no man suffer while I 
have jnoney." This displays his true character, 

1 .5^. ^ ;^ 







.^/ /r\\>,:^^ 



^tCPT^\ir ''-- ' '^'^I'-LLA.ALGER.Govcnior 
T ^ r^^] of Michigan for the term com- 

^' " ^^T- J ^ iDLiK ing Jan. 1, 1885, was 
boin in Lafayette Township, 
Midnia Co., Ohio, Feb. 27, 
1^3l) Having lived a tem- 
1)01 att life, he is a comparative 
\ ling inin in appearance, and pos- 
-(.'•-cs those mental faculties that are 
the distinguishing characteristics of 
ioI)Ust, mature and educated man- 
hood. When 11 years of age both 
his parents died, leaving him with a 
younger brother and sister to sup- 
port and without any of the substan- 
tial means of existence. Lacking the opportunity of 
better employment, he worked on a farm in Eichfleld, 
Ohio, for the greater part of each of the succeeding 
seven years, saving money enough to defray his ex- 
penses at Richfield Academy during the winter 
terras. He obtained a very good English education, 
and was enabled to teach school for several subse- 
quent winters. In 1 857 he commenced the study of 
law in the offices of Wolcott & Upson at Akron, re- 
maining until March, 1859, when he was admitted 
to the bar by the Ohio Supreme Court. He then 
i-emoved to Cleveland, and entered the law office of 
Otis & Coffinbury, where he remained several 
months. Here he continued his studies with in- 
creased zeal, and did much general reading. Hard 
study and close confinement to office work, however, 
began to tell on his constitution, and failing health 
warned him that he must seek other occupation. 

He tlierefore reluctantly abandoned the law and re- 
moved to Graml Rapids, Mich., to engage in the 

When Michigan was caOcd upon to furnish troops 
for the war, Mr. Alger enlisted in the Second Mich. 
Cav. and was mustered into the service of the 
United States as Captain of Co. C. His record as 
a cavalry officer was brilliant and honorable to 
himself and his companj\ He participated in some 
of the fiercest contests of the rebellion and was 
twice wounded. His first injury was received in 
the battle of Booneville, Miss., July 2, 1862. 
His conduct in this engagement was so distin- 
guished that he was promoted to the rank of 
Major. On the same occasion his Colonel, the 
gallant Phil. Sheridan, was advanced to the rank 
of Brigadier General. A few months later, on the 
16th of October, Major Alger became Lieutenant- 
Colonel of the Sixth Mich. Cav., and was ordered 
with his regiment to the Army of the Potomac. 
After marked service in the early campaign of 1 863, 
he was again advanced, and on June 2 received his 
commission as Colonel of the Fifth Mich. Cav. His 
regiment at this time was in Custer's famous Michi- 
gan cavalry brigade. On the 6th of July occurred 
the battle of Boonesboro, Md. In this conflict he 
was again wounded. His health received a more 
than temporary impairment, and in October, 1864, 
he was obliged to retire from the service. His 
career as a soldier included many of the most cele- 
brated contests of the war. He was an active charac- 
ter in all the battles fought by the Army of the 



.. 174 



Potomac, from the time of the invasion of Mary- 
land by Gen. Leo in 1863, up to the date of his 
retirement, with the exception of those engagements 
which occurred while he was absent from duty on 
account of wounds. In all he took part in 66 bat- 
tles and skirmishes. At the close lie was breveted 
Brigadier General and Major General for "gallant 
and meritorious services in the field." 

Aside from regular dutj', Gen. Alger was on 
private service daring the winter of 1863-4, receiv- 
ing orders personally from President Lincoln and 
visiting nearly all the armies in the field. 

Gen. Alger came to Detroit in 1865, and since 
that time has been extensively engaged in the pine 
timber business and in dealing in pine lands. He 
was a member of the well-known firm of Moore <fe 
Alger until its dissolution, when he became bead of 
the firm of R. A. Alger & Co., the most extensive 
pine timber operators in the West. Gen. Alger is 
now president of the corporation of Alger, Smith & 
Co., which succeeded K. A. Alger ife Co. He is also 
president of the Manistique Lumbering Company 
and president of the Detroit, Bay City & Alpena 
Railroad Company, besides being a stockholder and 
director of the Detroit National Bank, the Peninsu- 
lar Car Company and several other large corpor- 

While always an active and influential Republi- 
can, Gen. Alger has never sought nor held a sal- 
aried office. He was a delegate from the First Dis- 
trict to the last Republican National Convention, 
but aside from this his connection with politics has 
not extended beyond the duties of every good cit- 
izen to his party and his country. 

Gen. Alger is now forty-nine years of age, an 
active, handsome gentleman six feet tall, living 
the life of a busj' man of affairs. His military 
bearing at once indicates his army life, and although 
slenderly built, his square shoulders and erect 
carriage give the casual observer the impression 
that his weight is fully 180 pounds. He is a firm, 
yet a most decidedly pleasant-appearing man, with 
a fine forehead, rather a prominent nose, an iron- 
gray moustache and chin whiskers and a full head 
of black hair sprinkled with gray. He is usually 
attired in the prevailing style of business suits. His 
favorite dress has been a high buttoned cutaway 


frock coat, with the predominating cut of vest and 
trousers, made of firm gray suiting. A high collar, 
small cravat, ea^sy shoes and white plug hat com- 
plete his personal apparel. He is very particular 
as to his appearance, and always wears neat clothes 
of the best goods, but shuns any display of jewelry 
or extravagant embellishment. He is one of the 
most approachable men imaginable. No matter 
how busy he may be, he always leaves his desk to 
extend a cordial welcome to every visitor, be he of 
high or low situation. His affable manners delight 
his guests, while his pleasing face and bright, dark 
eyes always animate his hearers. 

Gen. Alger is a hard worker. He is always at his 
office promptly in the morning and stays as long as 
anything remains that demands his attention. In 
business matters he is always decided, and is never 
shaken or disturbed bj' any reverses. He has the 
confidence of his associates to a high degree, and all 
his business relations are tempered with those little 
kindnesses that relieve the tedium of routine office 
life. Although deeply engrossed in various busi- 
ness pursuits, Gen. Alger has yet found time for 
general culture. He owns a large library and his 
stock of general information is as complete as it is 
reliable. His collection of paintings has been se- 
lected with rare good taste, and contains some of 
the finest productions of modern artists. His team 
of bays are perhaps the handsomest that grace the 
roads of Detroit, and usually lead the other outfits 
when their owner holds the reins. 

Gen. Alger has an interesting famil3'. His wife 
was Annette H. Henry, the daughter of W. G. 
Henry, of Grand Rapids, to whom he was man-ied 
April 2, 1861. She is a slender woman of fair com- 
plexion, bright and attractive, and a charming host- 
ess. She is gifted with many accomplishments and 
appears quite young. There are six children. Fay, 
a lively brunette, and Caroline A., who is rather tall 
and resembles her mother, have completed a course 
at an Eastern seminary, and during the past year 
traveled in Europe. The remaining members of 
the family are Frances, aged 13; Russell A., Jr., 
aged 1 1 ; Fred, aged 9, and Allan, aged 3. All are 
bright and prooaising children. Gen. Alger makes 
his home at his handsome and large new residence on 
Fort street, at the comer of First street, Detroit. 









piesent Governor of Michi- 
gan, combines in his cbarac- 
tei the substantial traits of 
, the New England ancestry 
of hii father, and the chival- 
loub and hospitable elements 
l^i^^-^" ptcuhai to the Southerners, which 
-<'v2#.0"'l taUiC Iv^ li.ii. fiom his mother's side of 
the house. The New Englanders, act- 
^^^ili^X ive in the cause of American liberty, 
i^Mfpi ^ftsi' tli's desired result was accom- 
'^j^h plished, turned their attention to the 
growth and development of the 
country which their noble daring had 
constituted independent of foreign rule. The pri- 
vations they endured and the struggles from which 
they had achieved victory built up in them those 
qualities which in the very nature of events could 
not be otherwise than transmitted to their posterity, 
and this posterity comprises a large number of the 
men who to-day, like the subject of this history, 
are making a record of which their descendants will 
be equally proud. 

Gov. Luce born in Windsor, Ashtabula Co., 
Ohio, July 2, 1824. His father was a native of 
Tolland, Conn., served as a soldier in the AVar of 
1812, and soon after its close emigrated from New 
England and settled on the Western Reserve in 
Northern Ohio. His mother, who in her girlhood 
was Miss Mary Gray, was born in Winchester, Va. 
Her father, tinctured with Abolitionism, found his 
home in the Old Dominion becoming uncomforti- 
ble as an abiding-place at that time, and accord- 
ingly, with his wife and family of young children, 

^^ ~~~^rrr" 

he also migrated, in 1815, to the wilds of Northern 
Ohio. There the parents of our subject, in 1819, 
were united in marriage, and continued residents of 
Ashtabula County until 1836. There also were 
born to them six sons, Cj'rus G. of this sketch being 
the second. 

The incidents in the early life of Gov. Luce were 
not materially different from those of other boys 
living on the farms in that new country. He was 
taught to work at anything necessary for him to do 
and to make himself useful around the pioneer 
homestead. When twelve years of age his parents 
removed further AVest, this time locating in Steu- 
ben County, Ind. This section of country was still 
newer and more tliinly settled, and without recount- 
ing the particular hardships and privations which the 
family experienced, it is sufficient to say that but few 
enjoyed or suffered a greater variety. Jlarkets were 
distant and difficult of access, the comforts of life 
scarce, and sickness universal. Young Luce, in com- 
mon with other boys, attended school winters in the 
stereotyped log school-house, and in summer as- 
sisted in clearing away the forests, fencing the 
fields and raising crops after the land was improved. 
He attended three terras an academy located at On- 
tario, Ind., and his habit of reading and oljservation 
added essentially to his limited school privileges. 
When seventeen years of age the father of our 
subject erected a cloth-dressing and wool-carding 
establishment, where Cyrus Ci. acquired a full 
knowledge of this business and subsequently had 
charge of the factory for a period of seven yeai's. 
In the meantime he had become interested in local 
politics, in which he displayed rare judgment and 
sound common sense, and on account of which, in 
1848, he nominated by the AVhigs in a district 
composed of the counties of DeKalb and Steuben 
for Representative in the State Legislature. He 
made a vigorous canvass but was defeated by eleven 
majority. This incident was but a transient bub- 
ble on the stream of his life, and that same year 




Mr. Luce purchased eighty acres of wild land near 
Gilead, Branch Co., Mich., the improvement of 
which he at once entered upon, clearing away the 
trees and otherwise making arrangements for the 
establishment of a homestead. In August, 1849, he 
was united in marriage with Miss Julia A. Dickinson, 
of Gilead, and the young people immediately com- 
menced housekeeping in a modest dwelling on the 
new farm. Here they resided until the death of the 
wife, which took place in August, 1882. Mrs. 
Luce was the daughter of Obed and Experience 
Dickinson, well-to-do and highly respected residents 
of Gilead. Of her union with our subject there 
were born five children, one now deceased. 

In November, 1883, Gov. Luce contracted a sec- 
ond marriage, with Mrs. Mary Thompson, of Bron- 
son, this State. He continued on the same farm, 
which, however, by subsequent purchase had been 
considerably extended, until after his election to the 
office of which he is now the incumbent. In the 
meantime he has had a wide and varied experience 
in public life. In 1 852 he was elected to represent his 
township in the County Board of Supervisors, and 
two years later, in 1 854, was elected Eepresentative to 
the first Republican Legislature convened in the State 
of Michigan. He served his township altogether 
eleven years as a member of the Board of Supervisors. 
In 1858 he was elected County Treasurer of Branch 
County and re-elected in 1860. In 1864 he was 
given a seat in the State Senate and re-elected in 
1806. In the spring of 1 867 he was made a member of 
the Constitutional Convention to revise the Consti- 
tution of the State of Michigan, and in all of the 
positions to which he has been called has evidenced 
a realization of the sober responsibilities committed 
to his care. To the duties of each he gave the most 
conscientious care, and has great reason to feel pride 
and satisfaction in the fact that during his service 
in both Houses of the Legislatwre his name appears 
upon every roll-call, he never having been absent 
from his post a day. 

In July, 1879, Mr. Luce was appointed State Oil 
Inspector by Gov. Croswell, and re-appointed by 
Gov. Jerome in 1881, serving in this capacity three 
and one-half years. In the management of the 
duties of this office he is entitled to great credit. 
The office was not sought by him, but the Governor | 

urged him to accept it, claiming that the office was 
the most difficult he had to fill, and was one which 
required first-class executive ability. He organized 
the State into districts, appointed an adequate force 
of deputies and no more, secured a reduction of the 
fees by nearly one-half, and in ever3' way managed 
the affairs of the office so efficiently and satisfac- 
torily that above all expenses he was enabled to 
pay into the State Treasury during his management 

In August of the year 1886 Mr. Luce was nom- 
inated by the Republicans in convention assembled 
at Grand Rapids, for the office of Governor of 
Michigan by acclamation, and on the 2d of Novem- 
ber following was elected b3^ a majority of 7,432 
over his chief competitor, George L. Yaple. In 
1874 he became an active member of the farm- 
ers' organization known as the Grange. Believing 
as he does that agriculture furnishes the basis of 
National prosperity, he was anxious to contribute to 
the education and elevation of the farming com- 
munity, and thus availed himself of the opportuni- 
ties offered by this organization to aid in accom- 
plishing this result. For a period of seven years he 
was Master of the State Grange but resigned the 
position last November. Fidelity to convictions, 
close application to business, whether agricultural or 
affairs of State, coupled with untiring industry, are 
his chief characteristics. As a farmer, legislator, 
executive officer, and manager of county as well as 
State affairs, as a private as well as a public citizen, 
his career has all along been marked with success. 
No one can point to a spot reflecting discredit in 
his public career or private life. He is a man of 
the people, and self-made in the strictest sense. His 
whole life has been among the people, in full sym- 
pathy with them, and iu their special confidence and 

Personally. Gov. Cyrus G. Luce is high-minded, 
intellectual and affable, the object of man}' 
and warm friendships, and a man in all respects 
above reproach. To the duties of his high position 
he has brought a fitting dignit}', and in all the re- 
lations of life that conscientious regard to duty of 
which we often read but which is too seldom seen, 
especially among those having within their hands 
the interests of State and Nation. 



MnaWee tS^ouni 








OMI of the fairest and most 
pidiliietive counties of the 
_M it Wulverine State are to 
1 ( toiunl ill what is Ivnovvn as 
SiiLithern Micliigan, and the 
tiuLfest among tliese is Lena- 
^\ee ( onnty. Thongh settlers came 
into tlii^ county as early as 1824. yet 
the commencement of its rapid 
^lo^^th was not until many 3'ears 
It was the I'ailroad that did 
>.() mucii toward the encouragement 
of stuid^ tillers of the soil to come 
to this fair and fertile region. Since 
then the county has enjoyed a steady 
growth, until to-day it stands among the foremost 
counties of the great Northwest. In the growth and 
development of her vast resources, in her agricult- 
ure and stock-raising, in all the departments of 
labor in whicli busy man is engaged ; in her churches 
and schools, in civilization and culture, Lenawee 
County has taken a front rank. Well ma}- lier peo- 
ple be proud of their product ; well may her pioneers 
turn with pride to their achievements. Witliin 
iialf a century a wilderness has been subdued and 
converted into beautiful farms and thriving, popu- 
lous cities, and a community established command- 
ing the admiration of the country. 

Afli'iaii ('olU's*'. 

i^. DUIAN COLLEGE w;is organized March 
<MU\i --■ ^^■'''- Originally it was under the 

//n»i <'iiiitrol uf tlie Wesleyan Methodist denom- 
^ illation, hut in February, 1867, it passed 

into the control of a corporation known as the Col- 
legiate Association of tlie Methodist Protestant 
Church. Its affairs are controlled by a Board of 
Trustees, thirty in number. Of these, six are 
elected b}' the Alumni Associaticjii of tlie college, 
two being chosen annuall}' for a terra of thri!e years. 
The alumni were allovved this representation in the 
board in 187G. 

The college campus contains twenty acres, a por- 
tion of it being beautifully laid out and kept. The 
buildings are four in number, all of brick, and 
fronting the east. A fifth, or building, is 
contemiilated in the plan, but has not yet been 

North Hall is 85x108 feet, and, if seen at night 
with its three tiers of gleaming lights, one .above 
the other, presents an imposing picture. Here is 
the offlee of the President, the library and the dor- 
mitories for young men. South Hall is the same 
size. It also has reception and .assembly rooms, 
the departments of music and painting, and dormi- 
tories for young ladies, under the care of a resident 
preceptress. Between these two extremes are two 





two-story buildings, each 60x80 feet. In one ni-e 
the chapel, large enough to seat 600, and halls for the 
literary societies; in the other are the museum and 
chemical and physical laboratories. 

The collection in the museum is both interesting' 
and valuable, costing |-20,000; the zoological col- 
lection alone, $5,000. Upon entering one comes 
face to face with the African lion, which seems 
something more than a dead and stuffed animal. 
Just back of him stands an elephant, hardly as large 
as Barnum's homely specimen, while near at hand 
are a giraffe, a zebra, an elk from the Rocky Mount- 
ains, and various other animals, the whole forming 
a " menagerie " which proves attractive to thousands 
of visitors every year. Over a dozen large cases 
of birds and small animals are also among the 
zoological collections. The collection of birds in- 
cludes nearly all that visit Ohio and Michigan. The 
cases of Arctic and tropical specimens are especially 
fine. The mineralogical collection includes gold, 
silver, zinc and other ores, and numerous specimens 
which are of incalculable benefit to the students in 
receiving their lessons from nature. He who would 
study geology may examine many specimens from 
the various formations all the way from the lower 
Silurian to tertiary. Or he may feast his eyes on a 
large Ichthyosaur or try to take in the cast of a 
Plesiosaur made by Dr. John Kost, long enrator of 
the museum. The skeleton of a mastodon, that 
nuist have stood nearly twelve feet high, and that 
was found in Lenawee County, has been mounted 
and is nearly complete. In the archieological de- 
partment the Indians and monnd builders are well 
represented by various articles of old-time use, and 
by specimens of rare work of those early days. 
For the benefit of the comparative anatomists a 
collection of skulls has been secured, while a human 
skeleton permits one to make satisfactory investi- 
gation of truths which it discloses. In the physical 
laboratory students are put through a course of 
experimental manipulation by which thej- are 
brought face to face with Nature's truths. The 
chemical laboratory is also fitted uji for work in 
this direction. 

The institution is divided into six distinct schools 
which classify and perfect the organization of its 
work to a beautiful sy-stem. These are : 1. The 

College of Literature and Arts. -2. The School of 
Music. 3. The School of Theology. 4. The Nor- 
mal School. 5. The Preparatory School. 6. The 
School of Commerce. 

With reference to its President and faculty many 
good things may be said. It is proverbial that our 
most vigorous institutions are presided over 1^3' 
comparatively young men, and President D. S. 
Stephens, of Adrian, has not yet reached forty, yet 
has had time to pursue courses of study in two 
institutions on this side of the water, at Adrian and 
Harvard, and one on the other side, Edinburgh 
University, while his position as President of a 
leading institution shows the high esteem in which 
he is held by the Trustees and friends of Adrian 
College. As for the other men, Dr. G. B. McElroy, 
of the Department of Mathematics, has had thirty 
years' experience, and ranks among the leading- 
mathematicians of the West, and his assistant, Prof. 
J. F. McCulloch, who is an alumnus of the college, 
has also taken a special course in mathematics at 
Johns' Hopkins' University, Baltimore. Prof. C. 
E. Wilbur, of History and English Literature, is an 
alumnus of the college, and has earned a degree at 
Yale. Prof. Wilbert Ferguson, Greek, graduated 
at Ohio Wesleyan University, and is well known as 
one of the popular instructors of the Lake Side 
Sunnner School of Languages. Prof. J. H. D. Cor- 
nelius, Latin, is a graduate of Michigan University, 
and a teacher of twenty j-ears' experience. Prof. 
W. H. Howard, Chemistry and Physics, graduated 
at Adrian and supplemented this by a laboratory 
course at Harvard. Mrs. A. B. Dotson, Preceptress, 
graduated at Ohio Wesleyan University, and Prof. 
W. H. Carrier, of the School of Commerce, at the 
Bloomington (111.) Commercial College. These, 
with other lecturers and instructors, constitute the 
corps of teachers. But the whole policy and work 
of the institution have taken shape and coloring 
from the ideas and purposes of one man more than 
any other, its President; and it is safe to sa3' that 
his conception of education and its end — the up- 
building of character — has placed Adrian College 
on the most advanced ground of any institution in 
the land. And this is a subject worthy the study of 
parents and young people. 

One of the leading features in the management 

lkxawep: county. 

of the college is the evident and steadfast purpose 
to make the formation of right character in its stu- 
dents the supreme end of all effort. The develop- 
ment in the student of a power of self-control, 
illuminated l.y a disciplined intellect and a well- 
informed mind, is the aim which duminale> the 
methods of instruction, and the whole adnn'nijtra- 
tion of the institution. It is held by the President 
that character is established only when the lialiil 
of self-regulated activity is ileveioped. Hence he 
endeavors to so shape all the work of the ci.llegi^ 
that a spirit of manl}' self-reliance shall be awakened 
among the students. It is the aim of the discipline 
of the institution to encourage the growth of self- 
reiiulated control among students. It is desired to 
rely npcm the developed love of the good and the 
awakened sense uf justice in students as more potent 
>afeguards to di,sci|iline than a multiplication of 
rules anil regulations. The student, whenever it 
can be done with safety, is entrusted with activ- 
ities that will awaken a sense of responsibility. 
This is seen both in the discipline and government 
of the students and in the courses and methods of 
instruction. In the former it is the purpose of the 
President and F'aculty to recognize the students .as 
members of a community, sharing, to .some degree, 
the responsibility of its management. 

The system of elective studies, so fully recog- 
'd, Michigan University, and 

nized nc 

I la 



that, it is belie\ed, secure the greatest advantages, 
without some of the defects that grow out of the 
system. This institution was among the tirst to 
adopt a consistent and c(jnservative apt)lication of 
this i<lea. While it was .•onceded that the studenl 

tion and order of studies, consistent with thorongh- 
uess. yet it was kept in mind that there was a 
logical sequence of studies which could not be 
violated without loss; and also, that while the 
greatest latitude in the range of studies shouhl he 
permitted, so that the in<lividual aptitudes and 
purposes of e.-ich student might be met, yet it was 
recognized that there should be a cohciiaice of 
studies throughout the course, and a concentration 
of attention to at least one of the leading depart- 

ments of knowledge to a degree approaching com- 

To pre.serve the first of these requisites, 
study of the course re([nires. as condition for eu- 

to, and prepare for success in the study desired. 
I'he student thus, while freed from all arbitrary 
and artificial restrictions in the .selection of his 
studies, is still obliged to observe that natural order 
of slIHlie.■^ which grows out of the logical connec- 
tion and character of. the studies themselves. 

In the second place, to secure unity in the 
courses of study pursued by those gi'adnating and 
to give ap|iroximate significance to the degrees 
conferred, it is provided that to .attain the degree 
of Bachelor of Arts, 7yO hours of college work in 
the departments of Latin and Greek should be re- 
quired, and enough additional in other departments 
to make in .-dl L',-'ii() hours' work. V<.n- the de.gree 
of Bachelor of Science, T.'jII honr> of work are re - 
(juired in the deparimeuts of Mathematics and 
Natural Sciences, with enough additional from 
other deiiartments to m.ake in all 2,200 hours" work. 
The degree of Bachelor of Philosophy is given 
when 7."jii hours of required work are completed in 
the departnunit of the Political and Philosophical 
Sciences, together with a sufficient number of hours 
from other departments to make 2,200 hours' 
work in all. 

It is now ten years since this imjiortant educa- 
tional reform was introduced in this college, and 
its successful operation, the desirable results ob- 
tained, the adoption of similar plans by other in- 
stitutions, all g<.) to sln)W that the step taken was in 
the ri-ht direction, and one that the wants of the 
tiuLC demau.led. 

foiination of ch.-Macter is a course of instruction 
directly iK'ai'ing upon the subject (.)f character- 
Adrian College aims to reproduce, as uearl}- as 




r scale, the elements of home 

life. Hence, with many othei- institutions, it has 
doi-mitoi-ies for its students. This docs not mean 
sni.all. nnventilated rijoms. They are pleasant, 
well lighted, ventilated and heated. They are 




cheerful, and some handsomely furnished. The 
rooms are mostly in suites of a study room and bed- 
room attached. As cleanliness in surroundings is 
made easy by the absence of fuel and ashes from 
the rooms, so cleanliness of person is ministered to 
by convenient, steam-heated bath rooms. 

While all these conveniences are supplied, the 
expenses are remarkably low. The expense for 
rooms varies from tC to $S per term for each 
student, including the heating of the room. For 
$4 or $5 additional a room may be fitted up iu 
comfortable style. The total expense for a year, 
including tuition, board — everything — varies from 
$90 to $1 ;")(), according to the manner of living. 
That these estimates are not too low is proved by 
the fact that the college actually otters, in cases 
where parents or students do not care to be troubled 
about the arrangement of details, to supply every- 
thing: board, room, heating, tuition and incidental 
charges in literary department for $150 per year, 
payable in advance in term installments. 

The following is an itemized statement of cost: 
College charges, one year. . . . $28.50 to $28.50 

Board, one year 40.00 to 90.00 

Room rent and fuel, one year 15.00 to 40.00 
Washing and light, one year . . , 8.00 to 1 2.00 
Books, one year ... 4.00 to 1 "2.00 

Total $95.50 $182.50 

With reference to tlie special linos of study, 
there is not a better equi|)i)ed school of music in 
the West. Prof. Rup[), whu has charge, was for 

some time at the Conservatory of Music at Stutt- 
gart, Germany; and New York teachers to whom 
iiis graduates have gone have been candid enough 
to own they could do little for them, so tiiorougli 
had been their training. For turning out music 
teachers this school has unusual facilities and a 
splendid reputation, as a glance at its alumni record 
will show. Students completing either of the 
courses — instrumental or vocal — and passing a 
satisfactory examination, will receive the degree of 
Bachelor of Music. To one expecting to teach 
the science, it is monej' well invested that brings 
the facilities for earning such a certificate of thor- 
ougli musical culture. 

The Normal School gives a diploma and pre- 
pares teachers in the best principles and methods of 

The School of Theology' embraces in its course 
of three years all that is usually taught in theolog- 
ical seminaries, conferring the degree of Bachelor 
of Divinity upon those who complete the course, 
having first taken a literary course and graduated 
in some college. 

The School of Commerce educates for business. 
Bookkeeping, penmanship, stenography with type- 
writing, are taught by experts, besides the students 
have the privilege of attending any of the College 
or Normal School classes, and the benefits of literary 
societies and the college library and reading-room, 
without extra charge. 






> >b. 

lEiiJBf. Ui\ P!((CkAlU. 

* •s» s»- 

^V f 

4 C^2^ ^i^U "^ WHITNEY, I)uni in War- 
\ ^"^/A "ick, Oiange Co., N. Y., 10 Feb., 
'- f ls% * 1783 dwelt there until he was 
1 ^ur^/d ihout eighteen years old, when 

J^ jty> on foot and alone, he jonrneyed 

^.- ~ 'SO^ to Romulus, N. Y., passing- 

tin ough the "beech wuods" in 
tli< northeast part of Pennsj'lva- 
nii where there was scarcely a 
iiou'^e for forty miles. He niar- 
iK.l at Romulus, 9 Nov., 180G. 
« itii Mary Frisbie. He wn.^ 
diann for service in the W;ir of 
IMi but it being diHicult for 
liim t<i leave lionie he provided 
I ^ub^iitute. In Ksi:; he |iiir- 
chised 200 acies of 1 md from the Holland Land 
Compiuj, m Shelby, Oi leans Co., N. Y.. on whieli 
he settled with his familj' in the spring of L^LL 
While ill Shelby he was Cai)tain of a militarj' coni- 
pan_y for several years. In the fall of 1827 he went 
to Michigan to look for a new home, and on the 2.!d 
of October, 1827, he bought the south half of sec- 
tion 34, and the east half of the northeast quarter 
of the same section, all now within the bounds of 
the city of Adrian, which then contained jdjout 
half a dozen buildings. In the spring of Ls2,S 
lie removed his family to Adrian, wlicrc lie 
arrived S Jvine, 1828, and settled where the Hart 

liouse now stands, on M'est Manniee street, west 
of which there was then no road cut. After 
a residence of five years in Adrian, he sold his 
farm G June, 1833, to James Wheeler, and moved 
to Nottawa, .St. Joseph County, and purchased 800 
acres of land at Sand Lake, where he dwelt until 1 839, 
then removed to Moultoii, Allen Co., Ohio, where 
he died 11 Aug., 1851. His wife died 28 Aug., 
18.51. They were buried in the cemetery at F't. 
Amanda, Ohio. His journey was noticed on the 
liftietii anniversary of his arrival, in the Adrian 
T/ini's and Expositor of 8 June, 1878, and again in 
tiie "History and Biographical Record of Lenawee 
County," page HG, as follows; 

"IlM.r A Cextikv. In the fall of 1827, Capt. 
.lames Whitney, an early settler of Orleans County, 
N . Y. . sold his farm and soon after started for the then 
far-away and wilderness Territory of Michigan, in 
search of a new home. After visiting several sec- 
tions he came to Adrian, before any surveying or 
platting of lots had been done, and purchased on 
the west side of the Raisin 400 acres of heav}' tim- 
bered land, and in May, 1828, started with his fam- 
ily by way of the Erie Canal to Buffalo, and thence 
by steamer "Niagara," Capt. William L. Pease com- 
mander, for Detroit, thence by schooner, commanded 
liy Capt. Luther Harvey, to Monroe, where he pur- 
chased teams (having brought wagons vvith him) 
and again took up his march for Adrian, which at 





that time was as far west as anj road had been 
opened east of the Mississippi, or any settlement 
made with the exception of railitarv :iiiil mission- 
ary stations, the whole western cuuntry being iu 
po'ssession of the Indians. After a tedious journey 
throngh mud, woods and waters, he arrived at his 
destination, the then embryo city of Adrian, with 
his wife and eight children, two of whom were 
Abel and William A. Whitney, who fur the first 
time fifty years ngtj to-day, saw the place where 
at this time there are nearly 10,000 inhabitants, and 
they the two oldest male residents within its cor- 
porate limits. So mnch for time and progress in 
the space of fifty years." 

Ciiildren of James and Mary (Frisbie) Whitne^y. 

I. Marian Whitney, b. at Romulus, N. Y., 1 
July, 1808; married 18 Nov., 1829, with Asher 
Stevens, who died 18 Nov., 1847. She died 7 March, 
1863. They were buried at Ft. Amanda, Ohio. 

II. Russell Whitney, b. at Romulus, N. Y., 30 
Aug., 1810; married IG Nov., 1831, with Angeline 
Rogers, and settled in Rome, Mich. 

III. Abel Whitney, who will be noticed below. 

IV. Rel)eeca Whitney, b. at Shelby, N. Y., 22 
July, 1815; married 1 March, 1833, jvith Edmund 
Burris Brown. He died 17 Nov., 1850, and she 
married (2d) with C(n-uelius Cline, and settled at 
Nottawa, Mich. 

V. James Whitney, 1>. at Shelby, N. \'., 30 Jan.. 
1818, and died in 1850, unmarried. 

VI. William Augustus Whitney, of whom .-i. no- 
tice will follow. 

VII. Benjamin Whitney, b. at Shelby, N. Y.. 
10 Aug., 1822; married 5 Nov., 1845, with Mi- 
nerva Daniels, who died 17 Ma.y, 185G, and he mar- 
ried (2d) 1 March, 1857, with Margaret Josephine 
Armstrong, and resided at Duchauquet, Ohio. She 
died. He died 14 April, 1883, and was buried in 
Shawnee Cemetery, Ohio. 

VIII. Sarah Whitney, b. at Shelby, N. Y., 17 
May, 1825; married 1 May. 1851, with William V. 
R. M. Layton, and settled at Wapakoneta, Ohio, 
where he died in 1S79. 

Abel Whitney left his birthplace witii his parents 
before he was a year old, and lived iu Shelbj', Or- 
leans Co., N. Y. In the spring of 1 828 he moved 
; with his father's family' to Michigan, arriving at 

their new home 8 June, 1828. This home was on 
the west side of the Raisin on the site of the pres- 
ent city of Adrian, which then contained five 
or six buildings, and from that small lieginning 
he has seen the entire development of the city and 
its business to the present time. He began his busi- 
ness life when only eighteen j-ears old, in the sum- 
mer of the year 1831, when, in company with 
Asher Stevens, his brother-in-law, and Richard M. 
Lewis, he visited Ohio and bought a drove of about 
200 cattle. At that time the settlements extended 
only about three miles south of Adrian. They went 
in a southwesterly course, striking Bean Creek a 
few miles above the site of Morenei, followed that 
stream to the Maumee River, which they crossed at 
Defiance, and then up the Auglaize River through 
a wilderness to Wapakoneta, St. Mary's and Green- 
ville. Returning, they swam their stock across the 
Maumee and other streams on the wa}-. In readi- 
ness to "do the next thing," in the fall of 1831 he 
took a place as clerk in the general country store 
of Messrs. Finch and Skeels, where he made himself 
useful until the dissolution of the firm, in 1832, 
when at the suggestion of one of the partners, Mr. 
Asahel Finch, he made preparation for opening a 
grocery store, cutting and hauling to mill the logs 
for lumber to build his place of business, in the 
winter of 1 S32-33, and was ready to commence 
business in the summer of 1833. This building is 
now owned by Joseph C. Jones, and is standing 
nearly opposite the Masonic Temple. The upper 
story of it was his observatory while viewing the 
heavenly wonders of the great meteoric shower of 
14 Nov., 1833. In 1834 he sold his place and busi- 
ness to Mr. Anson Clark (who came to Adrian 
from Monroe), and in 1835, in company with Mr. 
Asahel Finch, erected the building in after j-ears 
known as the Hance school building, in which thej^ 
opened the first drug-store in Adrian. His inter- 
est in this business he sold to his partner, and be- 
gan to buy and sell land, and finding some leisin'c 
time on his hands, arranged a matrimonial partner- 
ship with Miss Sarah Ann Budlong, with whom he 
married 27 Oct., 1836, and the partnership still hap- 
pily continues, after more than fifty-one years. A 
notice of Mrs. Whitney will be given below. In 
the spring of 1837 he formed a partnership with 


-•►HI— ^ 

•► m <• 


his brother-in-law, Alfred W. Biidlong, in the dry- 
goods trade, and early in the seascjn, went to New 
York to buy goods, traveling by j^tage from Toledo 
through Cleveland to Beaver, and steamboat to 
Pittsburgh, thence liy cmii:!! and short sections of 
railroad to Philadelijhia. and lioni there by steam- 
boat and stage,, he went to Albany by 
a Hudson River steamboat, to Schenectady by rail- 
road, to Buffalo by the Erie Canal, thence by stage 
to Erie, Penn., by steamboat to Toledo, and by the 
Erie & Kalamazoo Railroad to Adrian, having taken 
.about six weeks in making the ti'ip. Ilis interest in 
tliis business he sold to his partner the same year. 
Tiie project of building the Michigan Soutliern 
Railroad opened to his view a broader field of en- 
terprise, and in company with Silas Crane, he m.ade 
a contract with Gen. Levi S. Humphrey, Commis- 
sioner of the Michigan Southern Railroad, "a State 
enterprise," to furnish the superstructure for two 
miles of the road, wiiich was the first work done on 
the road west of the city of Monroe. In the spring 
of 1838, with the same partner, he contracted with 
the Commissioner to build the road from Leroy 
Bridge to Adrian, including the clearing of the 
ground, building bridges and culverts, and laying 
the iron. They opened a grocery and provision 
store in connection with their railroad work, sent 
men as far as Springfield, 111., to buy hogs, which 
were driven to Adrian and killed on what is 
at present known as Lawrence Park to supply their 
laborers and the citizens generiilly with meat. After 
fulfilling his contract on the railroad he entered into 
partnership with Mr. Henry Hart, in tiie dry-goods 
trade, continuing until 1.S42, when lie sold his inter- 
est to Mr. Hart. In 1K4:'. he was appointed Post- 
master of Adrian, and lield llie oilier until 1849. 
during which time he formed a partnership with 
Mr. Hart in the foundry business, wliicli continued 
several years. In 1849 he was in company- with 
Mr. Hiram Dawes, in tiie forwarding and commis- 
sion business on the Michigan vSouthern Railroad 
until the comp.any began providing their own ware- 
houses, when he engaged in buying and selling 
grain, which he continued until the si)ring of l«.j7. 
He was an active and inllucntial iiicmber of the 
Democratic party from LSI:; lo, during whicli 
time he was a delegate in nearly every Slate, county 

and congressional convention, but having no per- 
sonal political ambition, never presented himself 
as a candidate for office or favors from his party, 
and though asked to allow his name to be used as a 
candidate for the Legislature, Mayor of the city, 
and Supervisor, has uniformly declined any propo- 
sitions of that kind, as he had no aspirations for 
such honors, and preferred to work for the public 
interest in an individual way. In 1852 lie was a 
nicniber of tlir Democratic National Convention 
at Baltinioir, uhiih nominated Franklin Pierce for 
the Presidency, but Ijccoming dissatisfied with the 
position of his party on the question of slavery, he 
ceased to be active in its behalf. In 1860 he was 
in favor of Douglas, and without h^s i)revions 
knowledge, was nominatril by tlic party for the of- 
fice of Sheriff of Lenawee County, but the Repub- 
licans having a large majority in the county, no one 
on his ticket was elected. He voted for Abraham 
Lincoln at his second election, in 1864, and since 
that time has acted with the Republican parly. 
During the war of the Rebellion he worked eflfi- 
ciently with the friends of the Union, aiding largely 
with his means in filling the several quotas of men 
for the army, and assisting the aid society in for- 
warding supplies to the soldiers in the field. He 
was treasurer of the soldiers' bounty fund for the 
city, spending his time without compensation, and 
contributing niean> to prevent the necessity of a 
draft. When many seemed almost without hope 
that the friends of the Government would be able 
to subdue the reUellion. he loaned to the city of 
Adrian a large Mnii (,1 money, advancing $14,000 
at one time, at wlint was then a low rate of interest, 
in order that men might be found and paid to light 
the enemies of freedom and save the Xatioi.V life, 
being determined that no resident of the city should 
be forced from his home by a draft while money 
could be found to pay tiiose who were willing to 

.Mr. Whitney's interest in education was always 
active, and from 18.09 to 18G8 he was a member of 
the Board of Trustees of the public schools of 
Adrian, having been three times elected its Presi- 
dent, and aided largely, with his time and expe- 
rience, in eieeting three of the best school build- 
ings in the Slate, and in systematizing the schools, 


-► ■ <• 



serving without coinpensation, and devoting a large 
siiare of his time to the worii, fur the satisfaction of 
aiding in the successful arrangement and permanent 
establishment of a school system which should be well 
calculated to benefit the children of this and future 
generations, and prepare them for usefulness. 

In 1840 the Presbyterian society selected Mr. 
Whitney to solicit and collect funds, and contract 
for materials and labor for the erection of the 
church edifice which they still occupy, which he did, 
superintending the work as if it had been his own 
private enterprise. In 18.54 the society authorized 
him to add thirty feet to the length of the church, 
all of which was done under his personal direc- 
tion, and promoted by large outlays of his own 
means. Although he is not a member of the church 
he has for fifty years contributed liberally to its 
treasury-, and served for many years as an active 
member of its Board of Trustees. He was, for a 
long time, one of the Trustees of Adrian College, and 
contributed largely to its material prosperity, hav- 
ing on two occasions given it as much as $500 at a 
time. He was instrumental in obtaining its trans- 
fer from the Wesleyan to the Protestant Methodist 
denomination, by which means it was relieved from 
serious embarrassment, and its prosperity and use- 
fulness greatly enlarged. 

In company with Mr. Hcmy Hart, he originated 
the movement for providing a suitable resting- 
place for the dead of the city, which resulted 
in the purchase by him of twentj'-two acres of land, 
in the winter of 1847-48, of Mr. Addison J. Com- 
stock. Additions have been made to this until 
Oakvvood Cemetery now contains over ninety acres, 
and is the pride and boast of the citizens of Adrian, 
as one of the handsomest in the State. He has de- 
voted a large amount of time and thought to en- 
larging, improving and beautifviug the grounds. 
He has had the supervision of its interests for more 
than thirty years, and continues in ollicc as Treas- 
urer and Trustee. He has lieen a stockholder and 
Director in the Michigan State Insurance Companj', 
the oldest stock company in the State, for tvventy- 
three years, and its Vice President. 

Mr. Whitney raised the subscription to the stock 
of the First National Bank in 1H72, and is a stock- 

der. Director and its Vice President. He was a | 

stockholder, Director and President of the Union 
IlaU Association, and was a stockholder. Director 
and Vice President of the State Savings Bank. He 
has bought and sold large amounts of real estate in 
Adrian and other places, and done a considerable 
amount of building in Adrian, and aided in the 
general improvement and beautifying of the city. 

A lover of progress and good order, a friend to 
the worthy and unfortunate, an enemy to all 
schemes of fraud or dishonesty in public officials, 
or those in positions of trust, individual or other- 
wise, of any kind or nature, always seeking and 
working to improve the condition of mankind, 
he has been as ready to use his means to benefit 
others as to save for the purpose of adding to his 
own wealth ; and it may safely and properly be said 
that no man ever lived in Adrian who has contrib- 
uted more fi'om his time and resources ~for the 
general prosperity of the place than has Abel 

Mrs. Sarah Ann (Budlong) Whitney, wife of 
Abel Whitney, was born "21 Feb., 1 «12, at Utica, 
N. Y., where her father. Daniel Budlong, built the 
first brick house in the place, which he sold to Gov. 
Daniel D. Tompkins for a banking house. When 
she was about three years old her parents moved to 
Tully, N. Y., where her father had bought a farm 
of GOO acres, which he soon sold, and moved 
to Cortland Village, N. Y. In July, 1834, she 
came to Adrian with her brother, Alfred Wells 
Budlong, who opened a dry-goods store, and he 
being then unmarried, she began housekeeping for 
him in the fall of that year, in the same house 
where she now lives, which her husband bought a 
few years after their marriage. When about foin- 
teen years old she joined the Presbyterian Church 
at Cortland Village, N. Y., and afterward bj' a 
letter of dismission, became a member of the 
Presbyterian Church at Genoa, N. Y., from which 
she received a letter of dismission, on which 
siic joined the First Presbyterian Church of Adrian, 
13 Dec, 1835, and is now the only person remaining 
in the church who was a member at that time, al- 
ways active and ready to do a liberal share of church 
work, and contribute freely from her resources to 
its support. In 1835, the Synod of Michigan met 
at Adrian, antl a public reception was given its 


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111 embers at her house. Having been a subscriber 
and fonstaiit reader of the New York Eraiif/ph'stfor 
iiiori" than thirty j'ears, she has (.'oiiie to place a 
liigh vahie on its weekly visits. 

Augustus Harvey Whitney, the <iiily child of Abel 
and Sarah Ann (Budlong) ^^■|liUu■y, was born at 
Adrian 4 Jan., 1841 ; ayouthof rare promise, whose 
early death doomed many ardent hopes to end in 
sad regrets. He attended the public schools of 
Adrian and helped in his father's business until he 
was thirteen years old. when he was sent to attend 
a select school for boys at Beardsley's Place, in 
Monroe, Conn., after which he studied and grad- 
uated at liell's College, Chicago, 111. 
From isjo to 1857 he was clerk in the banking 
house of D. K. Tnderwood cV Co., at Adrian, of 
which his father was a partner. In 18.57, he was 
receiving and pacing teller in the banking house of 
Messrs. Taylor Si Kreigh, Chicago, 111., where he 
was attacked by typhoid fever, followed by ab- 
scesses, and after an illness of fourteen nionthb '\\p 
died at Adrian, 10 May, Is.iO, and buried in 
Oakwcjod Cemetery. 

In the preparation of the aljove, reference has 
been had and free use innde of the genealogical 
records of the Whitney family of Connecticut, and 
the "History and Biographical Record of Lenawee 

Shelby, N. Y.. 21 April, 1820; moved 
with his parents to Adrian in June, 1 .S28, 
and when eighteen j-ears old he went to Attica, N. 
Y., in the service of Elias T. Stanton and David 
Scott as a clerk in a dry -goods store. After two 
and a half years he returned to Adrian, and con- 
tinued in the .same business till the fall of 1847. 
He married 14 Sept., 1847. with Miss Ellen Maria 
Bixby, who wa.s born at Albion, N. Y.. G Ai)ri!, 
1825, and came to Adrian in the fall of 1827, with 
her parents, David and Laura (Foster) Bixbj'. In 
December, 1847, he opened the New Franklin 
Hotel, which he kept aliout one year, when he ilis- 
(losed of it and returned to the mercantile business, 
in which he continued most of the time till 18r)8. 

! In the spring of 18,")l). in which year the first 
stone pavement was laiil in Adrian, he was elected 
City Recorder: was again elected in 1800, and held 
the office till April, 1801. In the fall of 1802 he 
was elected Register of Deeds of Lenawee County ; 

I again elected two 3'ears later, and served till 1 .Fan., 
18()7. He then engaged as a clerk in the office of 
the .State Insurance Compan}', where he 
continued till the spring of 180i», when he was ap- 
liointed I'ostniaster of Adrian, which otlicc he held 
from 17 Al.ay, ISO;), to 1 7 May, 1 .s7;l. lie then 

i engaged in the printing business, and founded the 
Adrian Daihj and Weekly Press, which he pub- 
lished for nearly five years. a,iid sold out 5 April, 

As line of the very early iniial)itants of Adrian, 
he always felt an honest pride and manifested a 
genuine interest in everything that could promote 
the welfare of the city, as well as that of the whole 

1 county of Lenawee. In November, 1807, he wrote. 

I for his paper, the early history of Adrian, from 
1S2.J to 1835: and on the 17th of Febru.ary, 1875, 
he wrote the first call for a meeting of the pioneer 
settlers of Lenawee County, which meeting, held 
27 Feb., 1875, organized the Lenawee Count}' Pio- 
neer Societ}', of which he was chosen the lirst 

In 1879, in company with Mr. Richard I. Bon- 
ner, he canvassed the count}' of Lenawee, gathering 
in.-iloriaN f(ir:i seiies of biographical sketches, which 
they pLililishnl iii two handsome ' volumes, under 
the title, -'History and Biographical Record of 
Lenawee County, Michigan," a very valuable work, 
which will preserve the memory of its authors in 
the mind> of a gi-atefiil pciiilc for ages to cciiiii>. 

Mr. Whitney died 2.". January, IS.SI, and w.-i> 
buried in O.akwood Cemetery. 

Children of William Augustu> and Ellen .MarJM 
(Bixby) Whitney: 

I. Dwight Avery \Vhitney. b. :it Adrian. -.' 1 
June. IslS; in.arricd at (ti-.-mhI R,apid>, Mich., 25 
Jan., 1.S7(), with Marian Celia Lawrence, who was 
born at Rochester, N. Y., 15 May, 1848, daughter 
of Willis Thompson and Marian ( Wadsworth ) Law- 
rence. Their daughter, Lena B. Whitney, was born 
.at Adrian, 21 April, 1S7;;. 

II. F'an'ny Lee Whitney, b. at Adria,ii, 10 July, 




lenawp:e county. 

1859; married 18 Dec, 1878, with 0. F. Berdan, 
a violinist, composer and music publisher, at the 
lime of their marriage a resident of Adrian, but at 
this date of Detroit. 

<^ NDREW HOOD. Ujion the principle that 1 
l^O "a rolling stone gathers no inoss," thesnb- 

llfisi J6Ct of this biography remains at the home- 
ly' stead, the land which his father secured 
from the Government over fiftj' years ago. William 
Hood, who was born in Romulus, Seneca Co., N. 
r., Dec. '27, 1805. came to Southern Michigan when I 
a young man thirt}' years of age and selected his lo- 
cation. He then returned to his native State and 
worked two more 3'ears, in order to earn money for 
the removal of his family. 

The father of our subject, with his wife and three 
children, landed in Adrian the second time on the 
20th of September, 1837, and the same day he 
found his waj^ through the woods to his property on 
section 26, Rome Township. While being sheltered 
a few days in the house of Seth Atwood, he put up 
a shanty without windows or doors, and occupied 
tiiis with his family about six weelcs, until he could 
put up a good log house. When this structure was 
completed and the goods moved in, Mrs. Hood was 
so homesiciv tliat she objected to having her goods 
unpacked, especially her bui-eau, declaring she was 
going back to York State, as she " could not stand 
it here in the woods." The house, however, proved 
to be very comfortable, and the mother became rec- 
onciled, and finally content to regard it as her home. 
She never returned to her native State. 

John Hood, the paternal grandfather of our sub- 
ject, was born in Sunbury, Northumberland Co., 
Pa., whence with three brothers he removed into 
Seneca County, and purchased a large tract of land 
between the lakes. The brothers continued in that 
region about eighteen years, cultivating the soil, 
erecting good buildings, planting orchards, laying 
off roads, building bridges, etc., and after tlie labor 
of all these j'ears found out that their titles were de- 
fective, and tiie man of whom they purchased a 
swindler. The entire tract was set off by the Gov- 
cinment into soldiers' claims, and the HUod brothers 

not only lost their purchase money, but eighteen 
years of hard labor. John Hood fought for his 
rights, but the United States Court at Albany de- 
cided against him; he spent the remainder of his 
life in Romulus, dying there in 1832. His wife, 
Lucinda (Moody) Hood, was a native of tiie same 
town as her husband, and after his death joined her 
daughter in Michigan, and died at her home in Rome 
Township in 1862. William Hood never owned a 
farm until he came to Michigan. The expense of 
testing the claim of the Hoods to their land com- 
pletely ruined them financially, and after tlie death 
of his father, William turned his eyes toward the 
western country. His mother, who had suffered so 
much from hardship and anxiet3', lived to see her 
son the possessor of a good farm free from incum- 
brance, and with him her old age was [lassed in 
ease and plenty. 

The mother of our subject was in lior girlhood 
Miss Louisa, daughter of Thomas and Catherine 
B.:;tlett, of Romulus, N. Y., and was born there 
April 26, 1812. She became the wife of William 
Hood ou the 1st of December, 1831, and of this 
union there were born nine children, of whom three 
were born in Romulus: Hainiah B. was born Nov. 
8, 1832, and is the wife of E. W. Beers, of Adrian 
Township; Mary was born July 14, 1834, and mar- 
ried Stephen Beers, of Adrian Township, now of 
Nebraska; Andrew was born April 20, 1836, and is 
the third child ; Caroline was born after the removal 
of the familj^ to Michigan, in Rome Township, 
March 27, 1838, and died Jan. 6, 1851 ; Lewis was 
born July 21, 1840, aud is a resident of Ithaca, this 
State; Nancy was born April 29, 1842, and is the 
wife of Franklin Jerrells, of Grand Traverse; Har- 
riet A. was born Aug. 22, 1848, and died in Sep- 
tember, 1868; Jimma K. was born Aug. 15, 1852, 
and is the wife of Oscar Smith, of Adrian Town- 
ship; William H. was born Jan. 19, 1856, aud is in 
Rome Township. 

Andrew Hood made his home at the old place 
until about 1877, working first with his father, then 
rented the homestead; in 1876 he had purchased a 
tract of forty-five acres, one-half mile west. At the 
same time he had his present farm on section 26 
under process of cultivation. When twent^'-four 
years of age he was first married, Oct. 16, 1860, to 





Miss Melissa, daughter of Edward Halsted, of Rome 
Townsliip. This lady was born on the Gth of Nu- 
vemlier, 1838, and died a few months after her 
marriage, on the 6th of February, 18G1. 

Mr. Hood was married a second time, Sept. '■'>(). 
1863, to Miss Harriet, daughter of Georii:c D. .-md 
Sarah 8. (Taylor) Bascora, natives of N'eniiont. w ho 
were married in Raisin Townsliip, this county. May 
1, 1836. Mr. and Mrs. Hood have one son, (Toorue 
L.; who was born Sept. 2, 1 866, and is now a prom- 
ising young man, and has a teacher's certificate. 
Mrs. Andrew Hood attended lioth the district and 
a private school in Adrian, and developed into a 
teacher, which profession she followed nine terms. 

Mr. Hood has taken very little interest in poli- 
tics, but upon occasions of general elections votes 
the straight Democratic ticket. He is a regular at- 
tendant of the Methodist Episcopal Church. His 
farm operations are carried on after the most ap- 
proved methods, and the home is in all respects tiie 
picture of comfort and plenty. 

(^ LBERT SOUTHWORTH a pioneer of 
(^Oi Lenawee County, of the log cabin days, 

'//Is w'hore he resided, an honored and respected 
(^' citizen, for many years, and departed this 

life on the 24th of May, 1886. He was born in 
Edmeston, Otsego Co., N. Y., Jan. 1.5, 1817, while 
his father, Joseph Southworth, was born in Mans- 
field, Tolland Co., Conn., Jan. 30, 1788, but when 
young removed with his parents, Joseph and Lydia 
Southw'orth, to Edmeston, where they died. 

.loseph .Southworth, Jr., was brought u]) a farmer, 
and owned a farm in Otsego County, upon which 
he resided until 1832. In the spring of 1831 lie 
came to Michigan, and purchased of John Penning- 
ton 160 acres of land on section 23, Raisin Town- 
ship, then, returning to Otsego County, sold his 
farm there, and moved his family to Michigan, 
settling on his land in the spring of 1832. There 
was a log house, and small improvements had been 
made on the farm. His ne.arest neighbor on the 
north was Mr. Derbyshire, who lived over a mile 

distant, and on the south ^\ 
and one-half miles distant. 

Darius Comstock, one 
That fall he sowed a 


few acies of wheat, which yielded a good crop the 
following summer. ;ind furnished food U<r the fam- 
ily, which (ithcrwis.- have suffered. He cleared 
up the entire 160 acres, and afterward purchased 
160 acres more adjoining, and cleared up the most 
of it. This excellent tract of land been sub- 
divided, and now consists of four good farms. He 
also owned .'i farm on section 18, Raisin Township, 
and was one of the organizers of the township, and 
was elected one of the first Assessors. For many 
years he was <jne of the active men of the township, 
and performed his share of the work in organizing 
and establishing schools and churches. He was so- 
cial and genial, a good neighbor and kind friend, 
and a man of strong character and strict integrity, 
sagacious, prompt and ambitious. He a life- 
long Democrat, and assisted in organizing the party 
in Lenawee County after Michigan was admitted 
into the Union. On the 18th of October, 1810, 
Joseph Southworth married Hannah, daughter of 
Low White, of Sherburne, Chenango Co., N. Y.. by 
whom lie had six children, Albert being the second 
son and third child. Mrs. Hannah Southworth was 
born in Orwell, \'t.. May 23, 178.5, and died in 
Raisin Township, Sept. 13, 1849, while Joseph 
Southworth died in the same tovvnship, Sept. 14, 
1 S73. 

Albert Southworth came to Michigan with his 
parents in 1832, and was brought up a farmer, liv- 
ing on the homestead until he was twenty-one years 
of age, and assisted his father in clet,ring up the 
farm. In 1843 he went to Galena, III, and oper- 
ated in the lead mines of that locality for three 
years, but in 1848 he purchased a part of the old 
homestead in Raisin T<iwnship, upon which he re- 
sided until his death. 

September 12, 1848, Albert Southworth was 
married to Antoinette Southworth, who w;is horn 
in Erie County, Pa., on the 24th of December, 
1831. She is a daughter of Harvey and Elsie 
Southworth, residents of Pittsford, Hillsdale Co., 
Mich. To Mr. :iw\ Mrs. Southworth were born 
eight children, n^corded as follows: iSIarie Antoin- 
ette was born Aug. 11, 1849, and died at the .age 
of one; Lydia L. born Oct. 3, 1851, and 
married William Montague, of Raisin Township; 
Lunetta C. was born Dec. 11, 18,54: Albert J. was 



born Dec. 20, 1856, and died at the age of two 
years; Herbert W. was born Feb. 22, 1851) ; Kate 
L., May -I, 1862; Arthur W. Dec. I'.i, 186;',, and 
Alexander P., April 4, 1869. 

Since the death of her husband, Mrs. Southworth 
has superintended the management of the home 
place, which consists of 108 acres of highly im- 
proved land. She, as well as her husband, belonged 
to the Methodist Church, in which they were active 
and earnest. Mrs. Southworth is a lad}' of refine- 
ment and education, and is highly esteemed by all 
wild know her. 

i)ILLIAM MONTAGUP: is a generalfarnicr, 
and has achieved considerable reputation 
as a grower of small fruits and vegetables, 
in which business he has been unusually successful. 
He is pleasantlj' located on section 17, Raisin 
Township, where he owns and cultivates sixty acres 
of land. Being located so near to the city of 
Adrian, he finds a ready and profitable market for 
all his fruits and vegetables. 

The father of our subject having died in Union 
County, Pa., the mother concluded to move to the 
West, and our subject accompanied her when slie 
came to Michigan. The father was a native of 
Pennsylvania, and was born Oct. 1, 1808. During 
his life he engaged in farming and running a boat 
on the canal. At his death he left a wife and four 
children, the latter all living, whose names are as 
follows: John, who is' a mechanic in Danville, Pa., 
and married Amanda Efland ; William, our subject; 
James, now a resident of Tecumseh Township, who 
married Alice Payne, and Elizabetli, the wife of 
Daniel H. Chase, a resident of the village of Te- 

The maiden name of the mother of our subject 
was Christi.ana Scout, a native of Northumberland 
Connty, I'a., where she was reared and educated. 
She came of an old Pennsylvania family, her 
grandfather, William Scout, having been an officer 
in the war of the Revolution, in which he saw 
much active service. During these dangerous times 
he often came in contact with tlie enemy, and was 
at one time driven from his home in the night by 

'^ " ' ■ '■ ^ ' " I - I . M i r 

the Tories, and compelled to leave before he could 
dress himself, and had to lie in the brush and 
woods during the night. Mrs. Montague now re- 
sides with her children in Raisin Township, and 
though seventj'-eight years of age, is in posses- 
sion of her physical and mental faculties. Mr. 
Montague, our subject, was reared at home under 
the care of his mother until he was almost a man 
ill statiu'e and years, working at various occupa- 
tions and for different persons, in order that he 
might be able to earn his own livelihood, and not 
be a tax upon his mother. 

On the 22d of Decemlier, 1869, in Raisin Town- 
ship, William Montague married Miss [Lydia L. 
Southworth, who was a native of this township, 
and was born on the 3d of October, 1851. She 
grew to womanhood in this township, and received 
her education in the district schools, and the Raisin 
^'alley Seminaiy. ftlr. and Mrs. Montague are 
the parents of two children: Paul A., who was 
born on the 6th of May, 1872, and J. Herbert, on 
the 12th of November, 1877. They live at home 
with their parents, and attend the public schools 
and the seminary of Raisin \"allej'. 

In 1870 Mr. Montague purchased the farm upon 
which he resides and where he has erected good 
buildings, and made other substantial improve- 
ments. On this farm they have resided ever since 
their marriage and have prosecuted their business 
with good success. Mr. Montague has been a Dem- 
ocrat all his life and upon all occasions contributes 
his vote to the success of the party of liis choice. 

ILLIAM HOOD. One of the finest farms 
Rome Township was purchased by the 
of this biography twelve years 
ago, and he has since given it his undivided at- 
tention, enhancing its beauty and value. He has 
spent his entire life in this county, having been 
born in Adrian Township, Aug. 3, 1839. The Hood 
family became residents of New York State during " 
its early settlement. The parents of our subject, 
John and Olive Hood, were natives of that State 
and migrated to Michigan at an early day. 

William Hood continued under the parental roof 

W subject 



until reaching manhood and was married, Jan. 7, 
1.SC3, to Miss Emily, daughter of Roswell and Car- 
oline Hic'ks. Her father died in November, 18(17, 
and her mother Sept. 19, 1863. Mrs. Hood was 
born in Rome Township, Sept. 22, 1844, and is the 
child of one of the early pioneers of Lewanee 
County. Of this union there were two children: 
Henry P., who was born May 22, 1808, and Carrie, 
E., May 27, 1873. The former is assisting his 
father on the farm, and the latter is attending 

The Hood family, religiously, have been largely 
represented in the Bai)tist Church for generations. 
Our subject enlisted in the late war and served ten 
months, until the close; he received no wound but 
his health was greatly impaired. His property 
comprises seventy-three acres of land, with first- 
class buildings, a choice as^-ortment of live stock, 
and all the machinery for carrying on agriculture 
after the most approved methods. Mr. Hood, so- 
cially and financially, ranks among the most hon- 
ored men of Rome Township, and is full worthy of 
representation in this woik. In politii-^ hv is a 
stanch Repulilican. 


lOHN M. CARY is a citizen who h:i 


J faith in the healthfulness and salubriousness 
<if the climate of Lenawee Count}-. In his 
earlier life his health became impaired and 
it was necessary for him to travel. Acc(_)mpani-ed 
by a physician, in search of a more healthful loca- 
tion than the section of country where he was born 
and reared to manhood, he went to various sections 
of the East, South and West, first settling near 
Racine, Wis., then in Montgomery County, Ohio, 
but in 1864 finally found that the most agreeable 
locality for him was Lenawee County, .and .although 
he has resided in other places since he settled here 
originally, he is thoroughly wedded to this c<junty, 
where he is now located on section 11 of Madison 

Mr. Cary was born in Oneida County, N. Y., on 
the 20th of March, 1810. His mother died when 
he was thirteen j'ears old, and he was then bound 
out to his uncle, to leinain until he was twenty-one 


years of age. When he was nineteen years old 
he became dissatisfied with his lionie at his uncle's 
and ran away. Near Aul)nrn, N. Y., he found em- 
ployment at cutting wood, at twenty-five cents i)cr 
cord, and for the next four years he was variously 
engaged, in wood-chopping, working in a meat mar- 
ket, and upiJii a fni'm liy the month. As he had 
left his uncle l)ef(iri' he became of age, under the 
law and conditions of his indenture he was bound 
to pay the latter for the unexpired time, and this 
wouhl take all the money he had earned during the 
first two years if his uncle exacted it. But !it 
the .age of twenty-one, instead of having $80, and 
regretting that he had left his uncle, as the lat- 
ter had predicted, he had $170 and a fail- start 
in life; the highest wages he had received was 
$10 per month. 

When he was twenty-three years of age. .Mr. 
Cary was married, in Cayuga County, N. Y., to 
Miss Fannie, daughter of Ira Ho|)kins, who was 
a wealth}' farmer in that locality. Mrs. Cary was 
one of a family of eight chihb-en, and was born in 
Cayuga County. After their mai-riage then- went 
to Lysander, Onondaga County, N. Y., and 
bought a farm of Mrs. Gary's father, consisting of 
100 acres, thirty of which had been cleared, and 
on which was located ;i, log house of but one 
room. Here Mr. Cary began the struggle of life 
in earnest, and lived for thirteen years, during 
which time he made valuable improvements in the 
way of buildings and fences, and planted a fine or- 
chard. On account of the arduous labor required 
to accomplish this, his health became impaired, and 
he was obliged to sell the farm, getting for it 14,000. 
In company with Dr. Adams he then started for a 
trip to Syracuse, N. Y., with a cari'iage and two 
horses, and traveled through Pennsylvania and 
Maryland to Washington, I). C.. and thence to \'ir- 
ginia. They visited various sections of that State, 
but not finding things as they expected, they re- 
turnt^d to Washington, from which pl.acc they pro- 
ceeded to Wheeling, W. ^'a. After remaining 
there a short time they went t(j Columbus, Ohio, 
from there to Toleilo, and thence to Adrian, Mich.^ 
and on into the western part of the State. Here 
they left their team, and proceeded by the way of 
Lake Michigan to Chicago, thence by steamer to 

- ' ' " ' «» 



JMihvaukee, Wis., and from tliere they traveled to 
Racine on foot. Being so much pleased with that 
country, they made up their minds to settle near 
Racine, and returned to their homes for their fam- 
ilies. It required three weeks to make the trip with 
theii- families from Oswego, N. Y., to Racine, Wis., 
the route being liy water, hy the way of the Sti-aits 
of Mackinaw. 

At Racine Mr. Cary bought a liouse and lot, in 
which he and his family resided for three years, 
during which time he invested money in lands 
withiu a short distance of Racine, and which he sold 
at a profit. In 185G he received a sunstroke, and 
in the fall of that year he took his wife and made 
a trip to Cincinnati, Ohio, and through Kentucky, 
returning to Racine with his health considerably 
improved. He then sold his propertj' and removed 
to a point twelve miles from Cincinnati, in Mont- 
gomery County, where he engaged in the business 
of nursery and fruit farming, in which he engaged 
for nine years suece.ssfuUy, then sold out to good 
advantage and removed to Cobden, forty miles 
from Cairo, 111. Finding that section of the coun- 
try to be unhealthy, he sold his possessions there, 
and in 1864 came to Lenawee County, and purchased 
a farm in Madison Township, where he resided eleven 
years. He rented his farm in Madison Township, 
and removed to near Rome, Ga., where he purchased 
a large tract of land, but at the end of about eight 
years he returned to his old home in Madison Town- 
ship, where he has since resided. This farm is a 
small tract of land, consisting of only twenty-four 
acres, but it is very valuable propert3'. 

B}' JNIr. Cary's first marriage there were born two 
children — Ira and Elizabeth. Ira lives in Nebraska, 
and Elizabeth is the wife of Benjamin Latham, and 
resides in Movilie, Iowa. His second and present 
wife is Louisa M., daughter of Philo and Betsy 
(Hopkins) Baldwin, and by this marriage two chil- 
dren were born, one of whom, Bessie M., survives. 
VVlien a young man, Mr. Cary united with the 
Presbyterian Church, of which he lias always been 
a consistent and active member. He is a very 
strong advocate of the doctrines of Prohibition, and 
expends quite a sum of money every year in pur- 
I chasing and distributing temperance literature. He 

a man of strong convictions, and on the question | 

of temperance he is very decided in his views. 
Cary began life a poor boy, as indicated in the 
opening of this sketch, and has been successful, for 
which he is thankful to a kind Providence. He 
and his wife have endeared themselves by their 
many acts of benevolence to all the people bj' 
whom they are surrounded. Mr. Cary has led an 
exemplary, temperate life, never having used any 
intoxicating drinks or tobacco in any form, and to- 
day tlie result is manifest in the health and vigor 
that characterize his seventy-eighth 3'ear, vrhile his 
comfortable home is indicative of tlie financial re- 
sults of a temperate life. 

eHARLES E. COLLINS occupies the old 
homestead left him by his father, Isaiic Col- 
lins, and of which he came into possession in 
the spring of 1 880. It lies on section 2 in Macon 
Township and embraces "200 acres of valuable land, 
mostly under cultivation, eighty acres of which be- 
k)ng exclusively to our subject. Here he was born 
Sept. 20, 1848, and was reared on the farm, re- 
ceiving his education in the district school. Here 
his childhood and youth were spent, and he has no 
greater ambition than to continue the work which 
his honored father began, and which is well worth}' 
the best efforts of any honest man. 

Mr. Collins is the fourth child and third son of 
his pai-ents. His father was a native of Monmouth 
County, N. J., where he was reared to manhood in 
accordance with the strict principles of his New 
England ancestry and the old simple Quaker faith. 
He came to Michigan when a youth of eighteen 
years, provided with only moderate means, and 
taking up a. tract of Government land, paid for it in 
work by the day, being employed by Gabriel Mills, 
one of the pioneers of Macon Township. Mr. Col- 
lins, as soon as he had secured the warranty deed 
of his land, began to make improvements and 
also to prepare a home for the maiden whom he had 
chosen as his future wife. This was Miss Mary A. 
Allen, a native of Prince Edward Island, who came 
to the United States with her parents when a young 
girl, and located in Macon Township, this county. 
After the death of her husband the mother of our 


lenawp:e county. 


subject was iii.MiTicl 1.. Aiuliru W'iNoii. ;i native of 
Nc» York Slate, an. I now a, retired farmer (if ample 
means who makes Ins home in Teeiimseh. The 
parental household inelnded six eliildren, wlio are 
all li\'iiig and married, and mostly residents ot this 

Charles E. Collins has coiulucted the farm suc- 
cessfully for the last ten years and is keeping up its 
reputation in a creditable manner. He and all his 
brothers, like their father before them, are solid 
Republicans, politically, and arc numbered among 
the representative men of Lenawee County. 

f/OMN COLVIN, son of one of the earliest 
|l pioneers of Lenawee County, was born in 
Madison Townshij), April 2, l.s;i4. Ilisjiar- 
(^^/ ents were Isaac A. and Elizabeth (Crane) 
Colvin, who emigrated from Palmyra, N. Y.. to 
this county, settling first in Madison Township. 
Thence they removed t<.) Hillsdale Count}' about 
IH.'w.and in 1S47 they returned to this county and 
located on a tract of land in Palm3'ra Township, 
where they remained until 1851, engaged in mill- 
ing. Then, being quite well advanced in years, the 
father abandoned active laboi', and took ujiliis resi- 
dence in Adrian, where he lived for a time. I'he 
mother had died in Hudson. Isaac Colvin was 
subsequently married to Miss Nancy Tucker, who 
also died in Hudson, in ] 8>1I. 

Our subject continued with liis father until a 
youth of eighteen years. I'lie father then left 
Adrian for the West, and crossing the JNIississipjii, 
was never afterward heard from. It was believed 
that he had been foully dealt with, but the 
diligent search failed to discover what had bet'onie 
of him. The family then liroke ui), and our sub- 
ject, in company with his brfither George. \>-ent to 
Palmyra and put up a steam sawmill, whic^h they 
operated about Ave years. In l.sGO John Colvin 
crossed the plains to Pike's Peak, and remained in 
that region about seven months, when he returned 
to this county. He then engaged in milling, with 
Arthur Kellogg. They built a portable sawmill and 
continued together about three years. Mr. Colvin, 
in 1874, formed a partnership with George Livesay, 

and the (irni of Livesay it Colvin existed for a pe- 
rioil of eleven years. In I .SS5 Mr. C. purchased the 
interest of his partner in the liusiness and has since 
carried it on alone. 

Mr. Colvin was married in the city of Adrian, 
Nov. 17, 18G4, to Miss Ellen M. Livesay, the sis- 
ter of his oM partner, ami ilanghter of James Live- 
say. .Mrs. Cohin was born in Fairfield Township, 
Nov. 2;!, 1842. Her p.a.rents, James and Amelia 
(Salsbiny) Livesay, were natives of New York, and 
came to this county in the pioneer days. They 
s[)ont their last years in Kairlield Townshi]). the 
mother dying in ISCO. and the father in 1885. 
Mr. and JMrs. Colvin have a son and daughter: 
James H., born Sept. 15. 18G6, and Bessie D., May 
17, 1873. They are now at home. Mr. Colvin 
has officiated as Township Clerk, and held the 
office oi Treasurer for a period of four years. 
Socially, he belongs to Lodge No. 225, F. ir A. 
M., and with his estimable lady is a member of 
Fairfield (Trange. Politically, he votes the straight 
Republican ticket. He is a, gentleman attentive 
to his business, and holds no unimportant place 
among the intelligent people of his t(.>wn. 



EVI IIAWLEY is a native of Lenawee 
County, having been born in Adrian Town- 
ship, Dec. 30, 1838. He has lived in this 
county ever since his birth, except what time he 
passed in the service of the Government during the 
late Civil War, when he was numbered among the 
brave and gallant defenders of our National life. 
He is the son of Henrj' and Mary A. (Thomas) 
tiawley, who were among the early pioneers of 
this region. The father of our subject was a native 
of the Statef of New York, whence he came to this 
State, and followed the business of farming until 
his death, which occurred in this county in 1870, 
after he attained the age of sixty-seven years. His 
estimable wife died in 1873, also in this county. 

The subject of this sketch remained at home 
with his parents, helping to develop the farm, and 
received his education at the district schools, which 
even at that early period were instituted in this 
county. When he had attained his majority he 





vented <i piece! of land in Rome Towiisliip and 
brought it to a high state of cultivation. He re- 
mained on this farm until 1863, and then removed 
to his present home. During the summer of 1864 
strong appeals were made by the Government for 
men to fill up the depleted regiments then in the 
front. His patriotism being brought to a test in 
this moment of his country's need, he left his wife 
and home, and on the 26th of August, 1864, enlisted 
in Company H, 11th Michigan Cavalry, under 
the command of Capt. Bowen. He remained in 
this regiment until the close of hostilities, during 
which time that gallant body of men was largely 
eraploj-ed in Virginia, Tennessee and North Caro- 
lina, destroying bridges, railroad tracks, salt works 
and other public propertj'. He participated with 
the regiment in the engagements at Henry Court 
House, Salisbury, High Point, Statesville, Newton 
and others. After the surrender of Gen. Joseph 
Johnston, the regiment was ordered to Knoxville, 
Tenn., at which point he was mustered out and dis- 
charged June IG, 1865. A brave member of a 
gallant regiment, he was always ready to face any 
danger in the line of his duty. At the termination 
of his term of service he returned to his home in 
Rome Township. 

Charles Hawley, a brother of the subject of this 
sketch, a young and gallant hero, suffered a more 
unfftrtunate fate. He enlisted in Company F, 
4th Michigan Cavalry, in 1861 at the beginning 
of the war, but after two years of gallant service 
he was taken prisoner by the rebels at the sanguin- 
ary battle of Chickamauga, Sept. 19, 1863, where 
the tide of battle was so fiercely contested by tliat 
noble hero, Gen. George H. Thomas. Young 
Hawley, in company with many others, was cast in- 
to the rebel prison pen at Andersonville. Suffer- 
ing the pangs of hunger and enduring all manner 
of privations, he lived but one year, dying on the 
19th of September, 1864, when but twenty-three 
j^ears of age. A' young man with scarcely the 
bloom of youth bronzed on his cheek, laying down 
his life for his country, he had not even the satis- 
faction of offering it up in the battle's red front, 
where heroic deeds warm up the blood. Instead of 
that his life passed away among the hori'ible scenes 
of tlie foulest prison the world has ever seen, a dis- 

grace to the nineteenth centurj-. Ilis fate deserves 
commiseration, and all true patriots can sincerely 
say, "God rest. his soul.'' ' 

Levi Hawley, the subject of this sketch, and 
Miss Mariam Hood were united in marriage in 
Rome Township, Oct. 23, 1863. She is a native of 
that township, where slie was born Nov. 24, 1 840, and 
is the daughter of Moses G. and Adelia (Knowles) 
Hood. Her father is a native of New York, and 
was born Dec. 6, 1807; her mother was born in 
Seneca County, N.^Y..'in 1804. 

Mr. Hawley is now in possession of a fine and 
highl}' cultivated farm, on which he has a handsome 
residence and is surrounded by all the comforts of 
a pleasant home. Here he proposes to pass his 
declining j-cars, enjoying the fruits of his diligence 
and industry, and adding to his present possessions. 
He is a model citizen and justly stands high in the 
estimation of his friends and neighbors. 

/^) "AISLES E. BOWERMAN is a worthy rep- 
Ill r I'Psentative of the intelligence, the integrity 
^^^ and the moral worth of the people of Raisin 
Township. He is widely and favorably known 
throughout its borders and universally spoken of 
with respect and esteem. Too much credit cannot 
be given to the men who have been leaders in the 
foundation of a new settlement, and have without 
question figured largely in shaping its destiny. 
Mr. Bowerman, although exceedingly modest in 
his demeanor and totally guiltless of assuming an}- 
virtue which he does not possess, should derive 
much satisfaction in contemplation of the part 
which he has played in life, and which has been one 
of which his descendants will speak with jiride in 
after years. 

The ))roperty of our subject includes ninetj^-four 
acres of land on section 32, which has been brought 
to a fine state of cultivation, and upon which stands 
a neat and tasteful set of farm buildings. The fields 
are conveniently laid off and inclosed with good 
fences, and everything about the premises indicates 
the system and good order which have been one of 
the ruling characteristics of the proprietor. Mr. 
Bowerman for several years has given his attention 





iiioslly to the growing- of fruit iuul vegctuble:^, for 
which he finds a ready marlietin tlie city of Adrian, 
and wliich yields him annually a handsome income, 
llis success in this department of agriculture liiis 
lieen largely owing to his habit of observation, and 
tlie course of reading which he has pursued for 
many years. He keeps himself well posted in re- 
gard to his business and upon all other matters of 
general interest, so that in conversing either with 
friends or strangers, he is at home upon the general 
to]iics of the day. 

Our subject was born at the old homestead of 
his parents on section oo, in Raisin Township Aug. 
27, 1845. His father, Samuel Bowerman, was a 
native of Saratoga County, N. Y., where he sjient 
the larger part of his early life, alternately with a 
residence at times in Niagara County. About 1 So l' 
he migrated to Michigan, and not long afterward, 
becoming a resident of Lenawee County formed 
the acquaintance of Miss Dorcas, daughter of Jere- 
miah Westgate, to whom he was married in the 
spring of 1833. The Westgates were also natives 
of the Empire State, and after coming to this 
county the i)arents spent the remainder of their 
days in RaiSin Township. After their marriage 
Mr. and Mrs. Bowerman located ujion a tract of 
land in Raisin Township where they built u\> a 
good home, where their children were born, .-uid 
where tliej' spent the remainder of their days. The 
mother preceded her husband to the silent land some 
years, her death taking place April 11, 1865, when 
she was but forty-nine years of age. The father 
survived several years, dying at the age of sixty- 
six in IH.'-^o. In earl}!' manhood he had identitied 
liinisrll' with the old Whig party, but upon its 
abandonment cordially endorsed Republican princi- 
ples. Both parents were members of the Society' of 
Friends, and possessed the correct and gentle char- 
acteristics of that peculiar and conscicnticMis peo- 

Charles E. Bowerman was the eighth of eleven 
children born to his parents, and with his brothers 
and sisters pursued his earl3' studies in the primary 
schools. He took kindly to his books, and when 
sufficiently advanced entered Valley Seminary at 
Raisin. Nothing pleased him, liowevei', better than 
the fi-ee and iudejiendcnt life of a farmer, and so 

he chose this rather tlitui one of the professions, 
which it was often suggested he wasemincnily fitted 
for. In setting about the establishment of a liome 
and domestic ties of his own one of the first im- 
portant steps was his marriage, which occurred Oct. 
lo, 1864, his chosen bride lieing Miss P'rances A. 
Wilson, a native of Palmyra Township, and born 
May 23, 1844. Mrs. Bowerman is the (l:inuhlci- 
of Thomas .and Lydia B. (Hoag) Wilson, both non- 
deceased. Thomas Wilson died Dec. .'., 1S,S2, 
aged seventy-three years, and Lydia B. Wilson 
died Aug. ;!1,186;). Thomas Wilson was of En- 
glish birth and ancestry, and emigrated to America 
when a young man, coming directly to Michigan 
and locating on a tract of land in Raisin Township 
where, with his excellent wife, he spent the remain- 
der of his days. Mr. and Mrs. Wilson were both 
members of the Society of Friends, and Mrs. Wil- 
son was a preacher in that faith and spent much of 
her time in traveling in the interest of that church. 
The parental household included two children, and 
both received the advantages of a good common- 
school education. Mrs. Bowerman is a lady re- 
spected for amial)ility and intelligence, and is the 
faithful encourager of her husband in all his worth\' 
ambitions. Both are public-spirited and hospitable, 
and make it the rule of their lives to do good as 
they have opportunity. Their family includes four 
interesting children, namely: Alma L., born May 
3. IbTO; Harvey E., Sept. 11, 1872; Harry A., Feb. 
7, 1881, and Bessie L., Aug. 19, 1884. 



(^p*)HOMAS J. HARRIS. He who has no 
m^\ regard for the record of the past, and uo 
^^^ anxiety to be remembered in the future, is 
scarcely worthy to be chronicled among the lives of 
men. Such persons, however, are few, and the 
facilities for preserving the names and deeds of 
good men to their posterity have never been so 
easy as at the present time; neither have men here- 
tofore realized so deeply the importance and wis- 
dom of preserving the family record in a manner 
which should be easy of access. 

The subject of this brief history, a gentleman in 
the i)rinie of life, passed his early years in this 







State, and after serving as a solflier in the Union 
arm}', took up his residence in tliis county, since 
which time he has lived raostlj- in Adrian Town- 
ship. He was born March 7, 1839, in Homer, 
Callioun County, and is the son of Walte4L_HaiX}Si 
whose father, Isaac Harris, was a native of England. 
The latter emigrated to America when quite a 
youth, locating in New York State, and carried on 
farming there until resting from his earthly labors 
when well stricken in years. 

Walter Harris was boni in Sliaftsbury, \'t., in 
1803, and remained a resident of his native county 
until a youth of nineteen years. He was soon 
afterward married to Miss Thankful, daughter of 
Thomas Look, a whaler of New Bedford, Mass. 
The mother of our subject was born in 1800, on the 
island of Martha's X'ineyard. The parents con- 
tinued in Vermont until 1835, then made their way 
to the Territory of Michigan, locating near Hanover, 
where the father cultivated the .soil and built u\) :i 
good homestead from land which ttie mother had 
taken np from the (lovernmcut. They suljse- 
quently removed to Cleveland, Ohio, of which 
they were residents live years, then returned to 
Michigan and spent their last years in Coldwater. 
The father died when fifty-seven years of age, 
while the mother survived several years, and was 
seventy-four at the time of her death. They were 
the parents of eight children, seven of whom grew 
to mature years, but of whom only three are living. 
George W., during the late war served as a Union 
soldier in Battery I), and after his discharge from 
the army settled in Georgia, where he now lives. 

Our subject continued under the parental roof 
until after the outbreak of the late war, and soon 
after the first call for troops enlisted, April 23, 
1861. The troops were soon afterward tirdered 
South, and young Harris saw the smoke of battle 
first at Rich Mountain, in Virginia, and subsequently 
participated in the engagements at Elk Water, 
Greenbrier, Perryville, Bridgeport, Chickamauga, 
Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge, besides 
meeting the enemy in various minor engagements 
and skirmishes. Toward the close of the war he 
was detailed for garrison duty at Chattanooga, 
Tenn., and was severely injured by the discharge 
of a cannon, which, although not producing any 

flesh wound, was the occasion of a terrible shock to 
his system, and from which he has never entirely 
recovered. He is assured liy those who know that 
he is thus entitled to a pension from tiie Govern- 
ment, and will probably receive one in due time. 

Aside from tliis injury Mr. Harris returned com- 
paratively unharmed from the army, receiving his 
honorable discharge at Jackson, Mich., July 28, 
1865. His army experience was one of thrilling 
interest; upon one occasion, the batter}' while at 
Chickamauga was completely demoralized, onlj- 
one soldier who had engaged there escaping injury. 
Mr. Harris at this time was Sergeant of No. 3, and 
while busy leveling his piece at the rebels, paid no 
attention to vvhat was going on in the rear until he 
found himself surrounded by the enemy. He 
determined, however, to have one more good shot 
at them, and then with three cannoneers he started 
for the rear. They were too few, however, to 
succeed; one of the comrades of Mr. Harris fell at 
his side, but preserved consciousness enough to hand 
his i)ocket-bot)k to Sergt. Harris. There was in 
it §100 ill bills, wiiich had already been sprinkled 
witli the life blood of the dying man. Our subject 
succeeded in making his escape with the money, 
which he transferred to the hands of his Lieutenant, 
and it w.ns finally delivered safely to Mrs. Mary 
A'an Pelt, the widow of the fallen soldier. Mr. 
Harris, in the meantime, had assisted the horses to 
pull the guns, and necessarily assumed command, 
as those who had occupied this post were either 
killed or disaljled from their wounds. 

Upon his return from tlie army Mr. Harris 
employed himself as a carpenter until the spring of 
1867, and then located his future home in Adrian 
Township. In August of that same year, he was 
married to Miss Alma, daughter of Levi Fowler, a 
native of Steuben, Oneida Co., N. Y., who came to 
Michigan to prospect for land in 1834. Two 
years later Mr. Fowler brought his family to Adrian 
Township, before there was a locomotive west of 
Buffalo. The cars were drawn bj- horses and were 
nearly all day in making the trip from Toledo to 
Adrian. The Fowlers lived in a "shanty" the 
first winter, and then on account of sickness 
returned to New York, to wait until Southern 
Michigan should have become more fullj' developed. 





Mr. Fowler again came to this State in I84G, and 
spent his years in Adrian Township, this county, 
his death taking- place Nov. G, 1886. His wife, 
who in her girlhood w.ns Miss Sally Ives, lives at 
the homestead where tliey Ih'sf settled ovei- fifty 
years ago. 

Mr. :in<l Mrs. Harris, after marriage, at once 
icpaircd to the farm which they now occupy, Ijut 
wliich Ihcn presented a far different appearance 
from tluit of the present. Here their five children 
w('i'(> born. Tiie eldest, Eugene F.. came to the 
lioiisehold May 17, 1868, and is now a [)romising 
youth completing his studies in Raisin Valley Semi- 
nary; Elmer T. was horn Dec. 15, 1869. is also a 
lad of studious habits, and the companion of his 
lirother at the same institution of learning: George 
N. w;is horn Feb. 16. I.s7."), and still attends the 
district school: Frank .1. was born Oct. S. 1,H77, 
upon the ;iuniversary of the battle of Penyville, 
Ky., uhicli was the scene of one of the first engage- 
ments of his father with the enemies of the Union; 
the •• baby" was born April 16, 1886. 

Mr. Harris cast his first Presidential \'ote for 
Abr.-iham Lincoln, in November, 1860, and since 
that time has been a stanch supjiorter of the 
Kepulilican i)arty. He has always taken a warm 
interest in political matters, being present 
at the town caucuses and the county conventions, 
and giving much time to his party interests. He is 
a man whose judgment is usually correct, and one 
whose opinion is held in the highest respect. 

'^M)AM II. ITLOTII is one of the most enter- 
[ Wfuf |)rising farmers of t)gden Townshiji. Al- 

jlfM though he is still a y<jung ma.n he has 
^J attained marked success in his cIkiscu call- 

ing. He is a native of the great (;erni;in Emiiii'e. 
as was also his father, (icorge I'loth. The latter 
had the advantages of an education in the fine pub- 
lie schools of Germany, which he attended until 
he was fourteen yeai-s old, in accordance with the 
stringent educational laws of that counti-y. He 
was then apprenticed to le.arn the carpenter's trade, 
and after serving his apiirenticeship he did jounie}' 

work for some years, though he was occasionally 
employed in farming. 

In the year 1 8;)6, accompMnicd by his wWv .-md 
two children, (Jeorge Flot.h embarked for .Vuicrica. 
as a land promising richer icturns for his labor. 
He first located in Lorain Gounty. Ohio, ami there 
commenced his life as a farmer on rented hnid. be- 
ing then too ()oor to a farm. In .-i few 
years his farming ventures proved so suecessfid 
that he had .•iccnmulatod m..ney enough to buy 
s<,me land, and as he ofteu had lieanl of the cheap 
hinds in Southern Michigan he resolved to invest 
his money here. Accordingly in 1864 he came 
with his family to Ogden Townshii), where, finding 
the price of re.-il estate here within his means, he 

of this township. This townshii) is partly within 
the district formerl_y known as the Cottonwood 
Swami), and though the land was very fertile, yet, 

very slowly. :\lr. rioth's lirsl work was to fell the 
trees to make ro(nu for a dwelling. After cutting 
the trees and drawing them together there came a 
freshet, .ami he had to remove the logs to another 
spot, lie (hially coiiipleted his log cabin sufficiently 
for the occup:incy of his family, who in the mean- 
time had l>eeu boarding. He had not the means 
to improve his land at once, but had to work out 
by the day to support his family. When not thus 
employed he worked hard at clearing his laud, fell- 
ing the trees and digging out the stumps, until he 
had enough cleared to ('tiltivate it profitably with- 
out working for others. All his farm work and 
niarketing was done with o.xen for some years, but 
he was very industrious, working early and late to 
improve his farm, and had succeeded in clearing- 
fifteen acres and had it well improved when his 
useful career was cut short in the prime of life 
! by his .accidental death, Oct. 22, 1871. at the age of 
forty-ei.ehl. His death was caused by a falling 

After this .sad event tlie care of the family de- 
; volved on the mother, and well did she perform 

her part; she was a woman of nnicli spirit, and was 
i trained to self-reliant habits. Her maiden name 

was Magdalena Burk, and she is also a native of 
i (Germany ami still lives on the homestead with her 



two youngest eliildren. Slie became the mother of 
nine children, six of whom are still living, all grown 
to maturity, and recorded as follows: Adam H. ; J. 
Henry (sec sketch of .1. Henry Uloth), who mar- 
ried Miss Emma Tiffany, and resides in Ogden 
Township; Lizzie, the wife of Orrin Rugg, residing 
in Kansas; Minnie, tlie wife of James (_^ainLy, of 
Lake County, Mich., and I'eter and Conrad, who 
live on the homestead. 

Our subject was the second child born to his 
parents, the date of his birth being Feb. 2, 1852, 
and was but four years old when he came with 
them to America, and twelve years old when they 
removed to this county. He made his home with 
his parents until he was seventeen j'ears old, assist- 
ing them in the hard labors consequent upon set- 
tlement in a new country, and in the year 1869 he 
started out in the world to begin life for himself, as 
by that time the younger members of the household 
were large enough to be of great help, and his as- 
sistance was not so much needed. He went to 
Lorain County, Ohio, where he had lived with his 
parents when he first came to America, and soon 
engaged himself to work on a farm by the year, 
working thus for some years. He then returned 
to Ogden Township and remained on the homestead 
for one year, taking charge of his mother's farm. He 
next made his first purchase of land, buying forty 
acres in Ogilen Township, and lived on it for a year, 
when he went to Ohio again, and rented land in 
lioyalton Township for four years. He then re- 
turned to this State and bought the farm where 
he now resides on section 31 of Ogden Township. 
This farm consists of 120 acres of valuable land, 
seventy -five of which are cleared. He has erected 
a fine, commodious frame dwelling with all the 
modern conveniences, a large barn, and other build- 
ings, including a creamery, which he leases to other 
parties; these liuildings, in point of architecture, 
convenience and size, rank with the best in the 

Mr. Uloth has not attained this prosperity un- 
aided ; a ijart of his success is due to the aid and 
encouragement he has received from his good wife, 
to whom he was married M;irch ('>, LsTTi. Two 
children have been born tdlhcni — Aliilon .md Floyd. 

Mrs. Uloth, whose maiden name was Aljbie J. 

Santee, was born in Amboy Township, Fulton Co., 
Ohio, Feb. 25, 1859, and is the daughter of James 
G. Santee. Her grandparents were George and 
Calista (Parent) Santee, the former born in Lan- 
caster County, Pa., while his father was a native 
of one of the Eastern States. Some j'ears after his 
marriage he went to Ohio and became a pioneer of 
Amherst Township, Lorain County, where he 
erected a sawmill in connection with his farm. 
About 1857 he removed to Royalton Township, 
Fulton County, in the same State, and bought a 
tract of land in the timber, upon which he lived 
until his death a few years afterward. His son, 
James G. Santee, married in Fulton County and 
then removed to Wood County, whence he returned 
in a few years and settled in Amboy Town- 
ship, where he still resides. His wife was born in 
Lorain County, Ohio, while her father, Benjamin 
Parent, was a native of the Eastern States, and re- 
moved to Oiiio in the early settlement of Lorain 
County. Thence he removed to Fulton County 
and was an early settler of Roj^alton Township, . 
where he improved a farm, and there died. His 
wife, whose maiden name was Betsy Robb, still re- 
sides in Royalton at the advanced age of eighty- 
two years. 

Mr. Uloth is a man of much ability, sound judg- 
ment and good business principles, as is evinced by 
his early success in life. It is to such men that we 
look to sustain the present prosperitj^ of this great 
State. He is interested in the political affairs of 
his adopted countr}', and works with the Repub- 
lican partv. 

J"OHN G. MASON came to this county in 
1840 when a child five j-ears of age, and 
since that time has known no other home. 
His first recollections are of its pioneer 
scenes, amid which he spent his earl^' years, and 
afterward watched its slow but sure development 
into a section of country which has since been 
sought by people from all parts of New England 
and the Soutii. The interests of Lenawee Counts- 
have been his essentially, and he has taken delight 
in its prosperity and advancement. He was blessed 





with a good constitution, and the habits of indus- 
try in whieli he was trained by his excellent parents 
have resulted in tlic areuninlation of valuable 
l.r()perty, iuehi<ling 200 acres of land, a i^ood set 
of frame and brick buildings, witli all the machin- 
ery required for the successful iirosecution of agri- 
culture. i\lr. Mason makes his home now in the 
city of Adrian, where he has a line residence, and 
is surrounded by all the conveniences and comforts 
of moilern life. He busies himself in sni>erintend- 
iiig the operations of his farm, in which he takes 
great satisfaction, and which, in addition to its 
other fine points, is well stocked with -lerseN- itattle, 
horses and shee|i. 

Mr. Mason was Ixjrn in Kiclnuond, Ontario Co., 
N. Y., duly 9. 1S35. He is the son of Gardner 
and Olive P. Mason, and his paternal graud|)areuts 
were John and Sally :\[;ison, natives of .Mass-.^-hu- 
setts. The former was born in Swansea, in ITiw. 
and died in Bristol, N. V., in 1 .S3(; ; his wife, Sally, 
was born in Dighti>n, in 1771, and survived her 
husbanil twenty-foni- ye:irs, continuing on the old 
honu■^tcad, where her death took place July 11, 
liSdO. ,Iohii .Mason, during his early manhood, was 
a seafaring man, and part owner of a trading 
vessel, which |)lied between Boston and Newbern, 
N. C. In ISOl he decided to locate on terra Hrma, 
and proceeding to New York State took up a tract 
o{ land in the wilderness of Ontari(j County, where 
he cleared a farm, and with his estimatile wife spent 
the remainder of his days. 

Gardner Mason, the father of our sid)ject, was 
born at the farm of his p:utaits near l^>ristol, On- 
tario Co., N. Y.. Aug. ;5, isos. nwl w.'is the sixth 
in a faunly of seven children. He was a wide- 
awake and energetic 3'outli, and when ciuhteeu old purchased his time of hi> f.atlici- and set, 
out in the world f. .r himsidf. II.' was iiiunied :il, 
about Ihe lime of reaching hi> majorily, and after- 
ward, in ls;il. purchased a farm not far from the 
old homestead. He linally became owner of three 
farms in Ontario County, all of which he bought 
within a s|)ace of live years. He sohl his properly 
there after he detcrmiuc-d to emiurale to , 
and upon his ai-rival in thi.- <-oinity -e.aiivd a. large 
tract of lan.l in f'airliel.l Township, whieli was 
mostly coveled with heavy limher. lie I'leared 


about eighty acres, put up g<M)d buildings, and lived 
upon the phu'C until the winter of I .S.", |-,-,."i. The 
following sumnu'r he sold this and pinvhased .an 
improved farm in Ogden Township, of which he 
took [lossession, an<l whei'e his death occurred 
eleven years later, Oct. 1.'), Isc,',. Thi. name of 
(oinlncr Mason is recalled as that of a man pos- 
sessing many virtues, and one who eu.leavored in 
all his dealings with his fcllowmen to foil. >w .strictly 
th.' precepts of the (iolilen Rule. In appear- 
ance he was of portly- anil commanding figure, and 
in his young mauhooil distingnishe.l as an 
athlete ..f un.' p.nv.-rs. 

The m.ilher .if ..ur sulij.vt, who li.'f.jre her mar- 
riage was Miss Olive P. West, was a native of the 
same county as her husband, born in Richnnind 
Township, July i). l.SOS. ||,^r parents were Nathan 
an.l Sally West, iii..neers .,f Ontario C.iunty. .Mrs. 
.Mason c.amc t.i the West with h.'r an.l sur- 
vive.l him fourteen years, her .leath taking place in 
Adrian at the residence of her son, John G., Jan. 
3, 1880. The maternal grandparents of our sid)- 
ject were natives .)f ^lassachusetts and pioneers of 
Ontai-io County, N. Y., where their decease took 
|)lace M,t the h.)nu'Stead whi<-h they had built up 
from the wilderness. 

J.ihn G. Mason reare.l t., farm pursnils, an.l 
c.unpletcil his studies in the tall ..f IS.-,.',, in the 
public .)f A.Iriau., until his 
nnuaaage, he was engaged in agi-icultiu'e iu Ogden 
Township, remaining there initil 1872. During 
this interval he filled the offices of Postmaster, 

Sel 1 Jn-^pe.-tor an.l T..wnship Sup.a' three 

years, was Deimty Sh..rilf six y.'ars, ,an.l in the fall 
.if 1.S7-.' was electe.l Sheriff, which office he held 
t W.I y.'ius. H.' was then renominated by acclama-, but .h'f.'ated by Col. N. B. Eldredge. 

Jlr. .Mason, in .biuuary, 1 87;!, t.iok up his resi- 
.Icm.'.e in'ia.u, and two years later engaged in 
the .Irng business, which he carried .lu until the 
si)ring of 188;i. He then sold out t.i his s.m-iu- 
law. Mr. Alfre.l Johns.m, and resunual the 

inenlly i.lentifie.l with many of tlu' taiterprises 
ten. ling t.i elevati' the p.aipio, and has given par- t.i tiie maua.gement of the public 
sch.iols, as hi' is a warm Irien.l of ediu' ami is 


•► m^ *' 




willing to make sacrifices that the young may have 
the advantages which are their due as citizens of a 
free and enlightened republic. He has been a mem- 
ber of the Board of Trustees of the public schools 
of the city for several years, five of which he has 
been President, and still holds that office. Probably 
no man within the limits of Lenawee County is 
more widely or more favorably known. 

Mr. Mason, on the .'3clof February, is,")(i. several 
months before reaching his majority, assumed 
domestic ties b}' his marriage with Miss Amanda 
D. Carter, the wedding taking place at the home of 
the bride in Ogden. Mrs. Mason is the daughter of 
Norman B. and Mentha M. Carter, natives of New 
York and now deceased. She was born in Ashford, 
Cattaraugus Co., N. Y., Oct. 10, 1834, and came to 
Michigan with her parents when a child two years 
of age. She grew up amid the wild scenes of life 
in a new country, and was trained by her excellent 
mother to all those virtues and employments which 
constitute the model wife and mother. Mr. and 
Mrs. Mason became the parents of two children: 
Glendora E., who was boru in Ogden, Aug. 20, 
1857, an<l is now the wife of Alfred Johnson, of 
Adrian, and Stella D., who was born Sept. 28, 185i), 
became the wife of George L. Bennett, and now 
resides in Adrian. 

.^ ^.o,o..:cJ>;52)-o*o ^ 

<^\ J^ILLIAM A. TEACllOFT. Among tiie 
rising young men of Lenawee County ma}' 
lie nunibered the gentleman whose nanie is 
given at the head of this sketch. He is a native of 
this county, having been born in Rome Townsliip, 
where he now resides, Aug. 27, 1856, and is a son (»f 
George W. and Harriet Teachout. 

Young Teachout remained at home until he at- 
tained the age of fourteen years, since which time 
he has been largely dependent upon his own exer- 
tions for his advancement in life. He received his 
education in the district schools of his native town- 
ship, and at the lligli ScIkioI at Adrian, where he 
spent some time. Since taking upon himself the 
responsibilities of life he has been variously em- 
ployed. Like many others who depend upon their 
own exertions, lie lias not been enabled to chose 

that species of employment most congenial to him. 
Filling the position of a clerk in a store at Adrian, 
carrying the mail for four j'ears, with a fair share 
of farming, he has filled up his life to the present 
moment. On the 8th of February, 1880, he was 
united in marriage with Miss Mary L. Christman, 
who was born Dec. 20, 1801, in Rome Township, 
and is the daughtei- of Henry C. and Susan K. 
(Hines) Christman. 

Mr. Christman was boru in Niagara County, N. 
Y., Aug. 2, 1830. When he was but five years of 
age the family removed to Ohio, but after dwelling 
there three years, in 1838 they removed to Wash- 
tenaw County, Mich. Li 1868 his father, John 
Christman, removed to Gratiot Count}', Mich., 
where he is still living, having attained the ripe 
old age of eighty years. Mrs. Jane (DeCow) 
Christman, the mother of Henry, was a native of 
Canada, where she was born in 1812. and died in 
1886. Henry remained at home until he was eight- 
een years old, sometimes working on a farm but 
oftener at his trade, which was that of a carpenter 
and joiner. About 1S4:) he was appointed station 
keeper on the New York ife Erie Canal, which 
position he tilled for some time, after which he 
came to Adrian, Lenawee County, where for sev- 
eral years he was engaged at his trade, and in 1860 
removed to Rome Township. While peacefully 
carr3'ing out his business pursuits, the cloud of war 
broke over our devoted countr}', and the (iovern- 
ment kept calling for men to put down the unhol}' 
rebellion. Fired with a natural patriotism, on the 
7th of November. 1863, Henry Christman enlisted 
in Conipan}' M, 1st Regiment of Engineers and 
Mechanics, under the immediate command of Capt. 
Fdson P. Gifford. After spending a week in camp 
at Detroit, the company was taken to Bridgeport, 
Ala., and in tlint and the surrounding country they 
passed their time until M.arch, 1865, when they were 
ordered to join Gen. W. T. Sherman's arm}', at 
Goldsboro, N. C. After attaining that point they 
marched to Raleigh, in the same .State, where 
they remained until after the surrender of Gen. 
.loseph Johnston. Marching then to Washington 
with his com|)any, Mr. Christman participated in 
the grand review which took place in that city; 
proceeding then to Nashville by way of Louisville, 


201 ' 


lie there received his discharge, Sept. 22, ISG.o. 
He had acted as Sergeant thmughMit nil his time of 
service, having been proniuti'd to tiiat ijosition .-it 
the date of his muster in. 

After receiving his discliarge Mr. Christiiian ic- 
turned to Rome Township, and resuming iiis tra<lc, 
lias carried it on until the jiresent moment. lie 
was married, Dec 1. is.-,i>, to Miss Adeliiia Allen, 
whose parents were earl^' settlers of this county. 
Their married life was, however, of short duration, 
as she died on the 22d of August. I.s."i:!. Feeling 
that it was not well for man to dwell alone, on the 
23d of June, 1805, he was again united in niariiage, 
this time with Miss Susan E. llines. She i> a 
native of Yates County, N. Y., where she was horn 
Fell. 29, 1836, and is the daughter of George ami 
Sophia (Maine) Mines, both of whom were natives 
of New Jerse3'. George Hines died in Cambridge 
Township, this county, at the early age of thirty- 
two years, and his wife followed him in death, from 
the residence of Henry Christman, when sixty- 
.seven j'ears old. Mrs. Ciiristman was one of a 
family of ten children, five of wdiom grew to man- 
hood and womanhood, and are married and sur- 
rounded by families. 

Mr. and Mrs. Christman are the [larents of three 
children: Mary L., the wife of VYilliain A. Teach- 
out, and two who died in infauc}'. Mr. Christman 
is now engaged in operating in general carpentry, 
having a general repair shop in this townsiiip. 
Mr. and Mrs. William A. Teaehout are the happy 
|iarents of two interesting children: Zeda L., who 
was horn Jan. 27. .and C'l.irc W., Dec. 11, 

yT__^ ON. FERNANDO C. BEAMAN was horn 
r'^ in Ciiester County, Vt., June 28, 1«1 I, and 
/ivJ^ departed this life .-it his home in the city of 
(^ Adrian. Sept. 27. ISS-.'. He had a long and 
wearisome struggle with inliian health. :ind :is a man 
whose public career was well known throughout the 
Northwest, and whose ser\ ices had been gi'e;it, he 
was universally mourned. 

• t eireuuistaiiee^, ;uid removed with them from 
tive Stiite to Franklin County, N. V., when a 

child five years of age. He obtained a common- 
school education in his youth, and was a classmate 
of William A. Wheeha-. hite Viee l're.-,ident of the 
Inited St.ates. In is,;(; he eunimeneed il,e m ndy 
of law in the city of lloehester. and tliive ye:ir> 
later, after h.aving hccn a leM.lenl of Miehig:in 
some moiit lis. was admitted to the bar. He eom- 
nienceil piaetiee in Washtenaw County. :iim1 in IM:; 
w:is aiipointed Prosecuting Attorney of Lenawee 
Cinnly, liy ( lov. Barry, and conseipieutly liee:ime 
.a resi.Ient of Adrian, where he subsecpu'iilly m;ide 
hi- home. He pursued his law practice eontinn- 
oii-,ly. liaving for his partners some (»f the most 
eminent jurists of the Stiite, ;ind in \S;,C, was elected 
I'rohate Jmlge. serving his term, and in I S7 1 w.a^ 
appointed to the same ..Hire whieli had been mad. 

fii.aid. Hon. i;,at K'. lieeeher. In I.s7;) lie u:i,> 
appointed, liy <;ov. Croswell. (iliited Stales Senator 
to succeed Hon. Zachari:di Cliandler, deee:,<ed. 

Aside from being geneially interested in tlie 
:iftairs of the county an<I di-!riet .Mr. I'.eanian served 
as City Attorney ;ind .Mayo,- ,,r Adri;in, .and about 
tli:it time, in I.s.h;, was .■Ii,,s.mi as one of the I'resi- 
dential Electors on the Fremont ticket. I ntil I St.-, 
he h:i(l been a Democr;it. Init this ^cai- :idopted 
Free-Soil principles, and in I s,", i assisted at the 
birth of the Kepublic.-iii p.-nly under tli,. ti:idit ional 
oaks of .laekM.n. Hi- couim- had lieeii i„:iiked by 

l.scil be w:is nominat.Ml for Congress by the Uepub- 
licau-. till' district comprising the countie- ol 
(iranl., St. Joseph. Hillsdale. Leu:, wee ;ind 
Monroe. Mr. IJeanKin's m:ijoritv over liiMi|iponent, 
the Hon. S. C. Cotlin lieiry, of St. .b.-eiih, was 
0,474. Two years laPa-, .affr the re-districting of 
the State, he was once more pitted against a very 
l)opnlar imin, the Hon. E. J. Pennington, of Ply- 
mouth. W.ayue County, but was again elected, and 

o be 


Horn Fernando C. Ileaman -erve. 

:i confliet in which lie w:i> vitally i 
from any sellish motives, but from 




riotism, aud the voice of conscience which would 
only allow him to act in consonance with his views. 
Under the terrible' mental strain his health gave 
wa}', and never since his voluntary retirement from 
the Congressional arena had there been a day in 
which he did not suffer from the effects of the 
labors of those historic years. At that time he was 
the friend and close associate of Sumner, Stevens. 
Washbunie, Lincoln, Wilson, Chandler, Howard, 
and the other noble men whose works and words 
brightened that dark page of the nation's history. 
In the intelligent position which he took upon the 
question of reconstruction he was warmly com- 
mended by such men as Charles Sumner, Salmon 
P. Chase, Thaddens Stevens and other statesmen, 
and his opinions were sought for and listened to 
with that serious attention which indicated that 
they carried conviction with them. 

As an attorney aud counselor Judge Beaman 
was admirably equipped, both by nature and train- 
ing, for the duties involved in a constant succes- 
sion of intricate qnestiors. At the bar he was the 
peer of any attorney in the State, and had a 
thorough contempt for the arts of the pettifogger 
and the professional politician. He was particu- 
larly courteous with the younger members of the 
profession, remembering his own early efforts, and 
that eminence could only be attained by steady and 
resolute persistence. He was conscientious in his 
practice, never taking a case of whose justice he 
was not fully convinced. 

The marriage of Fernando C. Beaman and Miss 
Mary Goodrich was celebrated in Brockport, N. Y., 
on the 10th of May, 1841. Mrs. B. is the daughter 
of Ira and Fear (Potter) Goodrich, natives of New 
York State, in which both families had been repre- 
sented for several generations. They were mostlj' 
farmers by occupation, but Mr. Goodrich, during 
the later years of his life, engaged in mercantile 
pursuits. He died at the age of forty years, at 
Rochester, N. Y., and his excellent wife spent her 
last years at Brockport. Mrs. B(!aman was well 
educated, and moved in the best society of her 
native State, being an own cousin of .St'uator Piatt. 
Of her union with our subject there were born 
three children, namely: Mary A., born in this 
county Marcli f, 1842, and now the wife of Rienzi 

H. Baker; Edward C, born March 12, 1845, in 
Adrian, died July 5, 1846; Roscoe W., born in 
Adrian, July is, 1847, died in Chicago, Aug. 
.•!1, 1877. 

Mrs. Beainan w'as well fitted, both by nature and 
training, to be the companion of such a man as her 
husband. She stood by his side during sunshine 
and storm, proving his most faithful counselor and 
sympathizer. She is still living in Adrian in the 
enjoyment of good health, honored and respected 
bv all wIkj know her. 

Fernando C. Beaman was the son of Josliua and 
Hannah (Olcott) Beaman, natives respectivelj' of 
Lancaster, IMass., and Windsor County, Vt. Joshua 
Beaman was a descendant of Gamaliel Beaman, 
whose parents settled in Dorchester, Mass., when 
Gamaliel was a lad twelve years of age. The latter 
was married in earlj^ manhood, and became the 
father of eight children. His grandson, Elijah, 
married Miss Thankful Nichols, in 1859, and they 
were the grandparents oif Fernando C. Beaman. 

Joshua Beaman lived in Lancaster, Mass., until 
1787, when he was called out by the Government 
to assist in quelling Shay's Rebellion; this accom- 
(jlished he took up his abode in Chester, Vt., whence 
lie removed in 1819 to Chautauqua, N. Y., where 
he spent the remainder of his life engaged in farm- 
ing. He married Miss Hannah Olcott in 1791. 
She was the daughter of Timothy and Hannah 
(Chandler) Olcott, and of this union tiiere were 
born fourteen children, of whom Fernando C. was 
the sixth son and twelfth child. 

Mrs. Hannah Beaman was born in 177:3, aud died 
at the old homestead in Chautauqua County, N. Y., 
March 19, 1.S29. 


^ii?=^EOR(TK LANE was born m w 
jj[ (—, Blissfleld Township, Lenawee ( 
^^^ the 27th of March, 1827. Jaco 

what is now 
County, on 
)b Lane, his 

fMtlier, was born in New Jersey, where he grew to 
manhood and was reared upon a farm. In that 
Slate he learned the .trade of blacksmithing, and 
coming to Michigan as early as 1825, worked at 
his trade in Monroe County. In 1826 he was 
married to Louisa, a daughter of (ien. Giles, and 

» ^m M» 



•aftei'wunl came to Lenawee County, tlie removal 
being made with teams, fur which lie h:i<l to cut 
part of the way through the forest. 

Jacob Lane entered hind in wh;it is now lilisslicld 
Township, built a log house, aud erci-tcd a sJKip iu 
which he divided his time with his agricultural 
labors. After three or four years he removed to 
Monroe, where he worked at his trade three years, 
and tlien returned to Blissfield and l)egan keeping 
hotel. In 183(; his wife died, and abandoning the 
liotcl business Mr. Lane went to Philadelphia, 
where he remained three years and learned the 
trade of a machinist. He then went to Detroit 
and worked in the railroad shops foi' two j'cars, 
after which he returned to Monroe, where he pro- 
cured the position of foreman in the railroad shops. 
In 1847 he met his death by accident, being killed 
by the cars. His family consisted of five children: 
George; John, who died in 1833; William, who 
lives in (iuiney. 111.; Charles, who served in an 
Ohio regiment in the late war, and was killed in 
the battle of Atlanta, in Jul}', 1801; and one 
daughter who died in infancy. 

The subject of this sketch was but nine years of 
age when his mother died, and he went to make his 
home with his maternal grandparents. During his 
bo3'hood he attended the pioneer schools and 
.assisted his grandfather in the work upon the farm. 
LTp to fifteen years of age his life was spent with 
his grandfather and uncles, but at that ag(> he con- 
cluded to care for himself, and engaged in work 
upon the farm, first receiving $3 per month, and 
later 19. For three years he continued at farm 
work, and then procured the situation as foreman 
on the Michigan .Southern & Indiana KailuMv, .and 
remained in the employ of thatcomp.-my fm- ciglitccn 
naonths, when he went to Ohio aud secured em- 
ployment with the Mad River Railroad Coni])any, 
where he remained five years and then returned to 
Lenawee Count}'. During various employ- 
ments he had saved sufiicient mone}' with which to 
bu}' II 4 acres of land, forty of which were cleared. 
Upon his return to Lenawee County lie liveil upon 
this farm for four years, when he went liack to 
Ohio aud again engaged in railroad work for tlnei' 
years. ;it the end of which timi' he iclui-ncd lo 
lilisslicld aud rcsume<l farming. .Soon after this In- 

purchased his i)resent farm near the village of Bliss- 
field, on which he has erected a splendul house in 
which he lives in ease and comfort. 

On the •2utli of January, 18,50, Mr. Lane was 
ni.irried to Sarah A. Elsey, wlio was liorn on Staten 
Island, aud is a daughter of William El>cy, a native 
of England. They are the parents of ten children, 
as follows: Charles lives in Gentry County, Mo.; 
Leona is the wife of J. L. Hazard, and lives in 
Florida; William and George live in Gentry County, 
Mo.; Mary married William R. Edgar, and lives iu 
Lima, Ohio: Clara, wife of Charles E. Bird, lives in 
Blissfield; Bradfonl, Aima Belle, .lohu aud -baiuie 

are at 

.Mr. and Mrs. Lane are members of the Methodist 
Episcop;d Church, to which oi'ganization they con- 
tribute time and means. In his politics Mr. Lane 
is decidedly partial to the Republican party, with 
which he has always affiliated. He is the son of 
one of the first .settlers of the State of Michigan, 
and was himself b(n-n iiefore the township iu which 
he now resides was surveyed or named. He has 
been a participant in all the privations and hard- 
ships of pioneer life in Michigan, and is thoroughly 
a self-made man, having been left without 
care and protection when a mere boy. How well 
he has fought the battle of life is best evidenced by 
his present possessions, for he is considered one of 
I the wealthiest men in Blissfield Township. 

■ | on the 1st o 

D outcai,ital. 

OIIX T. C()LE(;R0\E came to Medina 
Towushiii when a single man, arriving here 
)ctobci-. 1.S42. He was with- 
d for three years em|)loyed 
himself :is a farm laborer, managing in the mean- 
time to save each year something from his earnings, 
aud in 1843 purchased a tract of land embracing 
eighty-six acres on section 2. Upon this there had 
been very little attempt at impi-ovement, and un- 
der great difficulties he eommeiiced clearing the 
land and preparing the soil for cultivation. There 
was little to encourage him the first and .se<'ond sea-, ;dlhough l,r g.ain.'d a littlr headway e:ich year, 
aud iu due time began 1(. realize his labors 
wre not to be in vain. He has now uiw. of the 



best appointed homesteads in tlie townsiiip, witli a 
beautiful residence and substantial out-buildings, 
and has added to his first purchase to the amount 
of seventy-nine acres, h"ing on section i; he has 
also an interest in eighty acres on section 25. He is 
known among his neighbors as an honest, upright 
man of good principles, conscientious in his be- 
liefs, and in all I'espects a model citizen. He votes 
the straight Republican ticket, and has represented 
his townsiiip in the County Board of .Supervisors 
four terms, besides serving .as Highway Commis- 

Our subject was born in the townshiiJ of Nor- 
wich, McKean Co., Pa., May 22, 1820, and is the 
son of Benjamin and Lucy (Garlic) Colegrove, the 
former born in Plainfield, Windham Co., Conn., and 
the latter in Lanesboro, Berkshire Co., M.ass. They 
were married about 1814, and soon afterward 
started for Pennsylvania, where the father had pur- 
chased land. They set out with a sleigh and a team 
of horses, but when they arrived at Norwich, Che- 
nango Co., N. Y., the snow had left the ground, and 
it not being convenient to procure a wheeled ve- 
hicle, the father decided to stay there until he could 
proceed on his journey, and accordingly rented a 
farm for the season. In the winter following, when 
the snow came on, they resumed their journe.y, and 
arrived safely at their destination. They continued 
in McKean County, Pa., twenty-eight j^ears there- 
after, and there became the parents of seven chil- 
dren, of whom six are still living, namely: Avan- 
der H., Mary A., Henry G., John T., Alonzo B. and 
Naomi G. One son, Truman D., enlisted during 
the late Rebellion in the Biicktail Regiment of 
Pennsylvania, in 1862. Soon after entering the serv- 
ice he contracted a .severe cold which developed 
into typhoid fever, from which he died at Wash- 
ington, D. C. The mother died at the homestead 
in McKean County, in October, 1847. 

In 1842 the four eldest sons of Benjamin Cole- 
grove left the Keystone State and came to this 
county, among them .John T., of our sketch. The 
father six years later followed them with his two 
remaining children, and continued a resident of 
Medina Township fifteen years, wiicu lie nioved to 
Morenci, where his death tuol< place un the 4th uf 
April, 187.5. He was an industrious and hard-work- 

1 ing man, and as the result of good habits attained 
! to the advanced age of eighty-eight years. 

John T. Colegrove received a common-school 
education, and has all his life been engaged in 
farming pursuits. A few years after taking up his 
residence in Medina Township, and after he had 
prepared a suitable home for the maiden of his 
choice, he was married, on the 25th of August, 1846, 
to Miss S. liortensa. daughter of Benjamin and 
Mary C. Holmes, natives respectively of New York 
State and Massachusetts. Mr. Holmes was horn in 
171)7, and was the son of Benjamin T. Holmes, who 
was born in Massachusetts, July 20, 1760. The lat- 
ter .served seven years in the Revolutionary War, 
and was an -intimate friend of Washington. Ben- 
jamin T. Holmes learned the trade of a shoemaker 
when a young man, and later engaged i n farming. 
He came to this county with his family in 1836, 
and established himself on a tract of land in Medina 
Township, where he continued to live until his 
death, in March, 1881. His wife had died six years 
previously, on the 3d of August, 1875. Their four 
children were named respectively: Alliina S.. Ar- 
thur M., S. Hortensa and James L. 

Mrs. Colegrove was born Jan. 19, 1827, in Wayne 
County, N. Y., and was nine years of age when her 
parents came to this county. She received her ed- 
ucation in the common school, and continued under 
the careful training of her mother until her mar- 
riage. Her union with our subject resulted in the 
birth of three children — Ottis, Benjamin M., and an 
infant deceased. Ottis married Miss Rosa E. Barker, 
and resides on the old homestead; they have two 
children — Vining B. and Viola H. Benjamin M. 
married Miss Frances J. Rice, and is farming in 
Medina Township; they have three children — Clark 
E., Sylvanus J. and Phillip. 

yp^- E\-. 1)A\'ID STUBERT STEPHENS, M. A., 
jL^ President of Adrian College, one of the 
i^\\l finest educational institutions in the great 
*@)West, was born at Springfield, Ohio, May 
12. 1847, and is therefore filling his most responsi- 
ble position at the comparatively youthful age of 
forty years. Vor this, however, he i» admirably 




fiUeit both by nature iuid e.liicntion. Ilr is .-i -cii- 
tleuian of superior liirth nnd paruiitniic his I'atliiT. 
Oliver Perry Stephens, li;i\ ill:; been a iniiiislcr in 
tlie Oiiio Conference of the .Methudisl I'n.lcsUinl 
Chureh, and his mother, Mary Anna (Bi(Mle) Str- 
phens, a lady of litei'ary culture and ability, and a 
frequent contributor lo various periodicals of (lie 

After eompletiny- his primary course of study in 
the (common school, our .sid)jeet entered \\ittcii- 
berg College at Springfield, Ohio, wliere he spent 
about three years, and afterward mnii' to thr W.-l. 
entering Adrian College, from which he w;is L;r.-idii- 
ated under the Presidency of iMahaii. !>. 1). 
He was remarkably ambitious to excel in Ic-irning, 
and after leaving Adrian College crossed the At- 
lantic anil entered Edinburgh University in Scot- 
land, wdiere he coiniilctcd the required studies in 
philosophy for the degree of M. A., obtaining a 
prize for an English Essay under Prof. Masson. 
also in Moral Philosophy under Prof. Caldcrwood, 
and in Metaj^hysics under Prof. Frazer. 

Upon returning to America Mr. Stephens ac- 
cepted a position as instructor in Natural Sciences 
in Adrian College. He yet saw before iiini great 
possibilities for still further knowdedge, and was 
filled with the laudable ambition to avail himself of 
every opportunity to secure it. Accordingly, in 
the fall of 1873, he obtained a leave of absence, 
and going East entered Harvard College in order 
to pursue a special line of study, which he mastered 
the following year and returned to his former posi- 
tion in the College at Adrian, as Professor of .Men- 
tal Science and Logic. 

The course of Prof. Stephens, wliicli had always 
been steadily onward, ill l.s.s-j commended liim as 
a fit incumbent of his present pijsition, to which he 
was elected and which he" has since held in ;i man- 
ner befitting its ciiaracter and responsibilities. The 
c(_>llcge was founded and has been conducted under 
the auspices of the Methodist Protestant Church, 
and for a number of years Prof. Stephens was 
editor of the church magazine, while he has been 
a constant contributor t(j various other periodicals 
and the author of several pamphlets. Much of his 
pulpit work has been incidental to the work of 
teaching, althougli he is an ordained minister of 

this honor in l.ssn. He Mipplicd llie chinch at 
Adrian, in connc-tion witli others, for .a seas,.n wlicn 
it was without .-I, regular pastor, .■iiid frequently 

preaches in the churches ,.f <,llier .le ninations in 

the city. His style geiieially inclines l,ow:ird the 
melapliysical, while .-it lUv same time it is deeply 
spiritual Mild always ,-leai-|y and aptly illustrated. 
His 1,-iiigiiage is vigorous .and forcible, ami seldom 
fails to carry (am victioii with it. He is broad and 
liberal in his views, a man of deep sympathies with 

in eeclesi.astical aff.airs, lie seems to be impressed 
with the idea that he can be more iisi^fiil as a 
inodern eiliicalor and in assisting to form the minds 
and char.acters of the youth around him. 

I'l-esident Stephens since his c<inuection with 

in its various departmcnt.s, and the happy 
medium luitween sentiment and practicality, which 
enables him to exert a weighty influence for good 
and introdiua. into tlie usual dull routine of study 
the elements which tend to make it interesting and 
attractive. Me is ijri_ii;ressive in his ideas, and l)y 
setting his mark high, forms an example for those 
with whom he associates in daily life which cannot 
but result in great benelit to all concerned. 

►/ILLIAM CREGt;, well known among the 
fl solid people of Macon Township, is the 
\)^ scion of an excellent old Scotch family, 
whose descendants removed to the North of Ire- 
land, ndiere our subject was born in County. Antrim, 
in 1S:J2. His father carried on farming in a mod- 
est way and William was there reared to agricult- 
ural pursuits until l«,')|, wdien he was married to a 
m.'iiden of liis own locality. .Miss Margaret .Stewart, 
wdio was born in I .s.l.'.. aial was also of Scotch an- 
cestry. Soon afterward the young people located 
on a small piece of ground in C^ounty Antrim, 
wher(^ they lived until LSfiti, and became the par- 
ents of four children. 

Our subject laliored a good maiw years upon his 
native soil, but not being satisQed with his condition 
or his prospects, now determined to seek the New 
World. In the spring of 18G6 he gathered to- 
gether his family and personal effects, and embarked 





oil .-i sailing-vessel fiunn the port of Liverpool. 
After a favorable voyage of tiiirteen days they 
lamled in New York, whence they shortl3' afterward 
proceeded westward, and Mr. (Jregg rented a farm 
ill ]>Lic()n Township, this county, upon which he con- 
tinued until purchasing his present homestead. 
Here he lias 160 acres of good land on section 25, 
of which he took possession in 1873. He hiis been 
fairly prosperous in his laboi's and given considera- 
ble attention to stock-raising. 

The household circle was completed by the birth 
of six children, of whom one is deceased, namely, 
Angle, who became the wife of William Nec- 
tell, of Canada, and died in 188(). leaving one 
child, a daughter, who bears her mother's name. 
Robert J. is at home with his parents; Andrew 
married Miss Annie Gasten, and assists in the mau- 
agement of the homestead ; Samuel, Thomas and 
William also remain under the parental roof. The 
family all belong to the Presbyterian Church, and 
Mr. Gregg uniformly votes the Republican ticket. 
Mrs. Gregg is a charter member of the Presbyte- 
rian Church, of Macon Township. 

The parents of our subject, Andrew and Nancy 
(Linton) Gregg, departed this life at their home in 
County Antrim, the father at the age of sixty 
years and the mother when seventy-four. The par- 
ents of Blrs. Gregg, Samuel and Ellen (Linton) 
Stewart, spent their entire lives on the farm where 
they were born. Thej' were Presbyterians in re- 
ligion, and were descendants of substantial Scotcii 

JAMES R. TERPENEY. The natural ad- 
vantages of Woodstock Township as a stock- 
raising region, and its settlement bj' an unus- 
ual number of intelligent men, have singled 
it out for special mention among the affairs of 
Lenawee County. Its fine horses and cattle are 
proverbial, and to this industry the subject of this 
sketch has given a decided impetus, being one of 
the most noticeable of those engaged in this busi- 
ness. His attention has been chiefly given to the 
breeding of lirst-class roadsters and draft horses, 
for which he finds a ready market and the highest 
price. In connection with this, Mr. Terpeney 
carries on general farming, and has built up one of 
■^« . 


the most complete country homesteads 
northwest portion of Lenawee County. 

Our subject, a native of the Erapiue State, was 
liorn in Cayuga County, Feb. 19, 18.38, and is the 
sou of Peter S. and Lydia (Hannibal) Terpeney, 
natives of the same county as their son. They 
continued there after their marriage until 1843, and 
then the father of our subject determined to go 
further west. He came first to Eaton County, this 
State, Init a few days later made his way to the 
vicinity of Adrian, this I'ounty, and for two years 
thereafter was employed as a farm laborer. Subse- 
qnentl}' he worked laud on shares, and then rented 
land in Rollin Township five years. He was a resi- 
dent successively of Hillsdale County, ^V^oodstoc•k 
Township, this countj% and lastly of Addison, 
where he spent his last days, his death taking place 
when he was forty-four years of age. The mother, 
whose maiden name was Lydia Hannibal, survived 
her husband until 1884, and passed away on the 1st 
of May, aged sevent3-seven years. They were the 
parents of ten childi'en, eight of whom are still 
living. One brother has been iu California for the 
last thirty-five years; three are living in Illinois, 
and the others in Michigan. Mr. Terpenej-, of our 
sketch, was thrown upon his own resources at an 
early age, starting out in life for himself when a lad 
of ten years, and since that time has " paddled his 
own canoe," against adverse winds often, but 
usually managing to keep his head above water. 
j He worked the first summer for a bushel of apples 
a day, for which he usually found sale, and after- 
ward was employed by the month among the people 
of his neighborhood until after the outbreak of the 
war. He enlisted, Aug. 19. 18G2, in Company I, 
1st Michigan Battery Light Artillery, and with his 
comrades marched to the scene of conflict, and 
traveled in this manner mostlj' through the Southern 
States, meeting the rebels in man}' engagements 
and skirmishes, enduring his share of sickness, 
hardship and privation. Fortunately he escaped 
wounds and capture, and after visiting the National 
capital, he received his honorable discharge and 
was mustered out. 

Upon his return from the army Mr. Terpene}' 
sought his old haunts in Woodstock Township, and 
resumed his former labors. The 3'ear following, 





Dec. 20, 186(>, he was married to INIiss Loretta l'«'l- 
liinii. of this lownsliip. In 1 ST I Air. 'rcriioncy 
socmvil possession of his present l-:niii. ile hns 
always m.-iintaincd an intellij4L'nt interest, in town- 
ship .iffairs, and been aecorded recognition as a 
vahied citizen by election to the various townslii[) 
ottiees, serving- as Treasurer and Seliool l)ireei..r. 
and often being called into eunnsel ii|ion niattei-s 
affecting the welfare of the peoiile at large. 

Tlie wife of onr snbjeet was born Ai>ril liS, 1S:>7, 
and is tlie daughter of Richard ('. and Alibie 
(Evi'ry) I'elhain. 'I'o t,heni lliere h:u c Ix'en l)orn 
four children, two ,,f whom di.-d in infaney. Those 
surviving are: Maria S., who was born in Wood- 
.stoek, Jan. 27, I.SGS. and w;is edu.-ated in the 
Brooklyn School; and Claude 1)., who was born 
near Addison, May 2G, 187."., and is now attending 
school in his own district. 

Mr. Terpeney uniformly votes the Democratic 
ticket and takes an active interest in politics, work- 
ing for his party ,as opportunity occurs, and for 
the furtherance of the principles in wliich he hon- 
estly believes, and in support of which he is always 
willing to make all needful sacrifices. He is a 
member of Addison Post No. 277, of which he is 


ILLl AM DE MOTT is a prominent a 

terpi'ising citizen of Lenawee County, and 
one who has been an important factor in 
building up its business interests. He is a native 
of New York, having been born in Lodi, Seneca 
County, in 1832, and was the youngest of the four 
children born to Abram and Jane (Hogarth) De 
Mott that attained maturity. Mr. and Mrs. De Mott 
moved with their familj^ from Seneca County to 
Lenawee County, Mich., in the spring of 1844, 
locating in the village of Ridge way. There ]\Ir. 
De Mott engaged in the meicantile business, and 
.also became an extensive land-owner. He finally 
sold out his business and i-eturned to the East. 

William De Mott was a boy of twelve years when 
he came with his parents to this State. He receivcul 
the rudiments of his education under the tutelage 
of Prof. Robert Harriot, a noted teacher, formerly 
of New York. After.-ittaining manhood he returned 

to his native State to complete the education so well 
begun. Ileattei}ded ()\id Academy. Cenesee Col- 
lege, and otlier inslitulions of learning, in Ml of 
which he main(:iin<Ml a liigli rank in sehol;ii>hip. 
After completing his edneati.Mi, he remMJne.l in tlie 

East foi- awhile, s i entering llie store of Cen. 

John De Mott, of Lodi, N. Y., in the capacity of 
cleik. lie remained with him for some time, but 
linally iclnrned to Michigan, and became eniiiloycd 
witli his fnther on a, farm in Franklin Township, 
where he continued for two years. He next came 
to Tccumseh, and entered the stoic of his lirother- 
in-law, with whom he remained for some years, 
rendering him efficient service. He then entered 
the drug-store of his brother. Dr. Charles De Mott, 
as his clerk, continuing in that capacity until his 
brother sold out his establishment. He then re- 
solved to studj^ law, and entered the office of Messrs. 
Bills & Baxter for that purpose. He read law with 
them until the year of 18.50, when he entered tin- 
law department of the University at Ann Arbor. 
He continued his studies there until 18Gl,wlien the 
breaking out of the war turned his attention from 
his studies to the affairs of his coimtry, and as soon 
as lie Could make arrangemeiiL to clo so, enlisted in 
her defense. 

In the fall of 1801 onr subject became a member 
of Comi)any K, od Michigan Cavalry, and went 
with his regiment to Benton Barracks. St. Louis. In 
18(;2 he entered upon the campaign of the South 
and West, traveling with the army over the States 
of Missouri, Georgia and Tennessee. He was at 
the battles of New Bladrid, luka, seige of Corinth, 
and skirmishes and other important engagements. 
In 1863 he returned on a veteran's furlough to his 
regiment .at Detroit, Mich. On the expiration of his 
furlough he reported for service at St. Louis, where 
his regiment was remounted, and ordere<l to Devil's 
Bluffs in the Department of Arkansas, un<ler Oen. 
Steele. They were for some time engaged in guaid- 
ing the Memphis & Little Rock Railway at that 

Mv. De Mott served out his term of enlistment^ 
and was honorably discharged at Booneville, now 
known as Michigan City. He then returned to De- 
troit, where he entered the Provost Marshal's office 
as clerk, under Oen. Mark Flannagan. He retained 





tliat position until the surrender of Gen. Lee. He | 
returned to liis home in Tecumseh, and took sev- j 
eral ageiK'ics, .and in 18G7 established an insurance 
agency, representing several Eastern companies in 1 
connection with the Northwestern Life Insurance j 
C'orapan3- of Milwaukee. In 188G he sold out that 
branch of his business relating to lire insurance, 
still retaining his agency in the life insurance com- 
pany. On the organization of the Tocumseh Celery 
Company, Mr. De Mott, as one of the principal orig- 
inators of that enterprise, was made its Vice Presi- 
dent. The company has a tract of seventy-five 
acres of land situated three miles south of Tecumseh. 
This is one of the most promising enterprises of | 
Tecumseh. He is also one of the Directors of the i 
Oliio and Michigan Coal Manufacturing Company, ! 
in Tecumseh. 

Our subject was one of the men who used his in- 
fluence, and was instrunientarin raising the money j 
for the purpose of building the Toledo & Milwau- 
kee Railway, now the Cincinnati, Jackson & Macki- 
naw Railwny. He raised in all some $35,000. 
This he did fur the imblic good without any com- 
pensation whatever. 

Mr. De Mott is a member of Tecumseh Lodge 
No. 6!), F. & A. M. ; he is also a member of Beers 
Post No. 140, G. A. R. In politics he is identified 
with the Republican party. He is a public-spirited 
citizen, and always gives his hearty sympathy and 
co-operation to any movement to advance the in- 
terests of the county or township in which he lives. 
His good knowledge of law has been of great bene- 
fit to him in his business life. He is widely known 
in business circles, and wherever known is regarded 
as a man of ability and undoubted integrity of 
character. His residence is on Adams street, near 
the business part of tiie city. 

^^/NDREW J. VAN SICKLE struck the first 
@A-J| blow on the land which he now occupies, 
II Is and which has been transformed from a 
^^ wilderness into a beautiful and valuable 

farm. He has wisely clung to his first purchase, 
from J. H. Cleveland, and labored and watched 
while it slowly advanced in value until it is now 
the source of a comfortable income. Tlie farm em- 
braces 128^ acres on sections 21 and 22, in Seneca 

Township, and is noticeable for its finely cultivated 
fields, its good buildings, and the general air of 
thrift and prosperity which surrounds it. 

Our subject was born in Chemung County, N. 
Y'., Jan. 22, 1834, and is the eldest of the three 
children of Isaac and Jane (Cox) 'N'an Sickle, natives 
of New Jersey. Their ancestors crossed the water 
from Holland and Scotland in the Colonial da3-s, 
and the patei-nal great-grandfather of our subject 
served as a soldier in the Revolutionary War. 
Isaac and his wife soon after their marriage re- 
moved to New York State, and from there to Ohio, 
whence after an eight 3-ears' residence they returned 
to New York. They afterward went back to Ohio, 
and from there, in 1847, came to this county, where 
the father purchased a tract of land in Dover 
Township, which he still owns. He has reached 
the advanced age of seventy-eight years, and makes 
his home with his sou, Andrew J.: the mother died 
in Dover Township, in 1878, aged sixty-one years. 
Their children were all boys, and the other living 
brother of our subject resides in Seneca Township. 

Mr. Van Sickle, of this history, received his edu- 
cation in the common schools of Ohio and Michi- 
gan, and upon reaching his majority was married, in 
1800, to Miss Matilda, daughter of Daniel and 
Mercy A. (Amington) Chittenden, natives of New 
York State. The father was a blacksmith by trade, 
and died when forty years of age; the mother sub- 
sequently came to Michigan, settling near Adrian , 
and surviving her husband many .years, died a widow 
on the 1 3th of M.ay, 1887, .at the age of seventy- 
four ye.ars. 

Mrs. Van Sickle was born in Michigan, April 20, 
1836, and continued with her mother until her mar- 
riage, receiving her education in the district school 
and becoming skilled in all household duties. She 
was the third of seven children — two sons and five 
daughters — four of whom are now living and resi- 
dents of Michigan and Iowa. Mr. and Mrs. Van 
Sickle for the last thirty years have been among 
the most highly respected residents of Seneca 
Township, where their thrift and industry, their hos- 
pitality and kindness of heart, have secured for 
them a large circle of warm friends. Mr. Van Sickle 
votes the Democratic ticket politically, although 
having very little to do with public affairs. 

'W^r6// '" 

-^^ ^/ c <:/ ^ / ^-^ 



ru-tdi- of the 

last five 
born in 


J']OSIAH J. PUTNAM, tlu-pr^ 
I Lake Park Mouse, a proniinenl 
soil which he has conilueted for 
' j^ears at Sand Lalce, this county, 
Chesterfield, Xt., about forty miles from Boston, 
on the 20th of December. KS-2S. The parents of 
our subject, Silas and M.-irtha (Jordan) I'liliiaiii. 
were married in 182;^, and mij^rated from \ tinionl 
to Lenawee County, locating on a farm in the town- 
ship of Madison, where the father followed the oc- 
cupation of farming until his demise in 1849, leav- 
ing a wife and nine children, four sons and five 
daughters, who all lived to maturity. Only live 
are now living. 

Mr. Putnam is the third of the family, and was 
about three years old when his parents renioveil to 
this county'. He received a cnnimon-.-i-hdcil edu- 
cation, anfl remaine<l with his paients until the 
death of his father, when he engaged in farming on 
his own account, lie afterwaid bought the old 
homestead, where he continued to leside until 187G, 
wlien he came to Adrian, uIkic he has since re- 
sided in winter, while in summer he removes to his 
pleasant hotel at the lake, lie built this flue hotel 
in 1882, and opened it to the public July 4 of that 
vear. The structure is built upon a good stone 
foundation, and is three stories in height. Mr. Put- 
nam still retains his farm in Madison Township, 
consisting at present of 2.)8 acres of huid under a 
good state of cultivation, and containing a good 
brick dwelling-house and ont-bnildings, which he 
rents. His residence in Adri.-m is a line Ijrick edi- 
fice on Winter street. 

Mr. Putnam was united in marriage, in October, 
1858, with Miss Catherine, the fifth daughter and 
seventh child of Garrett and Hannah (Gannon) 
Tenbrook, the formei' born in Cheniiing ( 'ount\ , X. 
Y., in 1803, and the latter in Orange County. The 
parents were united in marriage about I82(), and 
removed to this county in 1831, being two months 
in reaching their destination. Mr. Tenbrook served 
as Justice of the Peace in i\Iadisou Townshii). He 
went to Mississippi during the war to aid an 
adopted son who had enlisted, but was too late to 
be of any service, while his own system became 
charged with malaria, and he died in 1868, his wife 
surviving him but one week. They became the 

parents of nine ehildren. three of whom survive. 
Both were mendjers of the BaiHist Church. Mr. 
and Mrs. Putnam are the |)arents of one son, Elmer 
E., who lives at home. 

In politics, Mr. Putnam is a Republican, aud is 
feailess in the advocacy of his principles, while he 
enjoys the esteem and resiieet of a large circle of 
frieiid> and acquaintances. The portrait of Mr. 
Putnam, as being that of a representative citizen of 
Lenawee County, forms a valuable addition to the 
collection presented in this volume, and the pub- 
lishers take pleasure in placing it on an accompa- 
nying page. 

.^rZIAH ASH, the son of a highly respected 
i@7/jl English farmer who settled in Raisin Town- 

/// * .-Ijip fifty-four years ag<.>, is the pro])rietor 
(^' of a small but well-improved tract of land 

on section 34. Here he is operating after the theory 
of Horace Greeley, that a moderate area of land 
carefully cultivated yields better results than a 
larger extent partially neglected. The property of 
our subject forms a snug home, and he is in the en- 
joyment of a comfortable income by which he has 
been enabled to surround himself aud his family 
with all the comforts of life. 

William Ash, the father of our sutiject, was a na- 
tive of Yorkshire, England, from which he emi- 
grated to the United States in 1831, landing in 
New York Cit.y on the 3d of May. Thence shortly 
afterward he proceeded to Buffalo, and on to To- 
ledo, Ohio, from which place he walkeil over the 
old Indian trail to Ann Arbor, Mich. After a 
brief stay at that point, which was then but an em- 
bryo village, he came to this county, locating first 
in Adrian Township, near the site of the present 
city. It then boasted but a few settlers, and Mr. 
Ash took up his abode with Urias Comstock, not 
far away, in Raisin Township. A few weeks later, 
however, he went back east as far as Lockport, N. Y'., 
and entered the employ of an old (Quaker, Jesse P. 
Hems by name, with whom he remained for a year, 
at the end of which he received $100, out of which 
he was obliged to pay a moderate sum for his wash- 
ing. He remained in that vicinity until 1833, and 
then returned to Michigan and invested ,liis small 



capital in a tract of Government land on section 34, , 
in Raisin Township. The papers which indicated j 
his ownersliip of this property bore the signatnre of 1 
Andrew .Tackson, who wii?. then President of the | 
United States. 

The location which Mr. Ash had chosen proved 
to be an extremelj- fortunate one and the soil ex- | 
ceedingly tillable. He retained possession of this, j 
and subsequently extended his landed interests un- 
til he became the owner of 220 acres, the most of 
which he brought to a high state of cultivation. 
He also erected a good set of farm buildings and 
surrounded himself and family with all the comforts 
of life. His death took place on the 1.3th of July, 
1881. He was recognized in the community where 
he had lived and labored so long as a man of un- 
impeachable moral character and correct business 
habits, and he has left to his children a record of 
which they may well be proud. 

William Ash was three times married; first to 
Miss Esther, danghter of Sylvester Westgate, who 
is familiarly remembered as one of the earliest set- 
tlers of Raisin Township. He came from Royalton 
Township, Niagara Co., N. Y., about 1832, and 
brought with him those substantial traits of char- 
acter which distinguished him as one of the most 
valued members of a communitj' struggling into 
life. He is now deceased. Esther Ash, the mother 
of our subject, born in Royalton Township. N. 
Y., where she was reared to womanhood and after- 
ward came West with her parents. Of her marriage 
with William Ash there were born five children, of 
whom Aziah, our subject, was the eldest. The 
mother passed away while still a young woman, her 
death taking place at the homestead in Raisin 
Township, Dec. 14, 1843. 

The birth of our subject took place at his father's 
homestead in Raisiu Township on the 12th of 
March, 1836. He was there reared to manhood, in 
the meantime acquiring a fair education in the com- 
mon schools. He remained a member of the paren- 
tal household until after reaching his twenty-fifth 
birthday, and was then married in Raisin Township, 
to Miss Lucinda Kueeland. This lady was a native 
of Paper-Mill ^'illage, N. H., and when a maiden 
of eighteen came to Michigan with her parents, 
Abner and Lucinda (Flanders) Kneeland, who lo- 

cated in Raisin Township, but subsequently re- 
turned to the Old Granite State, where they are 
now living. Of this union there were born two 
children, and the mother died Aug. 10, 1866 ; the 
infant daughter, who was named Emma, followed 
two weeks later. The other, named Frank, died 
two years before the death of his mother. 

For bis second wife Mr. Ash married Miss Eme- 
line Johnson, the wedding taking place at the home 
of the bride in RoUin Township, Aug. 10, 1872. 
Mrs. Emeline Ash was born in Steuben County, N. 
Y., Jan. 20, 1839, and is the daughter of Nicholas 
.and Luc}' (Moore) .Johnson, natives of New York, 
where the former spent his last years in Allegany 
County', dying at an advanced age ; the mother had 
died in Steuben County when over seventy years 
old. They were the parents of nine children, and 
Emeline, with the others, received a good education, 
and taught school several years before her marriage, 
both in New York and this county. 

Our subject and his wife became the p.arents of 
four children, only two of whom are living, namely : 
Frank O., born Oct. 3, 1873, and Freddie E., April 
15, 1879. Cora died when nine years of age, and 
Orra I., when ten weeks old. Mr. Ash politically 
is an uncompromising Democrat, and with his es- 
timable lady, in religious matters, .attends the So- 
ciety of Friends. 

^^ ON RAD HOLMES. The gentleman whose 
if ^^ name appears at the head of this sketch is 

'^^'' successfully engaged in agricultural pursuits 
on his |)leasant farm on section 4, Dover Township. 
H\> parents were Isaac and Mary (Brown) Holmes, 
natives respectively of Dutchess County, N. Y., 
and Ireland. After their marriage they settled in 
Clarkson, Monroe Co., N. Y., where they resided 
for several years. In the fall of 1834 they followed 
the tide of emigration, which was then at its height, 
to Washtenaw County, Mich., locating in Pitts- 
field, where they remained some time, then re- 
moved to Matamoras, Ohio. After a few years' 
residence they returned to Washtenaw County and 
thence removed to Ingham, from which they came 
to Lenawee County, and made their home with 
their son Conrad, our subject, until their death. 






■20. i,s(;;3, 
years, pass- 
i family of 


The mother departed tin's life 
while the father survived her f 
ing away April 15, ISTT. Jhe' 
nine children, of whom C'onrail 

Our subject was born ill C'larksou, .Moni^.c ('.>., 
N. Y., March 25, 1. si 4. and resided there until l,s.l4, 
when he preceded his parents to Fittstield, Mich. 
He was married in January, l«3.s. to Miss .IuHm 
Dix, a native of Oneida County, N. Y., and 
daughter of William and Hannah (Deming) Dix, 
both natives of Connecticut. From that State they 
moved to New York Statt', .-nid theiicr to Wash- 
tenaw County, .Mich., where they spent the 
greater part of their reinainiim years, though they 
both died at the home of their daiiiihter, Mrs. 
Holmes, in Dover Township. 

After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Iloluieslived 
in Pittsfield until 1841, when they removed to 
Dover Townshij), and, with the exception of one 
year spent in Washtenaw County, have resided 
here ever since. Mrs. Holmes died at her home in 
this township Oct. 28, 1885, aged seventy years, 
seven months and five days. She lived a conscien- 
tious Christian life, and was an esteemed member of 
the Methodist Church. To Mr. and Mrs. Holmes 
were born two children: William .1. and Charles I., 
the former of whom died in Dcivcr Township in 
18(J3, at the age of tweiity-foin years. Charles I. 
was born in Dover Township, .Inne 12, 1850, and 
has always lived at the old homestead. In Adrian, 
Mich., April 10, 1873, he was married to Miss 
Ida, daughter of Edwin .1. and Nancy (DeWitt) 
Wilcox. Mr. and Mrs. Wil.'ox live.l in Hudson 
Township, this county, about eii^hl ycrirs .-ifter their 
marriage, when they removed in Adri;in. where 
Mrs. Wilcox died in 18(i(i. Mr. \\ilc.,x spent his 
lastday.s in Calhoun County, Mich., dying there in 
October, 1 8«(;. They were the parents of two chil- 
dren, Ida and Eliza. Eliza is the wife of John 
Jacobs, of Branch County, Mich.; Ida, Mrs. Holmes, 
was born in Hudson Township, July 21, 1856. She 
is the mother of three sons— Willie K.. Arthur M. 
and Freddie E. 

Conrad Holmes has a hue farm of 105 acres, 
which is under a good state of cultivation. He has 
erected substantial and commodious buildings, and 
has all necessary appliances for carrying on farming 

satisfactorily. Here, in his comfortable hfjine, he 
is enjoying his declining years in the companion- 
ship of his son, with hi.s wife and their three merry 
children, who keep alive the spark of youthfulness 
in the heart of their grandfather. In polities Mr. 
Holmes is a Republican .-ind faithfully endorses the 
inci))les of that party. 

^<^^ HRISTIAN SCIIN lil IILA is a prominent and 
f( intelligent representative of our German pop- 

^^^y Illation, living in Clinton Township, where 
owns and manages a large farm on section 3. His 
indomitable energy and ability have brought more 
than usual success in his calling. His farm com- 
prises 264 acres, forty of which are in IJridgewater 
Township, Wa.shtenaw County. The most of it is 
well drained and under a good state of cultivation. 
He has a fine residence and first-class farm buildings, 
everything around showing marked evidence of 
care and thrift. 

Mr. Schneirla was liorn in ^Vurtemllerg, Ger- 
many, May 22, lfS40, and is the .son of Jacob 
Schneirla, who owned a small farm there, and was 
a tiller of the soil in his native country nearly all 
the days of his life. The niaiilen name of his wife 
was Barbara Fry, also a native of Germany. Foui- 
sons and two daughtei's were born to them. The 
father died in the land of his nativity when his son 
Christian, of this sketch, was about six years of age. 
Our subject lived with his mother and her second 
husband, for she had married again, until he was 
thirteen years of .age, when he came to the United 
States with his aunt, Mrs. Shoemaker. They came 
to Ann Arbor, Washtenaw County, where our sub- 
ject was variously employed for eight years. He 
then, in 1861, resolved to try his fortunes in Cali- 
fornia "The Golden.'' He was young and full of 
ambition, and started on the long journey to that 
distant State with high hopes, and a determination 
to make some of its vast wealth his own. He jour- 
neyed by the water route, and after his arrival lo- 
cated in San Jose, where he became employed on a 
railway about a year. During the four succeeding 
years he worked at different employments, and ac- 
cumulated a good deal of money. He then left 




California and returned to visit tlie old home of his 
birth across the water, after which he veerossed the 
ocean and came once more to Michigan, where at 
the end of two years he finally bought the land 
where he has since established his home. 

In 18C8 Mr. Schneirla was married in Washtenaw 
County, to Miss Regina AValter, like himself a na- 
tive of Wurtemberg, where she was born in April, 
1842. She came with her parents, in 1861, to the 
United States, and lived with them in Washtenaw 
County until her marriage. She has ably seconded 
her husband in his efforts to acquire wealth, and 
their marked success in this direction is in no small 
degree due to her prudence and wise management. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Schneirla have been born twelve 
children, namely: Anna, Jacob, Christian, Pauline, 
Eddie, Regina, Charles, William, Clara, Walter, 
Clarence and Emma. To these children their 
parents are giving every advantage for a good 
education, besides carefully training them in the 
practical every -day duties of life. 

Although Mr. Schneirla possesses great acquisi- 
tive powers, yet he does not hoard his mone}', or 
spend it merely for his own gratification, bnt the 
poor and need}' find in him a benefactor, and he is 
ever ready to respond with a generous donation to 
all worthy objects of charity. He is a public- 
spirited citizen and his prosperity has benefited the 
township in which he has made his home. In poli- 
tics our subject is an earnest supporter of the Re- 
publican party. 




'ELLY S. BEALS. The city of Adrian is 
i5i|s\ noted for its enterpi'ising business men, 
/l^^ and as a class they have given the city 
^®)an enviable standing in the commercial 
world. One of the most prominent, as well as sub- 
stantial merchants of Adrian, is the subject of our 
sketch, who is engaged in the grocery and provision 
business. Mr. Beals is a native of Massachusetts, 
and was born on a farm on (ri'een Mountain, that 
State, April 17, 1812. 

The father of our subject was Caleb Beals, a Xew 
England farmer, who was born in the same State, 
vhere he grew to manhood. The maiden name of 

our subject's mother was Lydia Sherman, a native 
of Massachusetts, and daughter of Kelly Sherman. 
After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Beals moved to 
Essex County, N. Y., where they resided sixteen 
years, when they removed to Western New York, 
and after a short time sjient in that section changed 
their residence to Lenawee County, in 183;j, locat- 
ing in the village of Adrian, where the father passed 
most of his days and died in 1 So I . The mother 
survived him until l.S.J4. They were the parents 
of seven children, six of whom lived t(^ the age of 
maturity. Of the children the subject of our sketch 
was the eldest, .and he was four years of age when 
the parents removed from Massachusetts to Essex 
County, N. Y., where he grew to manhood and 
received ins education in the common schools. 

On the 21st of April, 1836, Mr. Beals married 
Miss Adeline M. Hathaway, a native of Massachu- 
setts, who was born on the 26th of November, 1806, 
and is the daughter of Jeptha and Nancy Hatha waj'. 
In the _vear of his marriage Mr. Beals removed to 
Adrian, where he found employment in;a cabinet- 
shop, and engaged in that occupation four years. 
He then purchased a piece of timber land, which he 
at once commenced improving, and erected a house 
with the intention of adopting the occupation of a 
farmer. He remained on this farm five years and 
then returning to Adrian, he formed a partnership 
with David Wheeler in the manufacture of cabinet- 
ware and chairs, in which he continued three years. 
He then formed a partnership with Reuben Wheeler, 
for the purpose of carrying on the grocery business, 
and after being thus engaged successfully for one 
year, his partner died. The business was continued 
by Mr. Beals, who has had several partners, but at 
the present time is conducting the business alone, 
having purchased the interest owned by his late 
partner. The location of the store is at No. 14 
Main street, where he keeps on hand a full stock of 
all classes of goods to be found in a completely 
furnished grocerj-. In addition to a general line of 
groceries he makes a specialty of meats and handles 
a large amount annually. 

Mr. Beals is now in his seventy-sixth year, and is 
active in both mind and body. He devotes his 
entire time to the prosecution of his business, in 
which he has been successfully engaged. In early 






life he was an old-line Wiiig, but since the extinc- 
tion of that party, and the organization of the Re- 
publican party, he has enthusiastically co-operated 
with the latter. Mr. and Mrs. Heals have had born 
to them three children, who died in cnly life, the 
eldest, William Henry, living to be live years and 
five months old. 

(h^M ARTIX 1'. STOC'lvWELL. One of the 
lost beautiful and valuable farms i}i Len- 
uee County is the property of the subject 
f this history, and is located on section 
1.5, Dover Township. It bears about it all the evi- 
dences of thrift and prosperity, forming one of the 
.■iltractive features of the lan<lscapc of that section. 
The residence is commodious and substantial, the 
barns and out-buildings are in first-class condition, 
and the proprietor is one of the most prominent 
men in that section of country, to which he came 
when a youth of seventeen years with a cash capital 
of six (^euts in his pocket. 

The history of Mr. Stockwell is one of absorbing 
interest, and illustrates the remarkable energy and 
resolution with which nature endowed him. Early 
in life he had been made .acquainted with toil and 
privati(.)U, and as soon a> he began to think lie de- 
termined that whenever the opportunity offered he 
would escape from the thraldom which there beset 
iiim, and become a man among men, with a home 
and property of his own. In oiilcr to more fully 
under.stand the circuln^tan(,■e^ (,f his cliil.lhood days 
it will be proper to mention tlio>c IVoni whom he 
derives his origin. 

Mr. .^tockwell born in Cato, C.-iyuga Co., N. 
v., Feb. 11, I sis, :ind is the M>n of Kliatliah Stork- 
uell, a native of Whitehall, N. Y., uherc hr was 
born May 19, 1 Till. The father remained n ivsi- 
dent of his native town until eighteen j'ears of age, 
and then removed with his parents to Cato. l)ec. 
8, 1814. he was married in Ira. N. Y., (o .Miss l-;>- 
ther, daughter of Chri.-topluT and Hannah I'eikin.-, 
and after a residence of several years in Ira and \ i- 
cinity, he removed to Java, Wyoming County, and 
in 1837 came with his fanuly to Michigan, M-ltling 
near Ihe ceutei- of Adrian Township; Ironi there, in 

1849, they removed to Dover Township. Mrs. Es- 
ther .Stockwell was born in Saratoga, N. Y., .Inly 8, 
1799. .and died in Dover, this county. May 18, 1856. 
The father survived his wife several years, his death 
occurring Fell. 2:3, 1.S67. They were the jiarents of 
nine children, Martin P. being the second child and 
eldest son. The eldest daughter, Betsey C, was 
born Nov. 1, 1815, became the wife of Peleg Yar- 
nold, and died in Fulton County, 111.: Catherine E. 
was born March 1, ISlM, .■ind is the wife of Aaron 
M. Phillips, a well-to-do farmer of Dover Township: 
Levi L. was born July 18, 182:!, and is farming in 
Medina Township; Ezilda was born Oct. 23, 1825, 
and is the wife of D. S. (ialloway, of Dundee, this 
State: Hannah A., iMrs. William Wildman, was born 
April 5, 1828, and is a resident of Coldwater; Chris- 
topher P. was born Jan. 20, 1831, and is farming on 
the other side of the Mi-ssissippi: Benjamin V. was 
born Aiiril 9, 1 S33, and died in New York State 
when a child, .Inly 1. 1 sy5 ; Henrietta L. was born 
Nov. 13, 1S3.V married Still well Palmer, and died 
in Dover Township, June 12, 18G4. 

Mr. Stockwell spent his boyhood in his native 
county, receiving no school advantages whatever, 
and by his labor assisted his parents, who were peo- 
ple of exceedingly modest means. About 1835, 
when seventeen years old, he determined to visit 
the western country, of which he had heard so much, 
and gained the reluctant con.sent of his father. His 
outfit had necessarily to be of the cheajiest descrip- 
tion, and the total amount of money which he could 
raise to start with was $3.50. At his request his 
mother had made him a knapsack and prepared 
some provisions Mith which to fill it, and .after a 
very brief prepiiratiou, he began his jourmy in the 
month of Maj', on foot and alone, for the wilds of 
Michigan Territory. The first day he reached Buf- 
falo, a distance of thirty -three miles. He stepped 
upon the wharf about sundown, and there he met a 
man who was engaged .as a " runner " for a boat, 
and engaged deck passage to Detroit for $2.50. Af- 
ter 1 lie fares were collected the surly captain came 
around a Mcond time and obliged young Stockwell 
lo pay another half dollar, which left him but fifty 
cents in his purse. It is probable that something in 
the boy's demeanor attracted the attention of the 
captain, as after the young man had bretikfasted 




frum his knapsack, he again came around, and be- 
ginning to interview him, accused him of running 
awa}' from home. To tliis charge young Stocliwell 
made sucli an energetic reply that the man was con- 
vinced he was telling him the trutii and became 
quite friendly. He advised him to get off at To- 
ledo instead of going to Detroit, as it would save 
him a good many miles in his journey to Adrian. 
Our traveler, taking his advice, about midnight 
found himself in that rising young town, which bore 
little resemblance to its present condition, lie en- 
gaged lodging at a " tavern," sleeping on the floor, 
with the luxury of a carpet undei' him, in company 
with about twenty men. After paying for his lodg- 
ing next morning he had just twenty-five cents left. 
His host cheerfully assured him that he could not 
get to Adrian on account of tlie swamps, but young 
Stockwell re])lied that " he should get there." One 
said ''You can't," and the other said '• I can and 1 
will." The man, turning to bystanders, remarked 
" He is a gritty little cuss, isn't he.' " and with this 
lemark to cheer him on, the traveler started out in 
the midst of a furious rainstorm for Adrian. 

The knap.sack and provisions which the careful 
mother of our hero had prepared with ninny tears 
and misgivings, were soaked with rain, and after 
marcjiing about eight miles he then threw the food 
away, as it had become offensive; had she then 
known the condition of her boy, her grief would 
have been tenfold. Tlie son, however, trudged on, 
happy in the thought that liis mother was spared 
this knowledge, and in due time encountered the 
swamp of whicli his friend at tlie " tavern " had 
warned him. He waded in, however, up to his 
waist ill many places, but always managed to keep 
his head above water, and at sunset of that day 
proudly marched into the liamlet of Adrinn. 

Mr. Stockwell here found a public place of enter- 
tainment, conducted by tiie well-known Isaac I 
French, where he remained owr uii^ht. paying twelve 
cents for his lodging; Ids suppur consisted of crack- 
ers and dried venison, for whicli he paid six cents. 
In the morning, bright and early, he started for the 
home of his uncle, Moses Perkins, who lived upon 
the place wliii-h now belongs to the estate of Na- 
than Meyrr. ;iii(l which, it is needless to say, has un- 
dergone many changes since that time, lie made | 

4' ' 

his home with his uncle that summer, and worked 
out by the day. He had i^romised his parents that 
he would return to New York State inside of three 
months, and bring with him his earnings. He faith- 
fully kept his promise, and proudly presented his 
father with the 148 he had left after paying his ex- 

The remainder of that year ;ind a part of the 
next Mr. Stockwell spent in his native State, still 
working and handing over his wages to his father, 
so that he could p.ay his debts and they might all 
take up their future abode in Michigan. In the spring 
of 1 837 Martin returned to this count3' and pur- 
chased forty acres of land for his father in Adrian 
Township, working out, as before, to pay for it. 
In the winter of Ib.'iS-.'il) he attended school, and 
in the spring following, being twenty years old, he 
eng.aged to work sctven months for |100. Of this 
he paid *25 to his father for his time until he 
should bect.mie of age, and when that auspicious 
day dawned upon him he had $100 of his own be- 
sides. He continued to work out by the month at 
whatever he could find to do for three more j'cars, 
and was then married, and purchased a quarter sec- 
tion of land in Dover Township, which formed the 
nucleus of his present farm. His career from this 
time was one of uniform prosperity, and the day 
soon came when he felt richly rewarded for his toil 
and sacrifices. 

The Stockwell residence is considered one of the 
finest in Dover Townsbip. It is hardly necessaiy 
to say that the youth who liad exhibited such de- 
termination and perseverance was recognized as a 
valuable addition to the community, and he was 
soon called upon to serve in the various local of- 
fices. He was Justice of the Peace eight years, rep- 
resented his township in the County Board of Su- 
[)ervisors two terms, was Overseer of the Poor for 
a period of eight years, and in 18G7 was a member 
of tlie Constitutional Convention. Politically, he 
has always been an active Republican, and in re- 
ligion is, with his excellent wife, a Free-Will 

Proliably one of tlic most interesting and im- 
portant events in the life of .Mr. Stockwell was his 
marriage, which occurred Aug. 11, 1841, his bride 
being Miss Louisa, daughter of -loseph and Olive 



(Burgess) Balej'. Mrs. Stockwell was born in Rom- 
ulus, Seneca Co., N. Y., Oct. 31, 1823, and came 
to Michigan witii her father in 1837. The latter 
was born in rennsylvania in 1793, and died in Do- 
ver, this count}-, Nov. 4, 1844. The mother was 
born in Newburg, Orange Co., N. Y.. in .lune, 
1795, and died in Romulus, that .State, Feb. 10, 
1836, before tiie removal of the family to Michi- 
gan. Mr. and Mrs. Stockwell began life together 
in a little log house on the new farm, and in due 
time became the parents of eleven children. Their 
eldest daughter, Olive, was born Jidy II, 1842, and 
became the wife of Byron L. Shaw, uf Adrian ; Cin- 
derella was born Feb. 15, 1844, married I. R. Gale, 
of Barnerville, N. Y., and died in Dover Township, 
April 15, 1884: Agnes L. was born P^eb. 26, l.s46, 
and married Aaron VanOstrand, of Dover; Joseph 
B. was born June ."), 1848, and is now one of the 
most successful farmers of Dover Township; Zarefa 
was born Sept. 20, 1850, and is tlic wife of Robcit 
F. Pouley, of Florida; Anna P. was horn Oct. 12, 
1852, is finely educated, and is engaged in teaching 
in the city of Cleveland, Ohio; Alice M. was born 
Nov. 7, 1854, and died Feb. 8, 1864; Esther M. 
was born Dec. 14, 1858, and died March 26, 1864; 
Elmer E. was born Oct. 20, 1860, and died Oct. 5, 
1863: Minnie E. was born .Tnly 14, 1864, and M. 
Louise, July 26, 186(i: lliese two ;ii-e at iiome with 
their parents. 

The home farm includes 290 acres of land under 
a high state of cultivation, and on which is a beau- 
tiful residence, erected in 1856. In 18(;9 Mr. 
Stockwell established on his farm the Dover Center 
Cheese Factory, which he operated until about 1883. 
and in which lie still has a controllin;:- interest. 

In the life of Mr. Stockwell wr find an excellent 
example for young men embarking in the Held of 
active life, and who are necessarily dejjendeut ujjon 
their own resoiu-ces. There nnist be infinite satis- 
faction in the reHeclion th:il he is indebted to no 
man for his position socL-dly .-nid liiiancially. except 
that his fellow-citizens have generously acknowl- 
edged his worthy ambition to succeed, and en- 
couraged him by their esteem and conHdem-e, which 
is unquestionably ample reward for his exertions 
and self-denial. Not only has Mr. Stoekuell been 

u;eessful in the sense of ;iceuniulating wealth, luit 


he has proved to be an important factor in the busi- 
ness and agricultural interests of Lenawee County. 
He has strictly observed that most important ele- 
ment in the public or business life of any man, 
namel}', honesty, being careful and conscientious in 
his dealings, and his i-ecord open at all time to in- 
spection. He has esteemed himself happy in being- 
able to give to his children those advantages of 
which he himself was deprived in his yonth. and in 

ored parents as they joui'neyed down the sunset 
hill of life. The dutiful son could scarcely have 
become otherwise than the worthy member of a 
comminiity, and as such Mr. Stockwell stands sec- 
ond to no man in this eonntv. 

=?1E()RGE CON(iER. The name that heads 
rticle is one representing character and 
siness standing of an enviable order. A 
native of New Y<Mk, with its best ideas of char- 
acter, integrity, i)robityand honor, deeply- implanted 
in his organism, the principles that go to make up 
the successful man find their exponent in (ieorge 
Conger, of Clinton Townshiii. 

Jlr. Conger resides on his farm of 138 acres on 
section 7, lying one mile from Clinton. The im- 
provements are good, as one might expect when it 
is remembered that Mr. Conger settled here in 1861. 
Erie County, N. Y., was a home for his p.arents 
after they left Rutland County, that State, taking 
their son George along with them at ten years of 
age. The birth|)lace of (ieorge was in Vermont, 
where his father. I)a\id. w.-is also born, and m.arried 
Rachel \Vilbei-, who t<..o was ii native of the Green 
Mountain State, and like her husband, descended 
from New England parents of English ancestr}-. 
After the birth of the eight children at their home 
in Vermont, Frie County, N. V., became their home. 
Although the country was then poorly improved, it 
was conducive to the development of a thrifty and 
enterprising spirit in its inhabitants, by the conflict 
they had with nature to secure subsistence. Tlie 
lather and mother died on thi' Erie County farm, 
where the former passed nw:iy in 182.'!. at the age 
of fortv-tive. His wife followed in 1855, living to 





a ripe old age. They were members of the Meth- 
odist Episcopal Church, and the father was a Whig 
in his political afflliations. After the death of his 
father, George continued to live with his mother 
until his marriage. 

Mr. Conger was united in marriage with Miss 
Eliza Hoag, who was horn in York State, and lived 
to accompany her husband to his home in Michigan, 
where she died in 1863, at the age of forty-flvo 
years. She was the mother of one child, named 
Stephen, who married and died in Tecumseh. Ills 
wife was Mar}' E. Miser, of Franklin Township, now 
the wife of Norman Mattison, a farmer of Tecumseh 
Township. Four cliildren were born to Stephen — 
George S., Frank H., Ada E. and Noel E. George 
S. married Anna Staiger, of Clinton, and lives with 
his grandfathei-, the subject of our sketch. The 
other three live with their mother. While in New 
York State Mv. Conger kept a dairy for twenty- 
five years. 

Mr. Conger's second niariiage took place in 18GJ 
in Clinton Townshij), to Mrs. Frances Mallard, 
whose maiden name was Richardson. She was born 
in New York in 1820; her father was an English- 
man, her mothei- a French lady. They both died 
when Frances was a small child, and it was her mis- 
fortune in consequence to be reared by strangers, un- 
til her first marriage, by which she iiad no offspring. 
She is a member of the .Alotiiodist Episcopal Church. 
Mr. Conger gives his -iipiiort to the Democratic 


(^^HOMAS B. EDDY, a farmer le.siding <.n sec 
ff^^\ tion :), Dover Township, is ;i native of the 
^^^ State of New York, and is the son of George 
and Temperance (Cooke) Eddy, the former a Penn- 
sylvanian by birth and the latter a native of the 
State of New York. 

After theii' maniage the |)arents of Mr. Eddy 
settled in ITtica. N. Y.. whence they subsequentlj- 
removed t<:) Perrinton Township, Monroe County, 
where Mr. Eddy cleared a farm and lived on it 
for several years. He finally disjjosed of his prop- 
erty in Perrinton, and removing to Pittsford in 
the same county, he purchased another farm, on 
which he lived four or five years. At the e.xjiiration 

of that time Mr. Eddy concluded to sell out again 
and take up his residence in Ohio; he accordingl}- 
did so, and removed with his family' to Milan, Erie 
County, where he and his wife made their home till 
death. Mrs. Eddy passed away in 1863, and Mr. 
Eddy survived his estimable wife six years. Thej' 
were the parents of six children, four of whom lived 
to maturity, as follows: George C. was a farmer 
and died in Milan, Ohio, of a disease contracted 
during the late war while serving as a Corporal in 
the 184th Ohio Infantry ; Samuel M.,an attorney in 
Cleveland, Ohio, enlisted in the war of the Rebel- 
lion under Capt. Hitchcock, who was President of 
Hudson College; >Villiam H. was a Sergeant in 
Com|)any F, 184th Ohio Regiment, and also gave 
up his life for his country, dying at Arlington 
Heights in 1865, of measles and typhoid fever. 

Thomas B. Eddy was the third child of his par- 
ents, and his birth occurred in Perrinton, Monroe 
Co., N. Y., July 21, 1839. The years of his boy- 
hood were passed on a farm, w-here he learned many 
a lesson that has been of practical benefit to him in 
his contact with the world since he left his parental 
home. He was educated not only in the common 
schools, but received an excellent mental training 
from a thorough course of instruction obtained at 
a Normal School. He was thirteen years old when 
he accompanied his parents to Milan, Ohio, where 
he continued to i-eside with them until he became a 
man. At the age of twenty-one he rented a farm 
in Blilan, and continued to reside there for several 
years, a of the time engaged in agricultural 
pursuits, and for two years engaged as contractor 
on the Nickel Plate Railway, which wa-s then known 
as the New York, Chicago & St. Louis Railway. 

During his residence in Milan Mr. Eddy vvas 
married to Miss Elizabeth Hathaway, their wedding 
occurring on the 27th of December, 18.5;). She is 
the daughter of Peter and Prudence D. (Craw) 
Hathaway, the former a native of Philadelphia, Pa., 
and the latter of ^^ermont. After marriage they 
settled in Milan, Ohio, where Mi-. Hathaway died ; 
his widow now lives in Dover Township with our 
subject. The}' were the parents of four children, 
three of whom died in infancy; Edward, Joseph 
and one unnamed. Mrs. Eddy was born in Milan. 
Ohio. Feb. I'), 183.s, and receiving a good educ;i- 




tion, engaged very successfully in teaching before 
her marriage. To Mr. and Mrs. Eddy have 
born eight children : Walter H., Frances E. 
M., Clara E., Alice S., Anna L., El 

E. and Thomas 
H. Thomas H. and Frances E. are deceased ; Wal- 
ter married Alice ('. Hartow, and lives in Knmo 
Township, while Decide is a teacher in Lcnnwee 

In 1883 Mr. Eddy came to Micliigan with his 
family, and was engaged as Superintendent of the 
Raisin Valley Seminary, a position for which he was 
eminently qualified by his rare mental endowments. 
At the expiration of two years he resigned that 
ofHce to turn his attention once more to agricultural 
pursuits. He bought 140 acres in I>over Township, 
and since that time has given his entire attention to 
the cultivation of his land. He biings a clear and 
well-cultivated intellect to bear on all questions of 
the day, and is a valuable addition to the intelligent 
agricultural population of this community. He and 
his good wife are members of the Baptist Church, 
and do much to uphold the cau,se of religion and 
morality wherever they may be. In politics Mr. 
Eddy is a stanch Prohibitionist. 



/p^EORGE L. HOXSIE, proprietor of the Hol- 
III £-— , loway Foundry, is one of the wide-awake 
^^sii •'">*^' enterprising business men of Lenawee 
County, ijrominently identifying his interests with 
those of the young town of Hollowaj' since its in- 
ception, and, although a young man, has already 
obtained high rank among the inventors of this 

Mr. Hoxsie is a native of this Slate, wlicrc he was 
born in Palmyra Township May 20, ISflo, and is the 
son of Ezra Hoxsie, who first came to I'almyi'a 
Township from his native State, New York, in I.S:5;!. 
He afterward left Palmyra to learn the trade of a 
machinist, in .and Tecumseli. :ind Mfter he 
hadniastered every rtefciil, he did l)usine>s in \;uions 
towns in this county, a part of tlie linic in partner- 
ship with his son (leorge. In he retired to 
his native State, where he now resides in JMapleton, 
Cayuga County. .Sonu; time after his eonnng to 
Michi-an, he was wedded to Miss Susan Kelley, 

who came with her parents to Michigan when quite 
young from her native Slate, New York, and died 
at her home in Holloway, Oct. .'iO, 1885, at the age 
of sixty-four years. Mr. and Mrs. Hoxsie were the 
parents of Hve children, .as r,,ll,,us: Allicrt, Ellen, 
Eliza i)elh (.Icceased). (Icorgc L. and Vernon. 

Our subject early displayed that genius for me- 
chanics which has resulted in the present business 
enterprise. When a lad of fourteen he began to 
learn the machinist's trade imdei- the tutelage of 
his father, and after he had a<'iiuired a tliorough 
knowledge of the Inisiness. he and his father estab- 
lished a foundry at Acme, Mich., whence after ten 
years they removed to Pilisstield, where they re- 
mained in business for tlu'ee years. In tiu' year 
1882 they vamv from Blisslield to Hollow.ay, and 
Mr. Hoxsie bought his father's share in llie busi- 
ness, which he has since conducted alone. He has 
receritly enlarged his establishment to twice its 
former capacity by the erection of abuihling 50x70 
feet in dimensions, and is now enabled to cast pieces 
weighing four tons if desired. His shojjs are well 
equi|)|)ed and he employs a working force of tifteen 
men most of the time. 

During these few busy years Mr. Hoxsie's invent- 
ive talent has not lain dormant, and, as the result of 
careful study, combined with a thorough knowl- 
edge of the principles governing mechanics, he has 
placed before tlie world a nund)er of useful inven- 
tions upon whit'h lie has seeureil |):itents, noticealjle 
among which is a nuinatiu'e sawmill, wliieh he n(.)w 
manufactures, used extensively in the manufacture 
of pickets, laths, etc. He also has an active inter- 
est in other inventions besides his own. 

Mr. Hoxsie was married in Blissfield. Aug. 31, 
1882, to Miss Alma Barrett, a native of Michigan, 
where she was born in Blissfield, Oct. 17, 1853. She 
is the daughter of Benjamin and Caroline (Watson) 
Barrett, natives of New York, who came to this 
State when younu, .and were married in Adrian 
July 14, 1.S51. They were the parents, of six chil- 
dren, three of whom .are deceased, namely: Herbert, 
Seymour and Anna; those living are Alma, Sey- 
mour (2d) and Laura. Thp father was instantly 
killed in Ohio, while in the discharge of his duties 
as a railway engineer, by the falling of a tree across 
the engine while it was in motion. After 




Mrs. Hoxsie was carefulh- trained by her mother 
and educated under her supervision; the mother 
now makes her home with Mrs. H. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Hoxsie has been born one child, (ilenn, wlio 
died at the age of ten months. 

Mr. Hoxsie's busy life does nut mINjw him to take 
an active part in public affairs, yet his influence as 
a man of talent and great business ability can not 
but be felt in the place he has chosen as his home 
and the seat of his work; his prosperity means the 
prosperity of the town. In politics the Republican 
party finds in him an ardent advocate by voice and 

r(f^ TEl'lIEN GALEA WAY is a gentleman who 
^^^ has been, at the time of the writing of this 
ll^J) sketch, a resident of the State of Michigan 
for half a century, lacking only one year- 
and is one of the men who can personally testify to 
the progress made by the section of Michigan in 
which he resides. During his long residence he has 
borne an active part in the work of opening and I 
developing the country, and in establishing the in- I 
stitutions which have supplied facilities for religious ! 
and moral training. His first settlement in Raisin ' 
Township was in 1839, since which time he has 
been one of the successful general farmers of the 
township. He is now holding the position of Post- i 
master at Raisin Centre, and has been an incum- 
bent of the office since its establishment in 18G8. [ 
His farm consists of eightj' acres of excellent land, 
all of which is under good cultivation. 

Mr. Gallavvay was born in Washington County. 
N. Y., April 8, 1827, and is the son of William 
Gallaway, a native of Rensselaer County, N. Y., 
where he was born on the 8th of April, 1775. He I 
was the son of Thomas (iallaway, a native of Ire- 
land, a man of considerable cdiicatHJii mid a teacher 
by profession, who came U> the I'liiicil States after 
his marriage and settled in Washington Ccnintj^ N. 
Y., where he died at an advanced age. AViliiam 
Gallaway, the fatiier of our subject, was reared 
chiefly in Washington County, N. Y., and was 
there married thi-ee times, lii.s liist wife was Eliza- 
l)eth Haxton, ami his second was Martha iNIacCom- i 

bcr; they both died in Washington County. The 
third wife was Jemima Bowerman, and by the three 
marriages there were fourteen children born, three 
by the first, nine by the second and two by the last. 
Our subject was the youngest child, and after the 
death of his father in Washington County, N. Y., 
when Stephen was but fifteen months old, his 
mother came to Michigan, and spent the remainder 
of her life, dying at the home of our subject in 
January, 1856, at the age of sixty-seven years. 
When Stephen grew to manhood he came to Michi- 
gan and settled on the eighty acres of land that had 
been taken up by his mother in 1833. 

On the 26th of December, 1846, Mr. (i alia way 
was married to Miss Maria Hoag, who was l>orn on 
the 17th of December, 1821, and is the daughter 
of Abner I. and Lucinda (Barrager) lloag, who 
came from New York and settled in Lenawee 
County in 1844, where they spent the remainder of 
their lives. Mr. and Mrs. Gallaway are the parents 
of six children, three of whom are deceased. Mrs. 
Gallaway is a member of the Society of Friends, in 
which she stands very high. Mr. Gallaway is a 
Prohibitionist in politics, and upon all proper oc- 
casions manifests his deep interest in the welfare of 
that party. He is an estimable citizen, and thor- 
oughl3' committed to all movements calculated to 
furthei' the best interests of the people. 

Abner Gallaway, one of the sons of Mr. and Mrs. 
Stephen Gallaway, is one of the successful general 
farmers of Raisin Township. His farm, consisting 
of ninety-five acres, is located on section 33, and is 
under a good state of cultivation, while the im- 
provements are all first class. He is a native of 
Raisin Township, where he was born on the 20th of 
December, 1848. He spent his early life on a farm 
and received a liberal education in the district 
schools of his township. On the yth of February, 
1870, Mr. Gallaway was married to Miss Emeline, 
■A daughter of William Ash, who was a native of 
Lincolnshire, England, ami one of the early settlers 
of Lenawee County. He was married in the county 
to Miss Harriet Houghtby ; both are now deceased. 
Mrs. Gallaway was liorn on the loth of January, 
185(1. in Raisin Townshii), and was reared to woman- 
liood on tlie old Ash liomestead, receiving a 
good education in the common schools, Mr. and 

*» ^ ^*- 

r. an<l I 





Mrs. Abner Gallaway are the parents of two cliil- 
(Ireii: Mattie, who was born Oct. 12, lS7."i. ^iid 
Harvey, June i, ISSC. 

Like his father, Mr. Gallaway is .-i Prohibitioni.^t 
in politics, and takes :i livrly interest in political 
affairs, generally participating ^^ iili much enthusiasm 
in the campaigns when the interests of his party are 
at stake. He is a young man of much energy and 
enterprise, and wliatever he engages in is prosecuted 
with enthusiasm and dctcnniniition. lie i.- one of 
the coming men of J^cnawcc Cciunty. and the fu- 
ture evidently has much in >t<)rc tor him. 

,A\ ATHEW H. IvKUU. 'riii> gentlenian ha> 
been an important factor in bringing about 
the prospeiity of Lenawee County. He ha> 
a beautiful home and a tine farm on section 
4, Dover Township, which have become his by sheer 
pluck, iiersistent industry and good judgment. 

Mr. Kerr's parents were Robert and Mary (Hen- 
ry) Kerr, natives of County Antrim, Ireland, where 
the former was engaged as a farmer and a stoic- 
keeper din-ing many j^ears of his life. They re- 
mained life-long residents of their native place and 
became the parents of seven children, namely : .lohn, 
Mathew H., Robert, David, ,1., Nancy and 

Our subject wa> the second child born to hi> 
parents, and first saw the liglit in County Antrim, 
Ireland, Nov. 18. IH.'iO. He lived in hi> native 
countj' until he was twenty years of age and then 
came to this land, which has been the Mecca of his 
compatriots for S(J many years. He landed in New 
York City, and thence made his way to Cincinnati, 
and on down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers to 
New Orleans, where he obtained emiiloyment in a 
commission warehouse. At the end of about live 
months he returned to Cincinn.ati. wlicucc he came 
to Lenawee County in Novcinber. 1 s.")(i. He 
worked on a farm about two months .iller hi- ar- 
rival, and then going back to Ciminiiali. he re- 
mained a short time, and in the spring of 1 s.M 
retui'ne<l to Lenawee County, whci-e he obtained 
work at whatever his hands tViund to do. lie was 
very energetic and capable, and had but little diffi- 

culty in obtaining employment: he was engaged 
most of the time in Adrian at the carpenter's trade. 
Mr. Kerr in ISt;:! took nin.'\ .■ men Sontli, and 
had charge of them in the intcrc-t of the tiovern- 

)ing other car 

,enter work 

sncli as w 

>iiM com 

fore them. 

On the 1 Ith o 

■ March. IS.-. 

'. Mr. Ker uja 

■d in Adrian U 

, Miss Susan 

Lang, win 

was boi 

County Fell 

lanaeh. livl.- 

n.l. March 

2.".. I.s2( 

IM'.l >lie cam 

■ to Anieri<-:i 


■cnts, .loh 

d Alary ( 

.c) Lang, wl 

o located 

in Canad 

d there died. 

In the year 

■riage M 

Kerr bought a farm about two miles from the vil- 
lage of I'almyr.M. of which he i-lcare<l abonl twenty 
acres and then dispo-ed of it at an adv:in<-c. He 
tlien bought 120 .•i.ivs of wild lan.l in I )over 'fown- 
Ship, which h,-is since been hi- icsi<leni-e. and he has 

branches, lb- has cle.aic.i loo aci'es of his land, 
and from time to time has increased the extent of 
his farm, until at one time he owned a tract of .UK I 
acres in Lenawee Connt3'. He has since disposed 
of someof hislan<l, but he still owns 240 aeies, wliieli 
may be considered a model farm. In ls,s:;|,e |,iiill, 
a tine brick hous,. ,.n this |ilaec. and erected 
good b.arns and other buildings. 

Mr. and Mrs. Kerr are the |)arents of six i liildrcn, 
namely: William J., .lohn R.. David, (ieorge, 
Mathew and Mary E. William maiiicd Aliss Tillie 
A'anSyckle and resi.les in Hillsdale County. .Midi.; 
John married Miss Eveline Clenieiisen, and lives in 
Dover Township, as also does David, who married 
Miss Addle Eiirman: Ceorge died near Jack Fish 
Hay, in British America, while Al.athew and M.ary 
live at home. 

In polities Mr. Kerr well maintains the interests 
of the Democratic p.arty in this township. He 
held the office of llighw.ay Commissionei- for many 
years, and has also done good service as a memlier 
of the School Board in furthering the educational 
advantages of the town. He i.s a nienilier of Adrian 
Lodge No. lit, A. F. >V A. M.. and in his religious 
faith is a rresbyterian. Mrs. Kerr is a Metliodist 

their home pleasant to her f.ainily, ,iiid to the Large 
I circle of friends who ;uv often welcomed to their 
■ » 






hospitable board. Though Mr. Kerr has become a 
prosperous citizen of the United States, he still has 
a warm spot in his heart for the land of his birth, 
and in 1881, accompanied by his brother John, he 
returned to the Emerald Isle tn revisit the scenes of 
his 3-outh. 


OLREU ALLEN i.- a well-tu-do farmei- and 
stock-raiser, widely known in Lenawee Coun- 
ty as a shrewd man of business, whose industry, 
wise economy, and undoubted integrity of character, 
have placed him in the front ranks of those men 
who have won wealth by attention to agi'iculture 
in its various branches. Mr. Allen is at present | 
living in retirement from the active labors of life 
in his home, which he shares with his sister in Clin- 
ton Township. He located on this farm in 1857, 
which at that time was mostly unimproved, and he 
now has a fine tract of 1 11 acres, nearly all of which 
is under tillage. He has also been very successful 
financially, and his success in life is due entirely to 
his own unaided efforts, directed bj^ good judgment. 

Our subject was born in Bethany Township, Gen- 
esee Co., N. Y., Aug. 17, 1817, and is the son of ' 
Israel Allen, who was born and reared in Connecticut. 
He was a farmer and cooper by trade, and when a 
young man went to Massachusetts and there [ 
married Miss Margaret Barker, a native of that State. 
They lived in Connecticut for some years after 
marriage, and then left their New Pingland home and 
went to Pennsylvania, where Mr. Allen bought a [ 
farm which he partially improved. After the War 
of 1812 he disposed of his property in Pennsylvania I 
and removed with his family to Genesee County, | 
N. Y., where he pursued his trade for some time. 
In 1857 he came with his wife and son Oliver to 
Michigan, and they located on llic f;uiii which ; 
belongs to our subject, and here ended their days, 
at the ages, respectively, of eighty-seven and sev- 
enty-five years. They were people who led honor- 
able and useful lives, and were held in high respect 
by all. They were for many years faithful mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and Mr. 
Allen was in politics a sttinch a<liiercnt U> the Repub- 
lican party. 

Oliver Allen, of this sketch, was the fifth child ol i 

the family of eight children born to his parents. He 
grew to manhood in his native State and con- 
tinued to live there until 1857, when, as before 
stated, he became a citizen of this State, and has 
ever since lived on the farm on which he then located 
with his parents. He has never married, but lives 
with his si.ster Auorilla, who, like himself, has pre- 
ferred a life of single blessedness. She was born in 
Litchfield, Conn., and lias been an enterprising, 
energetic, hard-working woman, posse.ssing sound 
common sense, and has amassed much wealth. 
Their only surviving brother, Reuben Allen, mar- 
ried Elizabeth Leet, and is a farmer living in Alle- 
gan County, this State. 

Mr. Allen of this sketch is Republican in politics, 
and does much to promote the interests of that 
part3' in his township. He is valued as a good cit- 
izen, with an honorable record of fair dealings with 
his fellowmen, and is held in respect by all in 
the community with whose interests his own have 
been identified for many years. 

"-^'S^-'-^t^ >=^*^ .^^.^-^<^=fe:- 

^^ HARLES M. TOBIAS is actively engaged in 
flf^l farming and stock-raising in Dover Town- 
^^Jf' ship. Mr. Tobias is a native of New York, 
as were also his parents, Moses and Jane (Manning) 
Tobias, the former born in Ulster County and the 
latter in Dutchess County. After marriage thej- first 
settled in Tompkins County, whence they removed 
to Ontario County, and in the spring of 1851 they 
left their native State and came to Michigan, set- 
tling in Branch County. From there they removed 
to Calhoun County, and thence to St. Joseph County, 
where they finally settled in White Pigeon, and 
there these good people closed their earthly pil- 
grimage. Of their union seven children had been 
born, two sons and five daughters. 

Charles M. Tobias of this sketch was the eldest 
child of his parents, and was born in Tompkins 
County, N. Y., July 5, 1827. He was seven years 
old when his parents moved to Ontario County, 
and there he grew to manhood on the farm, and re- 
ceived an education in the common schools of that 
.State. In 1851 he came with his parents to Michi- 
gan, and soon after commenced a long course of 




employment in different capacities as a railroad 
man. He was thus employed in several States for 
nearly twenty years. In 1867 he purchased 103 
acres of land in Dover Township, but he still con- 
tinued in the employ of a railroad company nearly 
two years longer. Since that time he has devoted 
his attention entirely to the care of his farm. He 
now owns 133 acres of valuable land, on which he 
has erected a substantial set of farm buildinas, and 
has every convenience for the successful prosecu- 
tion of his work. He engages in mixed husbandry, 
giving much attention to the raising of stock as 
well as to other branches of agriculture. 

In all these years of labor Mr. Tobias has the as- 
sistance of a prudent, caretaking wife, to whom he 
was married Feb. 9, 1859. Her maiden name was 
Angelina McLouth, and she is a native of Dover 
Township. To them have been born four children, 
namel}': Arthur W., Ernest E., Burton E. and 
Ella F. Mr. and Mrs. Tobias have given their 
children all the advantages to be obtained f)-oni a 
good education. The sons have been engaged in 
teaching, and Arthur W. is at present engaged with 
a Boston firm as a commercial traveler. Mr. Ttibias 
is a ])rominent Democrat in his township. 

1^^ YLVANUS KINNEY looked upon the face 
^^^ of the country in Michigan at a time when 
|i]/_Jl) the development of her resources had 
scarcely begun. Coming here in the strength 
of his 3'outh and energy intent upon carving out 
his fortune, he was prepared for whatever might 
arise amid the difHeuIties of .settlement in a wild 
and new region, from which Indians had not long 
departed and where wild game was still abimdant. 
He is a native of Livingston County, N. Y., where 
his birth took place at the homestead of his parents, 
Joel and Betsey (Holmes) Kinney, on the 20th of 
June, 1809. 

Joel Kinney, a native of Connecticut, learned 
the trade of a shoemaker early in life, and after his 
marriage migrated with his bride to Livingston 
County, N. Y., where the latter became a motiier, 
and died when her son Sylvauus was but two years 
of age; Mrs. Kinney was a native of Vermont and 

came of excellent family-. After the death of his 
mother our subject w.ns taken into the home of his 
cousin, at Richmond, Ontario County, where he 
remained proliably eight years. He was then bound 
out to a neighboring farmer, with wlioin lie remained 
until twenty-one years of aii<'. working hard and 
receiving little pay and less kindness. Upon reach- 
ing his majority, however, he received 1100, and 
started out for himself as a farm laborer, which 
occupation he followed singly until 183.'j. He still 
continued a resident of Richmond, and in tiie spring 
of the year mentioned he married one of his child- 
hood friends, Miss Hannah Crane, who was born in 
Massachusetts but came to New York with her par- 
ents when a young child. 

Young Kinney, not being satisfied with his con- 
dition or his prospects in the Empire State, joined 
the caravan moving toward the Territory of Mich- 
igan, and upon reaching this county took up his 
abode on a tract of 1<!0 acres in Cambridge Town- 
ship, where he settled down in the woods on section 
35, and at once commenced its improvement. This 
land he occupied for a period of thirty-one years, 
and in the meantime had transformed a portion of 
the wilderness into a valuable and productive farm. 
In the course of time he erected good buildings, and 
viewed with satisfaction the spectacle of the land 
around him being gradually developed and occupied 
by a class of thrifty and intelligent people. Here ' 
he was content to live until advancing ye.ars admon- 
ished him it wiiuld be wise to retire from .active 
labor, and accordingly, selling his farm he moved to 
the city of Adrian, in 1866, where he has since 
remained. The wife of his youth died in April, 
1S49, leaving six children, all sons, namely: John 
C, now a resident of Canibi-idge; William C., a 
real-estate dealer of Chicago: Joel V., a Govern- 
ment claim agent at Cincinnati, Ohio; Joshua P.. a 
farmer of Polk County, Mo.; Julius, who died in 
Franklin. Tenn., when twenty -one years of age, and 
S. H., who is engaged in the insurance business at City. Mr. Kinney for his second wife mar- 
ried Miss Sarah Crain, and two and one-half years 
later she also passed to her kmg home ; of this union 
there were no children. 

Mr. Kinney was married the third time, to Miss 
Abigail Briggs, a native of Massachusetts, who 




beeaiiic tlie motlun- of three children, namely: Ver- 
non, who is engMgod in dairying in Milwaukee 
County, Wis. : DeWitt. a resident of North Spring- 
field. Mo., and Chn-M E., a teacher, who makes her 
home with iier fiitiici-. Thi' motlun- of these chil- 
dren died at the family icsidence in the city of 
Adrian, Aug. 1, l«(i7. The present wife of our 
subject, to whom he was married in 1867, was form- 
erly Mrs. Abbie (Fot>te^ Moore, a native of Cayuga 
County, N. Y., aii'l niio for her first husliand mar- 
ried Alonzo Mo( of New York. Her father was 
Milton Foote, a native of Connecticut, who spent 
his last years in Rome, Mich. Of this marriage 
there were no children. Her mother, whose maiden 
name was Lois Bisco, spent her last years in Adrian 
and died in the ninety-flrst year of her age. Three 
of the sons of Mr. Kinney served as soldiers in the 
late war, and Joel F. at the battle of Chickamauga 
received a wound in the right shoulder. 

Mr. Kinney is a man who has always been inter- 
ested in State and National affairs, and in early life 
identified himself with the Democratic party. Later 
he wheeled over into the Republican ranks, but is 
now an active Prohibitionist. A history of the 
scenes he has witnessed, the trials he has passed 
through, and the labors involved in the establish- 
ment of a homestead and the successful cultivation 
of the primitive soil, would form an interesting vol- 
ume and prove the correctness of the adage "truth 
is stranger than fiction." He is looked upon in his 
community with the peculiar veneration and respect 
accorded the old pioneers, while the personal char- 
acter of the man has been such as to secure him the 
unalloyed resi)ect of his neighbors and acquaintances. 


^P^E0R(;E L. VVAITE. son of one of the early 
jl[ (— , i)ionecrs of Palmyra Township, occupies his 
^^51 father's old homestead on section 6, where 
his birth took place Sept. 17, 1852. It vvill thus be 
seen that he is comparatively a young man. He 
comes of a good family, has received a fair educa- 
tion, and thus far in life has deported himself as a 
conscientious and useful citizen, an industrious and 
skillful farmer, and is already established in the good- 
will and confidence of the people who have watched 


' him from his earliest youth, and predicted that he 
would worthily bear the mantle of his honored sire. 
Henry Waite, the father of our subject, was a 
i native of Rochester, N. Y., near where he wa.s reared 
] upon a farm, and afterward learned the trade of a 
I carriage and house painter. He removed from the 
Empire State to this county while a 3'oung man, 
and during the early settlement of Palmyra Town- 
ship. He first purchased propertj' near the young 
city of Adrian, where he followed his trade a num- 
ber of years, and tliCn invested his surplus capital 
in a tract of timber land on section 6, wiiere in due 
time he established a permanent home, which be- 
came the abiding-place of his famil}', and where his 
son George L. at present resides. Mr. Waite, 
after the purchase of this land, still continued at his 
trade, hiring men to fell the trees and prepare the 
soil for cultivation, .and for several years thereafter 
to sow and harvest the crops. About 1852, having 
erected a good residence, he took up his abode w-ith 
his family on the farm, where he spent his last 
years, and departed this life Dec. 10, 1877. The 
mother of our subject had passed to her long rest 
twenty years before, and Henry Waite had married 
the second time. 

The mother of Mr. Waite of our sketch was in 
her girlhood Miss Adeline Lusk. She was born in 
Monroe County, N. Y., and became the wife of Henry 
Waite about 1 850, while the3' were residents of their 
native State. She is remembered as an affectionate 
wife and mother, but passed away while still a 
3'oung woman. Of her children, four in number, 
the eldest died in infancy; William A. is occupied 
in farming in Eaton County, Mich.; fieorge L., of 
our sketch, was next to the youngest; Jerome B. is 
farming in Palmyra Township. 

Our subject passed his youth mostly on the farm, 
pursuing his early studies in the district school, and 
afterward attending a graded school at Adrian. He 
then turned his attention solely to farming, it being 
understood that he would retain the homestead. 
To this he brought a bride in the earlj' part of 1882. 
having been married, January 4 of that year, to 
Miss Ida J. Kayner. This lady was born in Hills- 
dale, Mich., and is the daughter of Charles and 
Phebe (Haviland) Kayner. Of her union with our 
subject there are two children: Charles, who was 





horn Ain-il 26, 1883, and Coiinue, June 9, 1884. 
Mr. VVaite vote? the straight Republican ticket, anil 
takes :i genuine interest in the moral and cdnca- 
tional welfare of the [leople of liis locality. 

Charles Kayner, tiic fatliei- of .Airs. Waitc, ;i 
native of Niagara County, N. Y., wjierc he was 
born Aug. 27, 1873, was one of the pioneeis of 
Riisin Township, and now owns a good farm on 
section 29, comprising seventy acres of fertile land, 
supplied with good buildings and all the other ap- 
purtenances of a modern homestead. His father, 
Dr. (Tcorge Kayner, a practicing physician of Niag- 
ara County, died when his son Charles was but 
eighteen months old. The mother, whose maiden 
name was Dorcas Bowman, was subsequently mar- 
ried to Jeremiah Westgate, of New York, and they 
afterward came to this county and settled in Raisin 
Township, where they secured a comfortable home. 
The mother died about 1851, and Mr. Westgate 
more than twenty years later, in 1873. They were 
estimable citizens and conscientious members of the 
Society of Friends. Of the first marriage there 
were born but two children, Charles, and Elizabeth, 
now Mrs. Haviland, who resides with her liusl)and 
on a farm in Raisin Township. 

Mr. Kayner remained with his mother .and was 
reared mainly in Raisin Township, where he re- 
ceived a fair education, and became with : 
farm pursuits. Upon reaching manhood he was 
united in marriage with Miss Phebe A. Haviland. | 
who was born in New York State, and came to this \ 
county with her parents in her youth. She became j 
the mother of four children, namely: Chester, j 
now a farmer of Raisin Township; Ida J.; Edwin, 
who is farming in Medina Townshii); and Rertha 
M., who remains at home. The mother of these 
children died at her home in Raisin Township, 
July 21, 1880. Mr. Kayner exercised much care 
in the training and education of his children, and 
they now occupy a good position among the intelli- 
gent members of their community. 

The present wife of Jlr. Kayner was formerly 
Mrs. Ann M. (Brittain) Kent, who was born in 
Adrian Dee. 12, 1843, where she was reared and 
educated in the public schools. Her parents were 
A. W. and Harriet (Crane) Brittain, early settlers 
of this county, who died several years ago. Mr. 

Brittain was engaged in f.-uniiug, and accumulated 
a good property. The children of the second mar- 
riage of Mr. Kayner were named Jessie and Nellie. 
Mr. K. has I)een quite piominent in the affairs of 
his township, serving as .Iiisticc of the Peace three 
terms, ami olliciating as Township Treasurer and 
Connnissioner of Highways. He is independent in 


OllN W. DAVIS, the well-known tlorist and 
horticulturist of Adrian, is a native of the 
I State of New York, where he was born at 
'i^Jj Amsterdam, Montgomery County, Sept. .i, 
1843. He is the second sun and third diild of Ra- 
mus and Harriet (AVemiilc) Davis, both of whom 
were natives of New Yoi'k; the father, John Parson 
Davis, having been born on Long Island ; the fa- 
ther was of Welsh, and the mother of Holland 
descent. After marri.age Ramus Davis moved to 
Indiana, locating at Mishawaka. near South liend, 
where he remained for two years. He then returned 
to Amsterdam, N. Y., where he remained for ten 
years, and then moved to Onondaga County, in the 
same State. In June, 18(13, he removed to Lena- 
wee County and settled in tiie town of Palmyra, 
where he died in 18715. The mother is still living, 
enjoying fair health for one of her age; there are 
three of the children yet living. 

John W. Davis was educated in his native county^ 
where he attended the common schools first, and 
afterward received an academical education. Af- 
ter he removed to Lenawee County he remained 
with his parents until he reached the age of twenty- 
two years. He volunteered his services in main- 
tenance of the Union, but was rejected ; toward the 
close of the war, howevei-, he was drafted into the 
array, and this time was accepted and went to the 
front, serving only ten days previous to the sur- 
render of (icn. Lee. After that event he sent 
home, and was finally discharged. He then re- 
turned to Palmyra, and engaged in work on the 
farm for a time, after which he formed a partner- 
ship with his brother, R. B. Davis, and engaged in 
sawing lumber in Adrian. At the end of two years 
his sawmill burned down, and he rebuilt on the same 
lot, but afterward removed the mill to Riga Town- 





ship, iuul. ;iflei' o[HM'atiiig it for two ^-ears, he sold 
his interest to his brotlier, and for several years 
thereafter he was variously engaged in Inisiiiess. 

In 1875 Mr. Davis removed to his present home, 
in the northern part of Adrian, and began the busi- 
ness of florist and horticulturist, which he has sue- 
cessfully conducted for the past nine years. Upon 
the little farm he has erected with his own hands 
all the principal bnildings, and has otherwise im- 
proved and beautified his place. During the sum- 
mer months the greater part of liis time is spent at 
Sand Lake, a health resort, where he has a neat cot- 
tage, for the benefit of his wife's health. 

On the 27th of October, 18()8, Mr. Davis was 
married to Miss Emma F. Brouwer, of New York 
City, daughter of Jacol) Brouwer, President of the 
^Etna Insurance Company, of New York. She is 
the youngest child of her parents' family. Mr. and 
Mrs. Davis have had two cliildreii, both of whom 
are deceased. He and his wife are members in 
good standing of the Presbyterian Church, and take 
an active interest in all church matters. 

^SLPIIEUS F. HAAS, Superintendent of the 
^fui Adrian Water- Works, is one of the most 

jlrls) skillful civil engineers of the West, possess- 
^ ing a thorough understanding of machinery, 

and eminently fitted for the duties of his responsi- 
ble position. He is a native of this State, having 
been born in what is now the village of Brooklyn, 
Jackson County, on the 2)st of October, 1845. His 
father, John Haas, was a native of Germany, and 
the mother, formerly Miss Sarah Croman, was born 
in Pennsylvania. Both parents came to Michigan 
earl}' in life, and were married in Washtenaw County, 
where they settled and resided about ten years. 
Thence they removed to Jackson County, of which 
they were residents six years. 

In 1851 the parents of our subject came to Len- 
awee County, and located near the city of Hudson, 
where the father engaged in mercantile business, 
and the mother departed this life in the following 
year. After the death of his wife John Haas 
crossed the Mississippi and located at Fremont, 
Neb., in 1809, where he continued until his death 

in the spring of 1883. The parental household in- 
cluded six children, three sons and three daugh- 
ters, all ot whom are living. 

The subject of this history was the fourth child of 
his parents, and received his early education at 
Hudson, Lenawee County, where he remained until 
reaching manhood. In the meantime he had spent 
three years on the farm, and one year he was era- 
ployed at the carpenter trade. The Civil War had 
now been in progress some time, and as there 
seemed little prospect of an immediate cessation of 
hostilities, young Haas, in November, 1864, en- 
tered the Union armj' as a member of Company G, 
30th Michigan Infantrj'. and with his comrades was 
assigned to the military department of the Muster- 
ing and Disbursing District of the Lakes, where he 
officiated as clerk in the Paymaster's office until the 
close of the war. After being mustered out he re- 
turned to Hudson and engaged as clerk in his 
father's store for a period of three years. In the 
early part of 1871 he engaged as a workman in a 
sash and blind factory in Hudson, and later in that 
year migrated to Adrian and was given a position 
in the car works, which he retained until the shop 
were closed. 

Mr. Haas, in 1880, l)eing now experienced in 
machinery, returned to Adrian and assumed charge 
of the wood-working machine department of the 
Peninsula Car Works, which position he held until 
the removal of the shops to Detroit. The year fol- 
lowing he was variously occupied, and in 1 885 was 
appointed to his present position. The duties and 
responsibilities of this he has discharged with 
credit, and has dislingnished himself as being the 
i-ight man in the right place. 

While a resident of Hudson, Mr. Haas was united 
in marriage with Miss Mary Tolchard, the wedding 
taking place at the home of the bride, Oct. 15, 
1868. Mrs. Haas is of English ancestry, and is a 
native of New York State, where she was born in 
the town of Geneva, in 1848. Of her union with 
our subject there is one child only, a son, Louis T., 
w1k> was born in Adrian in 1 873, and is now at home. 

Mr. and Mrs. Haas took up their residence in 
Hudson, and settled permanently in Adrian in 1880. 
Our subject has since been largely identified with 
local affairs, and served the First "Ward of the city 




227 ' 


of Adrian in the County Board of Supervisors three 
terms. Socially he belongs to Adrian Lodge, F. & 
A. M., and is also connected with the G. A. R., 
being a member of Woodbury Post No. 45. He has a 
fair amount of good property, and is numbered 
among the representative men of the comnuinity. 

-^ ^^ ^ 

f H. SCHREDER. Prominent among the worthy 
and intelligent citizens of Clinton Township is 
the gentleman whose name is at the head of 
this sketch. His farm, consisting of 100 acres on 
section 10, and forty acres on section 11, is one of 
the finest in the county, and here Mr. .Schreder has 
been successfully engaged many years. In April, 
1887, he lost his large and valuable barn by an in- 
cendiary Are, the loss sustained being about $3,000, 
but he has since replaced it by a fine building, very 
commodious and conveniently arranged. The 
house and the barn are situated on an elevation, 
commanding a beautiful view of the surrounding 
country, and in turn presenting a fine ap]ie;irance 
as seen from some distant point. 

Mr. Schreder settled here in 1856, purchasing first 
eighty acres of mostly unbroken timber land, and 
making his home in a small shell of a house. He 
afterward added 120 acres of partially improved 
land, and now has it all well improved and in a 
highly productive state. Our subject was born in 
the township of Moreland, Montgomery Co., Pa., 
Dec. 5, 1819, and was the second child and oldest 
son of his parents. His early life was passed in at- 
tendance at school and in the labors of the farm, 
which were not then lightened by the machinery 
used by the modern farmer. 

John F. .Schreder, the father of our subject, was 
born in Orange County, N. Y. He was in early 
life a miller, and when a young man he went to 
Pennsylvania and was tliere married to Susan Wam- 
bold, who was of Dutch parentage. After the 
birth of four children they came across the country 
with teams to Michigan, where Mr. Schreder entered 
Government land in Ridgeway Township in Juno, 
1831. He then resumed his employment of miller, 
in which he engaged for some time in Tecurnseh, 
managing the first mill that was ever built in the 


county, on the banks of the Raisin River. He 
afterward commenced the improvement of his land, 
and made his home on it until four years before 
his death, which time he siient with his daughter, 
Mrs. Arner, at Ridgeway. His useful life was pro- 
longed much beyond the usual number of years 
that generally fall to man, his death occurring Nov. 
2G, 1882, at the age of nearly ninety-five years. In 
his day he was a strong Democrat. His wife died 
May 24, 1842, on the farm in Ridgeway Township. 

I. H. Schreder was first married in Tecumseh to 
Ansah Florence, who was a native of the State of 
New York, and came to the Sta-te of Michigan when 
a small child. She died at their home in Raisin 
Township two years after her marriage ; she was a 
kind, true-hearted woman, and left a pleasant mem- 
ory in the hearts of her friends. Mr. Schreder's 
second marriage, which took place in what is now 
Clinton Tow-nship on the 4th of July, 1841, was 
with Miss Margaret Gillespie, a native of Sparta, 
Livingston Co., N. Y., where her birth occurred 
March 22, 1820. She is the eldest of the six chil- 
dren born to her parents, Richard B. and Clarinda 
(Rol5erts) Gillespie. (See sketch of R. B. Gillespie). 
Her father came to the United States from the 
North of Ireland with his parents when he was a 
small child, and grew to manhood in the township 
of Sparta, N. Y. Here he married for his second 
wife Clarinda Roberts, and after the birth of two 
children they came to Michigan and took up land 
in the woods on section 15, in what is now Clinton 
Township. They built a log cabin with a stick 
chimney and remained in this home until death. 
Like all pioneers they used the ox-team to break 
their Land, and to convey them to church and all 
social gatherings. They were well known and 
loved for their kind hearts and genial hospitality. 

Mrs. Schreder, of this sketch, received a common- 
school education, and. is a sensible, capable woman, 
who has been of great assistance to her husband in 
his hard labors to l)uild up and beautify their home. 
Seven children have been born to them, of whom 
the following is the record : Eliza M. died in infancy ; 
Mary C. is the wife of Casjier Cook, a farmer of 
Milan Township, Monroe County: John F. mar- 
ried Jennie Stephenson, and manages a large farm 
in Clinton Township; Ann is the wife of Dwight A. 


, , 228 



Goodrich, of Mendon, St. Joseph County, where 
he is employed as a carpenter; Willis G. married 
Melvina Patterson, and lives on a farm in Clinton 
Township; Emma J. is the wife of Lewis M. Wal- 
dron; R. Grant, the youngest child, is still at home 
with his parents. The last two children and Mr. 
and Mrs. Schreder are members of the Presbyterian 
Church at Teciimseh. 

Mr. Schreder is a Royal Arch Mason, lie has 
been Highway Commissioner for his township, and 
has rendered valuable service to the public in that 
capacity. He is a prominent member of the Demo- 
cratic party. 



ff? ON. MINER T. COLE, who is widely and 
ifj^ favorably known in this section of country 
— W^ as a fine representative of its intelligence 
(^) and energy, and who is numbered among its 
self-made men, forms the subject of an interesting 
history which in its main points is as follows. . He 
was born in Spencer Township, Lucas Co., Ohio, 
July 3, 1839, and comes of an excellent family. 
His father was Aaron H. Cole, a native of the town 
of Covert, Seneca Co., N. Y., where his birth took 
place Feb. 26, 1813. 

The grandfather of our subject, Daniel Cole by 
name, was a native of Connecticut and one of the 
pioneers of Seneca County, N. Y., where he cleared 
a farai and spent the remainder of his days. His 
life companion was in her girlhood Miss Sarah Hop- 
kins, who bravely endured the vicissitudes of life in 
a new country and passed away on the old home- 
stead some years after the death of her husband. 
Their son, Aaron H., continued a resident of his 
native county, and early in life developed a love 
for book learning, which he turned to such good 
account that he commenced teaching while quite 
young. He made a trip to the West before his 
marriage, and taught school in Ohio and Indiana. 
At the close of his last term in the latter State he 
purchased a horse upon which he rode back to New 
York, to fulfill a pledge which he had made to a 
young lady there before journeying to the West. 
This pleasant task accomplished he, a few months 
later, in June, 1835, in company with his bride, 

started for Ohio and settled in what is now Spencer 
Township. He entered a tract of Government land, 
where he put up a log cabin which remained the 
home of the family several 5'ears and in which our 
subject was" born. 

Aaron Cole, after j^ears of persistent industry, 
found himself the possessor of a fine farm of 200 
acres, which he had cleared from the wilderness, and 
upon which he had put up the first frame barn in 
ths township and the third frame house; the lumber 
for these was sawed by hand with a whip-saw. The 
father of our subject occupied this property until 
1849, when he rented his land and removed to 
Maumee City, where his children could receive bet- 
ter educational advantages. This object being ac- 
complished he returned to the farm, where he lived 
until 18.56, and then renting it again he came to 
Genesee County, this State, where he remained three 
years, after which he returned to the old home- 
stead. In 1866 he once more abandoned country 
life, and removing to Adrian, engaged in the manu- 
facture of the wedge trace buckle, of which he was 
the inventor. There he remained the balance of 
his life, his death taking place Oct. 27, 1867. The 
mother of our subject before her marriage was Miss 
Lydia Rappleye. She was born in Covert, Seneca 
Co., N. Y., Feb. 18, 1817, and was the daughter of 
William and Barbara (Swick) Rapple3^e, natives of 
New Jersey, where they spent their youth and child- 
hood, and where their marriage took place. Thence 
they removed to Seneca County, N. Y., during its 
early settlement, where Mr. R. cleared a farm and 
both parents spent the remainder of their days. 
The parental household included six sons and one 
daughter: Harriet C. married Rev. H. B. Taft, and 
died at Salem, Washtenaw County, in 1868; Will- 
iam R. is a resident of Dallas, Tex. ; Miner T., of 
our sketch, was the third child; Adoniram J. died 
in Fulton County, Ohio, when seventeen years of 
age; Frank M. and Ralph T. are residents of Mo- 
beetie, Tex., while George I. is engaged in. a tele- 
graph office at Toledo, Ohio. 

Our subject was the second son and third child 
of his parents, and spent his childhood and youth 
amid the quiet scenes of farm life, attending the 
district school. After the removal of the family to 
Maumee City, he pursued his studies there and sub- 

,^ dt' ^j 




sequently at Kalamazoo College. He remained 
with his parents until 1861, and after the outbreak 
of the late Rebellion enlisted on the 2Gth of August 
of that year in Company F, 14th Ohio Infantry, 
under the command of Gen. Steadman. He served 
as a Union soldier four years and three mouths, and 
was in many of the important battles of the war, 
including- Chickamauga, Mission Ridge and Joues- 
boro, and was in the streets of Atlanta while the 
city was burning. After it was taken possession of 
by the Union troops he was placed in charge of a 
squad of foragers and started on the memorable 
campaign from Atlanta to the sea. 

Mr. Cole marched with Sherman's cornmand 
through South Carolina to Goldsboro, where he was 
commissioned as Second Lieutenant of Company D, 
22d U. S. C. T.. joining his command at Peters- 
burg. He participated with his regiment in the 
memorial services after the death of President 
Lincoln, and they were afterward detailed to go to 
Maryland in search of the assassin Booth. Subse- 
quently, the war being now practically ended, they 
set out for Washington, where they were present at 
the grand review. They were then ordered to 
Texas where they remained until October, and then 
returned East as far as Philadelphia, where they 
were mustered out in November, 18().5. Lieut. 
Cole returned home and the following spring en- 
gaged in business with his father at Adrian and con- 
tinued two years. He then purchased thirty-seven 
and one-half acres of timber land on section 17, 
Palmyra Township, which he settled upon in April, 
and commenced the pleasant routine of farm life. 
He subsequently added to his first purchase until 
now he has a farm of 140 acres, the most of which 
has been cleared and brought to a good state of 
cultivation. This has been no light task, as in order 
to thoroughly drain the land, it has been underlaid 
with 2,000 rods of tiling. Mr. Cole has added im- 
provements as time pased and his means justified, 
and now the passing traveler views with admiring 
eye the handsome frame buildings which are both 
shapely and substantial. There is a goodly assort- 
ment of live stock and the machinery is after the 
most approved pattern. 

Mr. Cole, after serving in various prominent 
positions in his township, was elected to represent 

his county in the State Legislature in the fall of 
1886, with which body he is still connected. He 
votes the straight Republican ticket and uniformly 
gives his support to the principles of his party. 
His influence in the General Assembler is sensibly 
felt, and he gives his conscientious support to those 
measures which he believes will tend to the best 
interests of the people of his State. He is quiet 
and unobtrusive in his public career, as well as at 
home among his friends, but keeps close to the 
undercurrent of uprightness and morality, the 
influence of which, although perhaps not largely ap- 
parent at the time, cannot fail to be of weight in 
the social and political circles which are largely 
made up of the intelligence of the present day. 

The lady who has been the faithful friend and 
companion of our subject for the last twenty years, 
was formerly Miss Mary J. Taylor, and became his 
wife on the 30th of May, 1867. Of this union 
there have 1 leen born four children, all living, namely : 
Hattie, Harley L., Florence and Mary. Mrs. Cole 
is an amiable and intelligent lady and a devoted 
member of the Baptist Church at Adrian. The 
parents of Mrs. Cole were William and Mary (Cor- 
son) Taylor. Her father was a native of Lycoming 
County, Pa., and the son of Robert Tajdor, a native 
of New Jersej' and of Scotch ancestry. He was one 
of the pioneers of Lycoming County, where he 
improved a farm and spent the remainder of his 

William Ta3'lor was reared to manhood in his 
native county, where he married, and removed to 
Ohio in 1835, locating near Spencer, Lucas County. 
The entire journey from Pennsylvania was made 
overland with a horse and wagon. The country 
was then thinly settled and there was not even a 
common highway laid out, so that they were guided 
on a part of their journey merely by an Indian trail. 
Ui)on their arrival in Spencer Township, they found 
but two families. Mr. Taylor purchased a tract of 
Government land and put up a log cabin, which he 
furnished with home-made chairs, bedstead and 
table. In this humble dwelling with its lowly sur- 
roundings Mrs. Cole was born, Sept. 14, 1842, and 
she still remembers the rigid economy her parents 
practiced and the industry with which they labored 
to build up a home for their children. Their efforts 


•► Ji "^ ' 



in this direction met with success. Mr. Taylor suc- 
ceeded in clearing- a large farm, upon which he 
erected good buildings, and lived to see the country 
around him settled up with an intelligent and enter- 
prising people. There he passed his last days in 
ease and comfort, his death taking place on the 18th 
of November, 1884, in the city of Toledo; the 
mother had died Dec. 29, 1882. 

EORGE W. ALLEN, a general farmer w 

, home is on section 14, Franlvlin Town; 

was born on his father's homestead in 



township, Nov. 20, 1840. Here he remained until 
he reached his majority', when he set out on his own 
account a little later and purchased forty acres of 
improved land, which he has made his home ever 
since. He now owns 170 acres of well-improved 
land on sections 14 and 15 of this township. 

December 23, 1870, Mr. Allen was united in 
marriage with Miss Cynthia McClure, who was 
born in London, Canada, July 6, 1854. When a 
small child her parents came to the United States, 
locating for some time in Gratiot County, this State, 
where the mother, whose maiden name was Fannie 
Canburr, died. After spending some time there the 
father and children came to Branch County. The 
father was a shoemaker by trade, but gave up his 
occupation for that of a farmer, and died at the age 
of sixty-three years. From childhood Mrs. Allen 
earned her own livelihood principally. She is the 
mother of four children — Irena F., Leon R., Nina 
A. and Earle R.. Since marriage Mr. and Mrs. 
Allen have always lived at their jDresent home. 

The father of our subject, also George W. Allen, 
was born in Massachusetts and came to Michigan 
when a young man, in 1832. He afterward pur- 
chased forty acres of Govenmient land on section 
14, which he improved and made his home until his 
decease in 1882, at the age of seventy-six years. In 
1834 he was married in this township to Miss Irena 
Whelan, who was born in 1811 in Monroe County, 
N. Y., and came here with her people in the early 
part of the thirties. Her death occun-ed at the age 
of flfty-six, in 1867. Mr. Whelan was Republican 

in politics. Mr. and Mrs. Allen are intelligent and 
estimable people, and their united efforts in life 
have been crowned with a large measure of success. 

(^^HERON L. BURR located upon his present 
f/^^^ farm in Adrian Township twenty-two years 
^^^' ago, and has effected most, of the improve- 
ments which are seen there to-day. He is a gen- 
tleman still in his prime, having been born Feb. 11, 
1840, and is a native of Palmyra Township, this 
county. The family is of English descent, and 
our subject is the son of Allen Burr, whose f.ather. 
Linden, was a native of Rhode Island. The first 
representatives of the family in this country were 
three brothers, who came over from England during 
the Colonial days and settled in Rhode Island, 
where they followed fanning. The paternal grand- 
father of our subject was a teamster in early life, 
but died upon a farm in Wayne County, N. Y., at 
the advanced age of eighty years. He had married 
a Miss Allen, who was a distant relative of the 
famous Gen. Ethan Allen. Grandmother Burr 
died in Wayne County several years before the de- 
cease of her husband. 

The father of our subject was born in Browns- 
ville, Oneida Co., N. Y., Feb. 22, 1810, and lived 
there until reaching his majority. He was crippled 
by an accident while a boy, and learned the harness 
trade and also studied medicine. He preferred 
farm life, however, and when twenty-one years old 
came to Michigan and purchased a tract of land, 
upon which he located in the fall of 1832. Then 
returning to his native State he was married, and at 
once set out with his bride for their new home in 
the West. They located on his land in Palmyra 
Township, but their plans in life were suddenly cut 
short by the death of Mr. Burr, who was fatally 
injured by a sawlog rolling on him. He lived only 
twenty-four hours after the accident, breathing his 
last on the 17th of February, 1850. He was an 
old-line Whig politically, and a man of much force 
of character, who would have made his mark in 
life had he been permitted to live. 

The first wife of Allen Burr was Miss Phena [ 
Atwell, of AVayne County, N. Y., and she died two 

wo T 

•p m ^* 



years after coming to Michigan in 1834, leaving one 
child, a son, Caleb, who survived his mother only 
two years, dyiug in September, 1830. Mr. Burr 
subsequently married Miss Eliza C, daughter of 
William Parker, of Rhode Island. Of this union 
there were six children, of whom Theron L., our 
subject, was the second son and second child; Ben- 
jamin F. died Feb. 18, 1841, when not quite three 
years old; Charles A. is carrying on the dairy 
business in Missouri; Rena E. is also a resident of 
Missouri, and the wife of Marvin Saxton; Orlando, 
during the late war, enlisted in the 20th Michigan 
Infantry, and after being in a number of hard- 
fought battles was captured by the rebels and con- 
fined in Libby Prison; after being paroled a year 
later he died on his way home. Charles served in 
the 26th Michigan Infantry three years, being 
mostly assigned to guard duty. He is now in 
Neosho, Mo.; Betsy is the wife of a prosperous 
farmer of Newton County, Mo. 

With the exception of five years spent upon the 
farm with his uncle our subject remained with his 
parents until his marriage. This most important 
and interesting event in his life took place on the 
nth of Februarj', 1804, his chosen bride being Miss 
Harriet, daughter of Cornelius Wilson, of New 
York State. Mrs. Burr was born Feb. 13, 1839, 
and came West with her uncle when twenty-two 
years of age. Mr. and Mrs. Burr became the par- 
ents of seven children: Allen A. V. was born in 
February, 1865, and is now clerking in Nebraska; 
Mattie L. was born May 11, 1860, and is teaching 
in Hudson, Mich.; Anna E. was born Sept. 6, 
1868; Homer O., Oct. 3, 18G9; Charles E., Oct. 12, 
1872; Delphine, Oct. 11, 1875, and Ada A.. May 
13, 1879; these five are at home with their parents. 
Mr. Burr is a Republican politically, but has little 
to do witii public affairs, preferring to give his at- 
tention to his farming interests. Mr. and Mrs. 
Burr arc mcrahers of the Congregational Church. 

Jn OHN MORTON, over whose head have passed 
j the snows of eighty-five winters, has for the 
, last fifty years been a familiar figure among 
' the honored pioneers of this count}'. He 
has done his part in life as an industrious man and 

a good citizen, and is passing his declining years in 
ease and comfort at a pleasant home in Adrian. 
The essential points in a history more than usually 
interesting are as follows : 

Mr. Morton was born in Oswego County, N. Y., 
Nov. 29, 1802. His father, also John Morton, was 
a native of Vermont, where he was born April 7, 
1777, and removed from the Green Mountain State 
to New York, putting up the first saw and grist 
mills in Oswego County. He also became an exten- 
sive land-owner in that section, where he lived for a 
period of thirty years; then, in 1832, disposing of 
all his property in the Empire State he came to 
Michigan, and purchased a tract of wild land in 
Cambridge Township, this county. He was the first 
to cultivate the soil of his new purchase, upon which 
there was only a small shanty for the shelter of his 
family. He was a man of determination and per- 
severance, however, and in due time built up a com- 
fortable home, and died there when sixty -seven 
years of age, leaving a wife and seven children. He 
had married in early manhood, and while a resident 
of his native State, Miss Eunice Aldrieh, whose 
parents removed from Canada to New York State 
and there spent their last years. Mrs. Morton came 
to the West with her husband and survived him sev- 
eral j'ears, dying at the old homestead at the age of 
scveutj'-nine years. Of the parental family two are 
now living, residents of Adrian, and Pittsford, Hills- 
dale County. 

.John Morton, Jr., continued under the home roof 
until twenty-three years of age, assisting his father 
in the labors of the farm. He came with the family 
to this State and located upon a tract of land near 
his father, which he sold a year later at a profit of 
$1,000. He possessed in a marked degree the en- 
ergy and enterprise of his sire, and put up the first 
sawmill in Adrian Township. He operated his 
farm and the mill a few years, then sold out and 
took up his residence at the homestead, which he 
assisted his father in managing until the death of the 
latter. In the meantime father and son had pur- 
chased together a large tract of land, and our sub- 
ject bought out the heirs and located upon the farm 
of 160 acres, which he occupied nearly thirty years. 
About 1874 he sold off everything, determined to 
retire from active lal)or, and secured possession of 





his present home in Adrian. He knows all about 
the hardships and difficulties of pioueer life, and in 
common with the men about him, who settled in the 
wilderness fifty years ago, has watched with pride 
and satisfaction the growth of his adopted State. 

The lady who for a period of over sixty years 
has been the faithful and affectionate companion of 
our subject, was in her girlhood Miss Polly C. 
Davis, and was married to John Morton July 28, 
1824. Mrs. Morton is the daughter of Asa and 
Polly Davis, natives of Massachusetts, whence they 
removed to New York State in 1802. The father 
took up a tract of land which he cultivated, and 
also carried on blacksmithing, and here with his 
estimable wife he spent the remainder of his days. 
Mrs. Morton is a year younger than her husband, 
having been born Oct. 1 8, 1803. She stood bravely 
by her husband during the pioneer days, and bore 
with him uncomplainingly the hardships and trials 
of fifty years ago when, in their lonely cabin on the 
prairie, the.y labored and hoped for better days. 

Mr. and Mrs. M. have no children of their own, 
but have performed the part of parents to several 
others who are now married and settled in comfort- 
able homes of their own. Their adopted daughtei-, 
Mrs. Hester Fitch, will receive the property of her 
kind foster-parents when they shall have been taken 
to "the house not made with hands." 

^l7 ENRY NICHOLS is a veteran farmer of 
Wf'^ Dover Township, who, by well-directed in- 
^^Jf' dustry and enterprise, has become the pos- 
^^ sessor of a fine farm on sections 9 and 10. 
His parents were Russel and Margaret (Fraver) 
Nichols, the former a native of Vermont, and the 
latter of Otsego County, N. Y"". After their mar- 
riage they settled in Western New York, and re- 
mained in that State for some years. In 1836 Mr. 
Nichols came to Oakland County, Mich., and tak- 
ing up a tract of Government land, he removed 
with his familj' to that count}' in 1845, and made 
it their home till death. They had six children — 
Palmer, Mary, Henry, Nancy, Eliza and William. 

Our subject vvas bred on a farm, and received the 
good common-sense training of a farmer's son. 

early acquiring habits of activity and usefulness. 
Though such a life may have been a hard school, 
yet we question if, after all, a better substitute has 
been found for training a hardy, healthy lad to a 
practical, energetic manhood. In those days school 
privileges were exceedingly limited, but our subject 
made the best of those that fell to his share. At 
twenty years of age he left his home to make his 
own way in the world, and continued in the em- 
ploy of others in his native State until the fall of 
1840, when he came to ISIichigan. He worked 
about three months in Washtenaw County, and 
then came to Lenawee County, where he obtained 
employment of the late Stephen Allen, of Madison 
Township, remaining with him for over a year. In 
the meantime he bought eighty acres of land in Ing- 
ham County, also purchasing eighty acres on sec- 
tion 9, Dover Township, this county. He settled 
on his land in this township in 1843, and has ever 
since made it his home. His farm now comprises 
130 acres of land, ninety of which is on section 9^ 
and forty on section 10. Nearly all of it is under 
cultivation, and upon it he has made many substan- 
tial improvements, carefully draining, and other- 
wise adding to its fertility, and erecting good farm 

Mr. Nichols has been twice married. His first 
marriage took place in Washtenaw County, April 
7, 1842, with Miss Rebecca Wilson, who bore him 
two children — Orrin and Edwin. Orrin died at the 
age of six years, while Edwin married Harriet 
Demming and resides in Palmyra. Mr. Nichols' 
estimable wife departed this life in Dover Town- 
ship, Oct. 28, 18.51, at the age of thirty-three 3'ears 
eight months and three days. 

Mr. Nichols' second marriage occurred in Dover 
Township on the 22d of Februarj', 1852, with Miss 
Caroline, daughter of Gardner and Catherine (Ter- 
williger) Robb, natives of New York. After their 
marriage they lived for some j'ears in Ontario, 
Wayne County, that State, and in 1 832 they came 
to Michigan and settled in Dover Township. Mr. 
Robb afterward sold his farm there and removed 
to Clayton, where his death occurred May 12. 
1879; his wife is still spared to her children. They 
were the parents of seven children, namelj': Mary 
S., Caroline M., James W., Catlierine A., Polly A., 







Julia G. and Jane. Caroline was born in Ontario, 
Wayne Co., N. Y., Aug. 11, 1830, and engaging in 
teaching when only fifteen years of .age, she success- 
fully prosecuted that vocation until her marriage. 
Her aptitude for teaching seems to have descended 
to her children, three of whom, Estelle, William and 
Ida, have been engaged in that profession. 

The following is the record of the children born 
to Mr. .and Mrs. Nichols: Estelle is the wife of 
Charles Dutcher, .and lives in Dover Township, as 
also does William H., who married Frances Bodine; 
Ida P. is the wife of^Charles Keeber, and lives in 
Palmyra; Clarence and John live at home. 

Mr. Nichols, having so many te.achers in his own 
family, is naturall3' interested in educational mat- 
ters, and he has held the different official positions 
of the School Board of this township very accepta- 
bly to his fellow-townsmen. In politics he is a 
Republican, and there is not a more earnest .and 
consistent member of that party in the State, while 
Mrs. Nichols and her sons are Democrats. 

<! &ILLIAM P. SILVERS. The name of this 
\aj/i late highly esteemed resident of Clinton 
V^^ Township is familiar among the early set- 
tlers of this county as one who came here in the 
strength of his young manhood, and cast his lot 
with those who had left their childhood's home to 
seek their fortunes in the great West. Like a large 
majority of those who located on the northern line 
of the county, Mr. Silvers was an cniauation of the 
Empire State, where he was born, in Seneca County, 
Nov. 3, 1832. He performed his part creditably in 
life as a man and a citizen, and passed peacefull3' 
away at his home on the 12th of August, 1887. 

Mr. Silvers came to this section of country while 
Michigan was j^et a Territory, and early in life was 
trained to habits of industry and economj', making 
himself useful about the homestead, and receiving a 
practical education in the pioneer school. While 
still a youth he started out for himself, and at an 
early period engaged in farming on his own ac- 
count, having in view the establishment of a home 
and domestic ties. He married Miss Charlotte C. 
Vandemark, who was a native of Phelps Township, 

Ontario Co., N. Y., and born April 7, 1 835. Mrs. 
Silvers is the only living daughter of Orson and 
Jane G. (Brooks) Vandemark, who came to Michi- 
gan in 184.5, and located on a farm in Clinton Town- 
ship. The father died in 1872, and the mother in 
1848. Mr. Vandemark was a skillful farmer, a 
worthy man in all respects, and a member of the 
Congregational Church. 

Mrs. Silvers, in common with her brctiiers and 
sisters, received a practical education, and was en- 
gaged in teaching before her marriage. Her union 
with our subject resulted in the birth of four chil- 
dren, of whom one, Marcia J., died at the age of 
six years, Jan. 27, 18G4. Altie E. is the wife of 
W. D. Van Tuyle, who is connected with the Ex- 
change Bank at Clinton ; William O. carries on the 
home farm, and Charles L. assists the last-named 
brother. Mr. Silvers was a liberal-minded and 
public-spirited gentleman, warmly interested in the 
affairs of his tt)wnship, and a life-long member of 
the Democratic party. He had held most of the 
local offices, and for three years before his decease 
was a partner in the Exchange Bank at Clinton. 

John P. Silvers, the father of our subject, was 
born in Sussex, N. J., April 14, 1803, and was the 
son of Benjamin Silvers, a native of the same place, 
who removed thence in 180G, to Fayette, Seneca 
Co., N. Y., where he purchased a tract of land. 
One day in the winter of 1818, being in the woods 
with his team and his horses floundering in the deep 
snow, he went to their heads to lead them through, 
when he was caught between the end of the tongue 
and a tree, and instantly killed. His wife, Johanna, 
died in Tyre, N. Y., in 1829. Their son John P. 
worked the old farm in Seneca County until the 
spring of 1833, when he sold out and started for 
the Territory of Michigan with his team, driving the 
entire distance to this county, and purchased 264 
acres of land. in Clinton Township. The greater 
part of this was heavy timber, about 1 00 acres being 
"openings." That same spring he set out fifty ap- 
ple trees, most of which are now alive and in 
good bearing condition. He was remarkably active 
and industrious, and it was a favorite remark of 
his, that his farm had "produced everj^thing but a 
mortgage." He married, in March, 1823, Miss 
Jeanette Hooper, a maiden of his own county in 





Now York, and of the eight children born to them, 
William P. of our sketch was the youngest. Mrs. 
Jeanette Silvers died in Clinton Township, this 
county, in 1839, and Mr. S. was subsequently mar- 
ried to Miss Marcia Hurlburt, of Saline, Washtenaw 
County. They became the parents of seven chil- 
dren, and this lady died in Clinton, in 1856. 
John P. Silvers married for his third wife Mrs. 
Sophia Burroughs, who was the mother of four sons 
by her first husband. She also was a native of 
Seneca County, N. Y., and the daughter (if Peter 
and Nellie Huff. 

ylLLIAM E. DOTY came to this county 
with his parents when a child four years of 
age, and since that time has been a contin- 
uous resident. He developed into manhood with 
the growing country, and has been an interested 
witness of the changes passing before his eyes like a 
panorama, and which, as he looks back over a pe- 
riod of fifty years, seem very much like a dream 
of the night. These years, however, have by no 
means been spent in dreaming, as he has been one 
of the most industrious laborers in the building up 
of a homestead for himself and in assisting to de- 
velop the resources of Southeastern Michigan. The 
present homestead of Mr. Doty, of which the father 
took possession in 183.5, lies on section 2C, Raisin 
Township. The substantial points in his family 
history are as follows : 

Alvan Doty, the father of our subject, was a na- 
tive of Saybrook, Conn., and came of old New Pin- 
gland stock, strongly tinctured with Puritanism, 
and one generation after another belonging- to the 
Presbyterian Church. The parents of our subject 
were married in Durham, Greene Co., N. Y., to 
which place Alvan Doty had moved with his par- 
ents when eleven years old. The mother was in 
her girlhood, Miss Malinda Vergil, a native of Dela- 
ware County, and after their marriage, Nov. 11, 
1807, they settled among the rocks of the Catskill 
Mountains, where he accumnlated a good property. 
The father followed farming under many difficul- 
ties, and after the birth of nine children, resolving 
upon a change of location, he set out with his fam- 

ily in 1835 for the Territory of Michigan. They 
made the journey via the Erie Canal and Lake, to 
Detroit, thence overland by teams to this county, 
locating on section 26 in Raisin Township. Upon 
this place there was only a log cabin, of which the 
family took possession and made themselves as 
con:fortable as possible. The father lived to build 
up a good homestead and to note the development 
of the country around him, rejoicing in its pros- 
perity. He became the owner of 100 acres of land, 
which he brought to a fine state of cultivation, and 
departed from the scenes of his earthly labors Dec. 
3, 1866, at the age of seventy-eight years. The 
wife and mother survived her husband about four- 
teen years, her death taking place at the old home- 
stead July 20, 1880, when she was nearly ninet}'^- 
two years old. They were members of the Presby- 
terian Church, in which the father had officiated as 
Deacon for many years. He was a Republican, 
politically, and was quite prominent in township 
affairs, serving as Treasui-er three years, and Over- 
seer of the Poor for a long period, when the office 
was abolished. 

The paternal gr.and father of oursubjec^t was Ben- 
jamin Doty, and the maternal grandfather, Asel 
Vergil. Both served as soldiers in the Revolution- 
ary War, and the latter was seriously wounded in 
the battle at Columbia Heights, N. Y. ; he was a 
clothier by trade, and died in New England. 
Grandfather Dot3' removed to Greene County, N. 
Y., where his death took place in Durham Town- 
ship; both were well stricken in years. 

William E. Doty was born in Greene County, N. 
Y., Dec. 17, 1830, and accompanying his parents to 
this State, pursued his first studies in the pioneer 
schools of Raisin Township. He remained at the 
homestead until the decease of his parents, and then 
succeeded to the property. This comprises 146 
acres of choice and well-improved land, on which 
are commodious and substantial buildings, well 
suited to the purposes of the modern agriculturist. 

Mr. Doty upon reaching manhood, was married 
to one of the maidens of Raisin Township, Miss 
Caroline M. Raymond, who was born in Steuben 
County, N. Y., April 29, 1829, and came to Michi- 
gan with her parents when a child four years of 
age. They settled in Raisin Township, Labored 

Residence OF David EI. Palmer , Sec. 10. Madison Township. 


Residence OF L G Lester, Sec 11 Rai5in Townsh i p 

^.*f ->!JA.vtift»<<.ft, 

Residengeof Jno Hugo Smith, 5ec 36 Raisin Township 




after the manner of pioneers, and spent their last 
daj'S upon the homestead which they had built up 
by years of toil and frugality. Mrs. Doty was 
reared to habits of industry, and educated in tiie 
common schools, where she made such progress, 
that at the age of fifteen she engaged in teaching, 
which she continued until she was twenty-six years 
old. Of her union with our subject there were 
born seven children, three of whom are now de- 
ceased, namely: Henry, Willie R. and Linnie S. 
Of the others, Hattie is the wife of George G. Has- 
kell, who operates a planing-mill in Lndington; 
Carrie is a teacher in the district schools, and makes 
her home with her parents, while Stanley E. and 
Eva, the youngest, are also at home. 

Mr. and Mrs. Doty soon after their marriage 
settled ui)on the old homestead, and have been uni- 
formly prosperous in their labors. They are active 
members of the Presbyterian Church, in which Mr. 
Doty is serving as Elder, and occupy a good posi- 
tion in their community. Mr. Doty has always 
been a clieerful and liberal giver to religious and 
educational institutions, and is a singer of no mean 
talents, having led the choir in his eluiroh for a pe- 
riod of twenty years. 

ff, ON. BRACKLEY SHAW. Among t 
i/)jj of note in Lenawee County, no n; 

/^^^ more highly honored than that of th 
(^) Brackley Shaw. He comes of good I 

he men 
name is 
the Hon. 
ancestrj', who, at some early period in the Colonial 
history of this country, settled in Massachusetts. 
His parents were Brackley and Lydia (Pool) Shaw, 
natives of Abington, Plymouth Co., Mass., where 
the birth of the father occurred in Ajiril, 1790, and 
that of the mother April 20, 1791. They closed 
their earthly lives in Dover Townsiiip. Mr. Shaw 
died on the 2d of May, 18G9, and in his death Len- 
awee County lost a and venerated citizen. 
Mrs. Shaw survived the death of her iiusband, and 
died at the advanced age of ninety years on the 
23d of May, 1881. 

The parental family of our subject included eight 
children, namely: Lydia L., Bracklej', Harriet A., 
I Horatio W., Fidelia A., Mary M., Charles I., and 
BetS3' Ann who died in infancy. Lydia was the 

wife of Orlin Phelps, to whom she was married in 
Cayuga County, N. Y. ; they came to Lenawee 
County in the fall of 1834, and settled in Dover 
Township; she died in Toledo, Ohio. Harriet is 
the widow of Russell Skeels, and resides in Rome 
Township; Horatio W. is a Congregational minis- 
ter, of Binghamton, N. Y. ; he was graduated from 
the university at Ann Arbor, and afterward from 
the theological department of Princeton College. 
He then went to India, and took charge of the col- 
lege at Allahabad, where he remained six years, and 
then returned to America. Fidelia is the wife of 
W. J. Wilber, of Dcn'er Township; Mary is the 
wife of S. P. Perkins, of the same place; Charles is 
a fanner, and has lately moved to Louisiana from 

Brackle3' Shaw, Sr., was Lieutenant of a company 
in the War of 1812, and had charge of a battery of 
an island near Boston in defense of that city. 
After the close of the war, he settled in Plainfleld, 
Mass., and in 1825 moved with his family to Ira, 
Cayuga Co., N. Y., and in 183.') they migrated to 
iNIichigan, and became pioneers of Lenawee County. 
They came to Michigan by wa^' of Lake Erie, dis- 
embarking at Port Lawrence (now Toledo), Ohio. 
On making the dock, the owners thereof proposed 
to charge what Mr. Shaw, Sr., considered an exor- 
bitant price for the storage of his goods over night, 
and he determined not to submit to their unjust 
charges, but to let the goods remain on the dock. 
He said to his son Brackley, as he handed him a 
rifle which he had taken from a pile of goods, "You 
stand here and watch these goods to-night." Dur- 
ing the night a terrible thunderstorm arose; the 
heavens were rent by continual flashes of lightning, 
and loud peals of thunder constantly reverberated 
through the air. Notwithstanding that fearful 
nocturnal spectacle, and the pelting rain which ac- 
companied it, the youth stood his ground a faithful 
.sentinel until morning, when he was released from 
his charge, and the goods were loaded onto wagons 
drawn by oxen. Their trip, which consumed two 
days, through swamps and dense forests to Adrian, 
was anything but pleasant. 

These early pioneers had but few pleasures to 
lighten their pathway in life, which was one of toil 
and hardship, patiently and courageously endured 




They had to hew out homes for their families by 
the worlc of their hands, settlements were made in 
lonely places, and tlieir ears were often assailed at 
night by the howling of the wolverines, which, as 
some one has facetiously said, was their chief music. 
But it is owing to the faithful labors of these pio- 
neers in subduing the forest, that the generation 
of to-day can proudly boast that Lenawee County 
stands second to none in the State. And after all, 
their life had some compensations; those early set- 
tlers led a life of freedom and independence near to 
Nature's heart, and wliat tiiey possessed was tlieirs 
by the divine right of labor. 

" Oft did the liiirvest to their sicklr yic-lil. 

Their furrow oft the stubboni ^li'lx' lia< liiokp. 
How jocund did they drive tlicii icaiii utirl.i: 

How bowed the woods benenlli ilnir -ninly stroke! 
"Far from lli.' iiiiHl.liii;; .inw.r- i,-ii..l,l,. strife, 

Thfir -nl.rr ui-li.- iirvrr l..:ii'nr(l Ici stray; 

Along Ihr ,-,M,l.-r,|,M-l,.,r,l \ nl .• . .f I i fe 

Tliey k.'i'i ''i'' n..i-<.lr^~ !,■ ■ (.iilieir way." 

Though the above lines were descriptive of far 
other scenes in the early home of Mr. Shaw's En- 
glish ancestry, yet they are, in a degree at least, 
appropriate as describing the life of their descend- 
ants in this new western world. Mr. Shaw says 
that he looks back upon those early days as a bright 
spot in his lifetime, and surely the remembrance of 
them must enhance his enjoyment of the luxuries 
and comforts with which he is now surrounded. 

The subject of our sketch was born in Plainfleld, 
Hampshire Co., Mass., May 21, 1818, and is a self- 
made and a self-educated man. He was a studious 
lad, applying himself diligently at the district 
school, and in the long winter evenings, by the 
light of the fire in the old fireplace, he read such 
books as he could obtain, and gleaned the knowl- 
edge and wisdom from them and from those with 
whom he associated that has made him prominent 
in the councils of his adopted State. We have al- 
readj' spoken of his early settlement in this countj^; 
his energy and business capacity have made him one 
of the most successful farmers in this community. 
He has a fine farm of 14.5 acres, on which he has 
built one of the most beautiful residences in the 
county; heat one tinie owned 400 acres in this 

The marriage of Mr. Shaw with Miss Elvira M. 
Graves, was solemnized in Dover Township, July 

7, 1842, and she has been to him an efficient help- 
meet, nobly assisting and encouraging him in his 
life work. She was born in Harrington. Conn., 
Oct. 18, 1821, and is the daughter of S. Wells and 
Rhoda (Clark) Graves, natives of Litchfield County, 
Conn., where the former was born in Harrington in 
1791, and the latter in Burlington in 1793. At 
some time of their married life they lived in Cay- 
uga County, N. Y., and in the summer of 1835 
came from there to Michigan, and settled in what is 
now Clayton. It was then a dense forest, and they 
were among the first settlers in that part of the 
county. Soon after their arrival Mrs. Graves died, 
her death occurring Feb. 28, 1837, in Dover Town- 
ship; it was probably hastened by exposure and 
other hardships incidental to a pioneer life. Mr. 
Graves died in Dover Township, Aug. 2, 1854; he 
was much celebrated for his musical abilities, and 
while living in New York long held the position of 
drum major. He was quite noted as a skilful 
hunter and trapper during his residence in Michi- 
gan. They were the parents of three children — 
Luoinda, Lorenzo and Elvira M. Lucinda was the 
wife of George W. Merrick, and died in Adrian, 
Mich., in May, 1882; Lorenzo was a farmer and 
died in Clayton, Mich., Jan. 9, 1849. 

Mrs. Shaw was but thirteen when she came 
with her parents to Lenawee County. Her union 
with Mr. Shaw has been blessed by the birth of two 
sons — Byron L. and Horatio AV. Byron L. married 
Miss Olive Stockwell, of Dover Township ; they re- 
side in Adrian, where he is engaged in the drug 
business, being a member of the firm of Hart & 
Shaw. Horatio married Miss Susie V. Shaw ; they 
reside in Dover. He is an artist by profession, hav- 
ing much natural talent. 

Mr. Shaw has taken an active part in State and 
county affairs; although he has never sought office, 
yet he has often commanded the suffrage of his fel- 
low-citizens on account of his well-known talent 
and ability. In 1868 he was elected to the Michi- 
gan Legislature, and served two years. In 1880 he 
was chosen State Senator for the Sixth District; in 
1882 he was re-elected to the same office, serving in 
all fuur years. He was President of the Farmer's 
Association of Lenawee and Hillsdale Counties for 
two years. ^ 






Mr. and Mrs. Shaw are active and influential in 
the affairs of the Presbyterian Church, of whicli 
they have been worthy communicants for many 
years. Mr. Shaw has been an Elder in that denom- 
iuatioa for nearly forty years; he has also been 
Superintendent of the Sunday-school for over thirty 
years. He was chosen as a delegate by the Pres- 
bytery to represent it at the General Assemblies 
held at different times in St. Louis, Mo., and in 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

In their pleasant home Mr. and JMrs. Sh:i\v are 
tranquilly and pe.acefully awaiting the end of life 
on earth, which means to them the beginning of a 
more glorious life hereafter. Mr. Shaw was a 
Whig until tiie organization of the Republican 
party, since whiciitime he has supported tliat [larty. 

->> ^.o*o..f5^><^..<,*o <^ 

ELEAZER HOLDRIDGE was born in Onon- 
daga County, N. Y., Sept. 14, 1814. He 
, : ^ was the son of Felix and Deborah (Slocum) 
Holdridgo, who w^re farmers of Onondaga Count}'. 
Eleazer lived with his parents until he was married, 
and was reared a farmer. Considering the advan- 
tages offered in those days, he received a very fair 
education, to which he .added by studj^ after leav- 
ing school, thus fitting himself for teaching, which 
occupation he followed during several winters. The 
greater portion of his life, prior to marriage, was 
spent |in RoyaJton, Niagara County, whither his 
parents had removed when he was six years of age. 
Li the f.all of 1837 Mr. Holdridge came to Mich- 
igan, and [settled in Raisin Township, Lenawee 
County, where he and his father, wlio came with 
him, purchased 200 acres of land on sections 22 
and 23. This entire tract he cleared up, built a 
large brick house and barn, and planted an orchard. 
The first i)urchase was added to until he at one time 
owned 340 acres of valuable land. Immediately 
after his settlement in Raisin he became .active and 
energetic in all public matters. He was largely in- 
terested in the growth and progress of the county 
and lent every energy to its development. Being 
a man of good intelligence and education he soon 
held a prominent position in societj^, and during the 
first year of his settlement was made School In- 

spector. He always toolf an active part in public 
meetings, and discussed questions with terseness and 
intelligence. He was quite a politician, .and his ac- 
tions were swaj^ed solely by conviction. He was 
elected Justice of the Peace, and served several 
years, while he was the candidate of liis party many 
times for other and more important olHces. He 
resided in Raisin Township, on his original purchase, 
until 18()7, when he removed to the city of Adrism, 
purchasing a good home, where he resided until his 
de.ath, which occurred on the 4th of May, 1873. 
Mrs. Mehitnble Holdridge survived her husband sev- 
eral years, dying in Adrian in 1884, aged seventy- 
two years. She had been a resident of Lenawee 
County forty -eight years, never having returned to 
her old home in New York after her m.arriage. Her 
wedding tour consisted of a two weeks' journey, in 
a wagon througli the woods and mud, from New 
York to Michigan. 

On the 18th of Sei)tember, 183C, Mr. Holdridge 
married Mehitable, daughter of Isaiah and Mercy 
Stone, of Royalton, Niag.ara Co., N. Y., and the result 
of this union was eight children, all born on the 
old farm in Raisin Township, wiio are recorded as 
follows: Warren J. was born Aug. 1, 1838, is a 
farmer and resides on the old homestead ; Horace 
was born Aug. 28, 1840. and is a f.armer in Raisin 
Township; Eliza E. was born Dec. 14, 1842, and is 
the wife of Harmon Camburn, a resident of Adrian ; 
Thomas J. was born Aug. 13, 1844, and is a miller 
of Antliony, Kan.; Hannah E. was born May 2, 
184G, and is the wife of Amos Graves, a fanner of 
Williamstown, Ingliam Co., Mich. ; Spencer born 
Feb. 2, 1849, and died the same year; Mary M. was 
liorn Aug. 4, 1850, and is the wife i.f G. Olin 
Green, of Adrian; Eile.azer S. was born Sept. 11, 
1854, and resides at Adrian, this county. 

Mrs. Mehitable Holdridge was born in Bradford, 
Orange Co., Vt., Nov. 8, 1812. Her father, a na- 
tive of Massachusetts, went to Vermont in his boy- 
hood, where he lived until 1818, and then removed 
to Royalton, Niagara Co., N. Y., and purchased 
a farm, where he resided until 1835. He then re- 
moved to Knox County, Ohio, and purchased a 
farm in Liberty Township, where he died Dec. 2, 
1 843, aged fifty-eight. He married Mercy .Sawyer, 
who was born in Bradford, Vt., and they had eleven 


,^ ■^^r~ 



children, of whom Mrs. Holdridge was the second 
daughter and fourth child. Mrs. Mercy Stone died 
111 Marion, Linn Co., Iowa, March 14, 1860, aged 
seventy-seven years. 

Felix and Deborah Hold ridge, parents of the 
subject of this sketch, came to Michigan in 1837, 
as above stated. Felix was a sturdy man of the 
New England tj'pe, honest, industrious and worthy. 
He was a pioneer in every sense, and did his utmost 
in the early days of its settlement to develop the 
country. One of the saddest catastrophes in the 
settlement of Lenawee County occurred in his 
family; one day in October, 1839, his wife went 
into the woods lo gather rushes, and \vas never seen 
again alive. It was soon discovered that she was 
lost, the alarm was given, and ar general and sys- 
tematic search was made by all the inhabitants far 
and near, which was continued for two weeks, and 
finally abandoned by all except Mr. Holdridge, 
who still persisted, and, at the end of about six 
weeks her body was discovered in an Indian hut 
in the township of Dundee, Monroe Countj', and 
about seven miles from her home. Felix Holdridge 
died in Eaisin Township in about 1 855. Elizabeth 
Holdridge, sister of Eleazer, was born in Onondaga 
County, N. Y., Aug. 13, 1803, and came to Michi- 
gan with the family. She married first Uriel Spen- 
cer, of Maumee City, Ohio, who died in Eaisin 
Township, and her second husband was Lewis Hor- 
ton, of Royalton, N. Y.. where he owned a farm 
and where she died in 1872. 




tl7 ENRY H. OSGOOD. Among the enterpris- 
llf^V ing business men of Ilolloway, not one is 
!^V^ more favorably known than the subject of 
((^ this sketch, Mr. H. H. Osgood, who is the 
leading general merchant in that place. 

Mr. Osgood was born in Seneca Township, this 
county, Oct. 23, 1840, and is the son of Cornelius 
Osgood, a native of Seneca County, N. Y., where he 
was born in 1813, and there grew to manhoorl. In 
1 834 he came to Michigan, and settling in Canan- 
daigua, a part of Seneca Township, he plied his 
trade of a tailor, and met and married Miss Phrebe A. 
Tayer, who was born In 1820, and was the daughter 

of one of the pioneers of Lenawee County. Thej' be- 
came the parents of four children — Henry H., Perry, 
Tunis C. and Eliza Jane. Some years after his 
marriage he turned his attention to farming, and 
in 1861 he went to Colorado, where he mined for 
some time in Central City, with varying success, 
and finally returned to Michigan. In the year 
186G he went again to the Rocky Mountains, and 
engaged in mining in Caribou, Boulder Co., Col., 
and was there deprived of his life in August, 1868, 
by one of those accidents so common in the mines. 
As he was employed in sinking a shaft, a bank of 
earth fell on him, killing him instantly. He was 
much respected for his many good qualities, and in 
his death the Republican party of this community 
lost a faithful supporter. His wife survives him, 
living on the old homestead near the city of Adrian. 

Our subject was well educated in the public 
schools, where he ranked well as a scholar, excelling 
particularly in penmanship. He remained with his 
parents until he obtained employment from the 
Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway Com- 
pany, and beginning with the lowest position, that 
of water boy on the trains, he rose rapidly to posi- 
tions of responsibility. His intelligence and capa- 
bilities attracted the attention of the railway offi- 
cials, and he was promoted to a place of trust in the 
supply office, having headquarters at Adrian. This 
post he retained nine years, fulfilling the duties of 
his office with such fidelity and efficiency as to gain 
the full confidence of his employers. At the end of 
that time they promoted him to the clerkship of the 
civil engineer's department, which position he re- 
tained for fourteen years, and then retired from the 
employ of the company, after a service of twenty- 
five years; his retirement was much i-egretted hy the 
officials. He established himself in his present busi- 
ness in 1884, succeeding Kelle}', Hoxsie & Co. He 
carries a fine class of goods for countrj- trade, and 
by close application and skillful management, has 
succeeded in firmly establishing his business on a 
paj'ing basis. 

Mr. Osgood was married in the township of 
Macon, Nov. 23, 1868, to Miss Sarah L., daughter 
of Lewis and Sarah (Huff) Miller. She was born 
in Hillsdale County, Mich., Nov. 8, 1847, and is the 
youngest of her mother's five children — Dan B., 
»► ■ <• 






Jane A., Tunis H., Ellen E. and Sarah L. Her parents 
were natives of Seneca County, N. Y., and her 
mother died in Jonesville, Hillsdale Co., Mich., 
when this daughter was eighteen months old. The 
father married again, taking as his wife Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Vanduzen nee Schofield, and they now live 
near Ridgewa}', engaged in agricultural pursuits. 
After the death of her mother, Mrs. Osgood went 
to reside in Seneca County, N. Y., under the charge 
of her aunt, Mrs. T. C. Osgood, and remained in 
New York till eighteen years of age, receiving a 
good education. She then returned to her old 
home as a teacher, which vocation she followed suc- 
cessfully for three years prior to her marriage. 
Her union with her husband has been blessed by 
the birth of two children — Mauson P. and Harry C. 
Mr. Osgood's genial manners and ready tact make 
him quite popular. Politically he is a Republican, 
and takes an active interest in town affairs; he was 
elected Township Clerk. Mrs. Osgood is an active 
member of the Methodist Church. 

fl? ENRY N. SKEELS, a native of Vermont, 
l^'^^ has been for the last twenty-five years one 
1^^' of the most prominent citizens of Adrian 
^p Township, taking an active part in its various 
interests, and is a man generally respected bj' the 
community. He was born Nov. 27, 1822, and is 
the son of Russell and Mary (Felton) Skeels, of 
New England birth and parentage, tiiough the father 
was of Welsh descent. 

The first representatives of the Skeels family in 
America were three brothers who crossed the At- 
lantic in the Colonial days and located in Connecti- 
cut, where they carried on farming and rounded up 
good and honest lives as citizens and business men. 
The paternal grandfather of our subject died in that 
State at an advanced age. His son, Russell, was 
born near the town of Woodbury and reared to 
farming pursuits. His education was extremely 
limited, being confined to three months' schooling, 
but he was intelligent and fond of reading, and 
gained by his own efforts a useful fund of informa- 
tion. Early in life he was made acquainted with 

its toils and struggles, working away from home at 
very small wages and living in the most frugal 

Russell Skeels was born Aug. G, 1782, and when 
twenty years of age removed from Coiuiecticut to 
Vermont, where he located 100 acres of wild land 
in what was afterward Rutland County. Upon the 
theory that '■ a rolling stone gathers no moss," he 
remained in possession of this purchase the balance 
of his life, embracing a period of fiftj'-live years. 
His death took place Nov. 24, 1857, when he was 
over seventy-four years of age. He built up a com- 
fortable homestead and reared his children after 
the strict principles of the Puritans. He had mar- 
ried, in early manhood, Miss Mary Pollard, a native 
of his own comity, and to them were born six chil- 
dren. After the death of his first wife, Russell 
Skeels was a second time married, to Miss Mary 
Fulton, a native of Vermont, and the daughter of 
William Fulton, a well-to-do Massachusetts farmer. 
Grandfather Fulton possessed all the qualities of an 
honest man and lived to an advanced age. His 
daughter Mary, the mother of our subject, was 
born March ;), 177!), and died in Vermont, Sept. 30, 
1849. The p.arental household included eight chil- 
dren, of whom Henry N. was the seventh son. 
There was one daughter only, and of this family 
but two are living, our subject, and his brother Sam- 
uel who resides in Hampton, N. Y., about eighteen 
miles from the place of his birth. 

Henry N. Skeels visited the West when ijuite 
young, and in 1862 purchased a tract of land in 
Palmyra Township, which he sold in 1867, and com- 
menced speculating in blooded stock. In connec 
tion with others he dealt mostly in sheep and horses, 
and being the pioneers of the business in this section 
they were enabled to realize handsome profits by 
fair dealing and good management. 

In 1873 Mr. Skeels purchased his present home- 
stead and erected thereon the residence which they 
now occupy. The land originally comprised the 
old Wheeler farm, which was opened up by Carey 
Rogers, one of the pioneers of this county, and was 
subsequently the property of a man named Hager- 
man, which name the farm takes. 

Mr. Skeels, in 1846, while a resident of Ver- 
mont, was united in marriage with Miss Marie, 






daughter of Everett P. and Cliarlotte Parmlee, 
natives of Vermont, who spent their entire lives 
upon their native soil and died there at a good old 
age. Three children were born of this marriage, 
namely: Ella M., who died in 1850; Evelyn, who 
passed away in 18()5, when an interesting girl of 
twelve years, and one who died in infancy. The 
mother departed this life Nov. 19,1861, at her 
home in Brandon, Vt. 

The present wife of our subject, formerly Mrs. 
Diana F. (Russ) Crego, was born in Pultne3^ 
Steuben Co., N. Y., Sept. 23. 1829. and was the 
widow of Solomon G. Crego, who died Sept. 23, 
1866. Mr. Crego was born in Erie County, N. 
Y., July 10, 1826, and was the son of Richard 
J. and Martha (Gallop) Crego, natives of New York, 
who were married June 6, 1813. They remained 
in New York until Solomon was ten years old and 
then came to Michigan, where they purchased Gov- 
ernment land on which they lived and died. Solo- 
mon Crego combined farming with the nursery 
business in Jackson County, Mich. 

There were born to Mr. and Mrs. Crego five chil- 
dren, all of whom are dead : Levi H. was born Sept. 
3, 1850, and died when a babe of three months; 
Frances A. was born Oct. 17, 1852, and died July 
13, 1868; Cora A. Was born Aug. 16, 1855, and 
died Nov. 7, 1879; Clara A. was born March 7, 
1859, and died Dec. 16, 1876, and H. C. was born 
Feb. 7, 1864, and died Sept. 12, 1866. 

The father of Mrs. Skeels, Nathaniel Russ, a 
millwright by trade, was born in New Hampshire, 
while his wife. Miss Clarissa Tomer, was a native of 
New Jersey. Mr. Russ, in addition to millwright- 
ing also followed cabinet-making, and was a natural 
mechanic of much skill. He only lived to be mid- 
dle aged, his death taking place when his daughter 
Diana was about ten years old. Mrs. Skeels on 
her mother's side is of P^nglish ancestry, her paternal 
grandfather having crossed the Atlantic in the Colo- 
nial days. He reared a large family of children, 
and with his excellent wife, lived to an advanced 
age. The parents of Mrs. Skeels left New 
England and came to the West about 1837, during 
the early settlement of Lenawee County. They 
made their final location at Cambridge, and the 
father employed himself mostly at. his trades and 


spent his last days at Plymouth, his decease occur- 
ring in 1839 ; they were the parents of nine children. 
The mother was born March 17, 1801, and died at 
her home in Cambridge, July 14, 1866; she was a 
second time married to a Mr. Rogers. 



[-^■jOHERT GILLILAND is the senior proprie- 
L^ tor of the Gilliland Electric Company, in 
the city of Adrian, which was established in 
1882. He first established this business in 
the city of Hudson, this county, in the fall of 1871, 
upon a small scale, and enlarged his facilities as the 
demand required. The articles which are manu- 
factured by this company are telegraph insulators, 
pins and brackets, and while at Hudson the entire 
products of his factory were sold on contracts to 
the Western Union Telegraph Company. The busi- 
ness was continued nine years in that city, and then 
he removed his works to Mishawaka, Ind., w^iere he 
remained for two years. 

In 1882 Mr. Gilliland came to Adrian and estab 
lished his present works, manufacturing himself the 
machinery with which the establishment was sup- 
plied. He made valuable additions from time to 
time, until 1887, when he added new machinerj'^ for 
the manufacture of telegraph and electric light sdp- 
plies. Much of this valuable machinery was invented 
and perfected by Mr. Gilliland, and the amount 
of labor saved can be realized, when it is known 
that a single machine will perform the work which 
formerly required ten men. He has recently in- 
vented a machine for the manufacture of telegraph 
pins, which makes, when it is run to its fullest capac- 
ity, 5,200 pins per day, and the products of the 
establishment are still taken by the Western Union 
Telegraph Company. The compan}' was at one 
time behind its orders 337,000 pins, while in the 
months of July and August there were shipped 660,- 
000. When he first commenced the business, the 
annual output was 200,000, while in 1887 it ran to 
2,000,000 pins. The establishment is located on 
three acres of ground, and consists of four separate 
buildings, besides five dry houses. The main build- 
ing is of brick, and is two stories in height. Steam 
power is used, 50-horse power engines being em- 

••> ^ m ^ 


lp:nawee county. 


ployed. The present conip.iny, formed in the sprhig 
of 1887, is composed of Robert Gilliland and his 
two sons, E. T. and J. F. Gillil.ind, and is incor- 
porated under the laws of the State. 

E. T. Gilliland is in company with Thomas A. 
Edison, the famous electric light tnan,in the manu- 
facture of electrical apparatus, at Orange, N. J., 
but Mr. Gilliland resides in the city of New York. 
The Adrian Company's works are located near the 
Wabash Depot, on Dean street, near Maumee, where 
they are afforded the best of shipping facilities. 

Robert Gilliland was born in Ontario County, N. 
Y., Aug. 1, 1822. He came to Michigan in the fall 
of 1863, and located at Hudson, this county. 


eHARLES D. HALL, wholesale dealer in poul- 
try, eggs and other provisions of the kind, 
is the successor of Hall & Adams, who estab- 
lished the business here in the spring of 1880. 
They built up an extensive trade, and continued 
until the spring of 1 885, when our subject purchased 
the interest of his partner, and has continued alone 
since that time. He is a gentleman of good busi- 
ness qualifications, industrious and enterprising, 
straightforward in his transactions, and in short has 
the elements of character essential to success in life. 

Our subject is in his prime, having been born 
Nov. 3, 1851, and is a native of the Buckeye State, 
where his birth took place in Lorain County at the 
modest homestead of his parents, Matthias and 
Sophia (Hopkins) Hall, whose household included 
eight children, of whom our subject was the young- 
est. Matthias Hall and his estimable wife were na- 
tives of the Eimpire State, where they were reared 
and married, and whence they removed to Ohio 
several years later. The mother died at the home- 
stead in Lorain County about 1857. The father 
subsequently came to Micliigan and died at Lans- 
ing in 1875, when about seventy-eight years of age. 
Of their five sons and three daughters, seven are 
still living, all married and settled in comfortable 

Charles D. Hall received his education in the dis- 
trict schools of Lorain County, Ohio, and during 
the last terms of his attendance worked night and 

morning for his board, making his home with Abram 
Fuller. His first experience in the business at which 
he is now engaged, commenced in his native county, 
through which he traveled as a purchaser of eggs 
and butter, which he shipped to Cleveland, and met 
with snch success at the commencement that he con- 
tinued his labors in this direction for a period of 
six years. He then determined upon a change of 
location, being desirous of seeing something be- 
yond the confines of the Buckeye State. 

In the fall of 1873 Mr. Hall made his way to 
Southeastern Michigan, and pitching his tent within 
the city limits of Adrian, engaged as clerk with the 
firm of McLouth & Hall. After two years he was 
admitted to partnership, and upon the retirement of 
Mr. McLouth continued the business in company 
with his brother for about three years. He then 
purehaseil the interest of the latter, and adding 
groceries to the stock of merchandise, continued 
alone until 1880. In the spring of that year he 
formed a partnership with John Q. Adams, and the 
firm of Hall & Adams dealt principally in groceries 
for about twelve months, when the business was 
closed out. Messrs. Hall & Adams then engaged 
in the general produce business, the partnership be- 
ing limited to five years, after which Mr. Adams re- 
tired, and Mr. Hall has since continued alone. The 
business is located on Railroad street, west of the 
court house, in a building that was at one time 
occupied by a canning company, and is well adapted 
to its present purpose. In 188G Mr. Hall shipped 
110 tons of poultry, and a large amount of eggs; 
the report for 1887, when made up, will probably 
double this amount. This is an admirable illustra- 
tion of the results of good judgment in purchasing 
and fair dealing in selling. 

In 1875, while a resident of Adrian, our subject 
was united in marriage with Miss Alice A., second 
daughter of Lewis and Mary L. McLouth, of Adrian 
the wedding taking place at the home of the bride, 
and being the occasion upon which met together a 
goodly number of friends of both parties, who cele- 
brated in a suitable manner the imjiortant event. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hall are now the parents of three 
bright children, namely : Loisia Belle, who was born 
May 13, 1880; Charles Arthur, Feb. 21, 1882, and 
Edwin M., Oct. 29, 1885. The residence is pleas- 





aiitly located on Main street, and our subject and 
his wife are the center of a large circle of friends 
and acquaintances. Mr. Hall, politically, votes the 
Republican ticket, but gives little attention to poli- 
tics, preferring to devote his time mostly to his 
business and domestic interests. 

J I AMP:S IIALLADAY, a representative farmer 
and stock-raiser, is located on section 5, 
Clinton Township, where he owns an excel- 
lent farm of eighty acres, a part of which is 
within the village limits. He purchased this farm 
upon his arrival in Lenawee County in 187.3, whei-e 
he has been a resident ever since. 

The subject of this biography was born in Man- 
chester Township, Ontario Co., N. Y., on the 22d 
of January, 1832. His father, James Hallada3', was 
also a native of Ontario County, where he grew up, 
and was married in Manchester Township, to Pa- 
melia Biglow, who is still living on the farm in 
Bridgewater Township, Washtenaw County. She 
is eighty-three years of age and vigorous in mind 
and body. Her husband was a farmer and died in 
Bridgewater Township, Dec. 28, 1880, at the age of 
eighty-two years. He was successful as a farmer 
and in politics was a Republican, while they were 
lioth members of the Congregational Church. 

Our subject was reared in the township of his 
nativity, and came to Michigan after he had grown 
to manhood. He purchased a farm and then took 
an important step toward housekeeping. On the 
19th of February, 1873, he was united in marriage 
in Clinton Township with Miss Sarah Richmond, 
born in this township, Feb. 7, 1852, and daughter 
of Levi C. and Sarah (Warner) Richmond, the 
former of whom died Jan. 7, 1887, at his home in 
Clinton Township, at the .age of seventy-seven. He 
was born in Herkimer County, N. Y., and reared 
and educated there till he had reached his majority, 
when he came to Michigan, and after living in Pon- 
tiac one year, removed to Bridgewater. Twelve 
years later he came to Clinton Township, where he 
resided until his death. On his arrival here he 
obtained Government land, on which he labored 
energetically, and brought it under a high state of 
cultivation. He was a conscientious, straightfor- 

ward man, and a member for many years of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, in which he held office 
almost constantly during his connection with that 
denomination. He was known among the people 
for more than half a century, and held a high place 
in the affections of his community, witii which he 
was so closely connected as a pioneer. In politics 
he was a Democrat. His wife was also connected 
with the Methodist Episcopal Church for even a 
longer term of years, and is yet living on the old 
homestead, which consists of 121 acres of land of a 
very superior quality, and well supplied with good 
farm buildings. 

Mrs. Halladay was the fifth in a family of five 
sons and two daughters, and was reared at home, 
receiving her education in Clinton. She is the 
mother of two children — Alice and Ralph A. Mr. 
and Mrs. Halladay are very energetic, progressive 
people, and take an active interest in all measures 
calculated to promote the best interests of the com- 
munity in which they live. They are members of 
the Methodist Plpiscopal Church, of which Mr. H. 
is a Trustee. Mr. Halladay identifies iiiinself with 
the Republican party. 

eW. LUCE is one of the thrifty and success- 
ful farmers of this county, owning ninety- 
six acres of highly improved land on section 
2.5, Franklin Township, where he made his home in 
1879. Mr. Luce was born in Manchester Town- 
ship, Washtenaw County, Aug. 21, 1846. His fa- 
thei', Henry T. Luce, was an early settler 4)f Man- 
chester Township, where he lived until 1858, and 
then removed to Napoleon Township, Jackson 
County, where he purchased a farm and lived for 
some time, when he finally removed to Tecumseh, 
where his death occurred June 25, 1886. He was 
born in Pennsylvania Jan. 6, 1811, where he was 
reared to manhood, and was married in Clermont, 
N. Y'., to Lucia O. Fisher, who was born and reared 
in New Hampshire, and is now, at the age of sev- 
enty-four years, living in Tecumseh. The father 
was a stanch Republican, and he and his wife were 

The subject of our notice is the youngest of six 
children, three sons and three daughters, all of 


^. s^ 




whom arc liviin:', ami tlircc smis ajul unc (ImiiuIiIci- 
are married. Mr. Liicr iivLnl at iiuiiic iiiitii iiis 
marriage, in N.ipoleon Towiisiiip, .Iacl<son County. 
Feb. 2, 1 870, to Miss Kate E. EnEarl, wlio was l)()rii 
in Raisin Township, Lenawee County, Jnne U. isril), 
and is the danghtor of James L. and Ahnot .1. 
(Comstock) EnEarl, natives of York State. They 
were married in the township of Franklin, lemov- 
ing thence to Raisin Township, wheie the father 
followed the trade of a carpenter for some .years, 
and where the mother died when her (laughter, 
Mrs. Luce, was only three years of age. Thence 
the father removed to Franklin Township, next to 
Albion, and finally to Jackson City, where he is on- 
gaged at his trade: he is now the iinslianil of liis 
third wife. 

After the death of her mother .Mrs. Luce lived 
witli her f.ather until her marriage. She is the 
mother of five children — Irving C, Alma J., Henry 
1)., James L. and Howard. After their marriage 
Mr. and Mrs. Luce located in Napoleon Towiiship, 
Jackson County, on a f.arm of fifty-six acres, iind 
lived there until he came to his present home in 
1879. They belong to the Methodist Church. Mr. 
L. is a Republican, and is acting in the capacity of 
Highway Commissionei-. 

-*«-;;5. •-^o<-»- ->=:-"» 

EMMON COWEN. The beautiful farm of 
)J) eight}' acres which occupies a part of sec- 
tion 1 2 in Ridgeway Township, has been 
lirought to its present condition mainly by 
the industry of the gentleman whose naraestandsat 
the head of this sketch. He commenced in life 
comparatively without means, .and has worked his 
way up to a good position socially and flnauciall_y. 
His early labors and struggles are things of the 
past, which he mostly keeps vvitliin the recesses of 
his own breast. Suttice it to say that they were of 
a character which would have dism.ayed many men 
and caused them to sink with discouragement. Our 
snbject, however, rose nobly above them all. and 
presents an illustr.ation of the self-made man, whose 
career may well be imitated by the rising genera- 

Mr. Cowen was born near St. Thomas, Upper 


Canada, .March i:!. I s:!s. ;,iul is (he sou of Moses 
Cowen, who was a native of the same locality, and 
died there when his son Demmon was an infant. 
The mother was formerly INIiss Jane Rice, and after 
the death of her first husband she mairied to 
Mr. John Barnett, and in the year 1«51 the family 
all came to Michigan and located in Dundee Town- 
ship, Monroe County. Mr. Baniett only lived a 
few years afterwai-d. Tlu^ mother eouliiuied with 
her children on the lanil which her husband had 
purchased, and where she still makes her home. 

Our subject spent his early years with his mother, 
but after coming to Michigan commenced earning 
his own living by employing himself at whatever 
he could find to do. At the outbreak of the late 
Rebellion he was among tlie first to respond to the 
call for troops, and enlisted in Company K, 11th 
Michigan Lifantry, going soon afterward with his 
regiment to Louisville, Ky., being assigned to the 
Army of the West. He met the enemy in various 
eng.ageraents and skirmishes, but escaped serious 
injury, and at the close of his term of enlistment, 
three years later, received his honorable discharge 
Sept. 30, 18G4. After being mustered out he re- 
turned to Dundee Township, where he remained 
for a time, and in August, 18()0, was married to 
Miss Mary Friedt, a native of Pennsylvania and of 
German parentage. Mrs. Cowen came to Michi- 
gan with her parents when a young child, and was 
reared to womanhood in Monroe County. Of her 
marriage with our subject there have been born 
three children, namely: Caroline, the wife of Will- 
iam Frayor, a prosperous farmer of Ridgeway 

j Township ; Susan and John H. are with their p.arents. 

j Mr. Cowen left Monroe County in 1857, and 
purchased the land which he has built uj) into the 
present valuable farm. It had been then but in- 
differently cultivated, and the now fertile soil has 

1 been made so only by the most tireless in<lustry 
and the exercise of excellent judgment. Much of 
it was low and damp, but by a thorough process of 
drainage and other wise treatment it now yields in 
abundance the finest crops of this .section. Mr. 
Cowen still owns twenty acres of woodland in Dini- 
dee Township, which he purchased in is7tl. He 
has had little to do with political oi' pul)lic affairs, 

1 preferring to give his attention to his farm and the 



lenawp:e county. 


comfort of his family, He keeps himself informed, 
however, upon matters of general interest, and 
votes the straight Republican ticket. 

We are pleased to present on an adjoining page 
of this Album a portrait of Mr. Covven, although 
neither "storied urn nor animated bust" is neces- 
sary to keep his memory green in the hearts of his 

tired farmer, residing on section 25, Dover 
Township, is of Welsh extraction. His 
grandfather, fSamuel W. Thurber, was born 
in Wales, and witli his wife, whose maiden name was 
Chase, he came to this country and settled in 
New Hampshire. His son Samuel H., the youngest 
of his five children, and father of Norman, was born 
and reared in New Hampshire, and there married 
Miss Sally, daughter of John Gage. They first 
made their home in Unity, Cheshire Co., N. H., and 
in 1820 they migrated from there to Canandaigua, 
Ontario Co., N. Y., where they spent their last 
years. Mrs. Thurber died Sept. 5, 1821, and Mr. 
Thurber March 5, 1837. They had nine children — 
Jefferson G., Almira, Robert G., Horace C, Mary 
G., Joshua W., Norman H., Betsey G. and Sarah D. 
Norman Thurber was born in Unity, N. H.. on the 
22d of February, 1816, and vvas four .years old 
when his parents removed to New York. He grew 
to manhood in Ontario County, receiving a com- 
mon-school education, and a good training as a 
farmer. He had the sad misfortune to lose his 
mother when he was but five years old, but he was 
a manly lad, and from the time he was twelve years 
of age he has supported himself. Oct. 5, 1834, he 
left Ontario County, and turning his face westward, 
came to Michigan. During the first five years of 
his residence in this State, he lived principally in 
Fairfield Township, but in I 839 he went to Seneca 
Township, and lK)ught 1 (iO acres of land on sections 
28 and 24. 

The next important event in Deacon Tburber's 
life was his marriage with Eunice N. Carpenter, in 
Fairfield Township, April 6, 1843. The paternal 
grandfather of Mrs. Thurber was Joslnia Carpenter, 

and the maideii name of his wife was Sarah Bert. 
Her maternal grandparents were Moses and Pliebe 
(Perkins) Cook, the former a Revolutionary soldier. 
Mrs. Thurber's parents, John H. and Elizabeth 
(Cook) Carpenter, after their marriage established 
their home in New York, where the city of Elmira 
now stands. Thence they came to Michigan in the 
month of May, 1831, where they located in Lenawee 
County, on the present site of Madison Township. 
They finally removed to Fairfield Township, where 
thej' died, Mrs. Carpenter's death occurring in 
June, ISGC. and Mr. Carpenter's on the 3d of July, 
1874. They had eight children — Rasset, Phebe, 
Eunice N., Charles 11., Daniel B., Aaron W., Elsie 
A. and Martha W. Eunice N., Mrs. Thurber, vvas 
the third child of her parents, and was born on 
the present site of Elmira, N. Y., May 13, 1.S22; 

.1 wl 

le with 

ler par- 



she was nine years 
cuts to Michigan. 

After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Thurber 
their home in Seneca Township until 1! 
they sold tiieir land, which they had partiall.^ 
proved, and returned to Fairfield, where 
bought a farm, on which they resided three years, 
employed in improving it. In 1853 Mr. Thurber 
disjjosed of that property very advantageously, and 
removed with his family to Dover Township, where 
he bought a farm on section 25, and has ever since 
been a resident of this township. The Deacon has 
been a powerful man in his day, and still possesses 
much vigor and energy. By untiring industry he 
has cleaied and greatly improved his land. He has 
felled the trees from over ICO acres of land, and has 
extensively engaged i;i logging. 

Mr. and Mrs. Thurber have one child, Sarah D., 
who was born in Seneca Township, March 8, 1 S44. 
She was married in Medina, Mich., Jan. 1, 1862, to 
Ezra Abbott, son of Ezra and Emily (Tuttle) Ab- 
bott. They made their liome in Dover Township, 
where he died Dec. 20, 1886. Mrs. Abbott became 
the mother of three children by that marriage, 
namely: Dora L., Norman D. and Lora B. Dora 
and Norman died when quite young of lung fever. 
Their death occurred just seven days apart. 

Deacon Thurber. his wife and daughter are mem- 
bers of the Free-Will Baptist Church, where Mr. 
Thurber has filled the olFice of Deacon for many 
_ ■» 


249 ' 'I 

years. He has always been exceedingly active in 
the establishment of religious prlificcs in Lenawee 
County, and in other ways h:i> donr mucli to ad- 
vance the moral interests of the county. He has 
assisted in organizing and building up five different 
churches in Fair&eld and Dover Townships, and con- 
siders tliat "religion and education are inseparable." 
His example as a conscientious, ui)right man, wallc- 
ingin the paths of virtue and peace, is wortii much 
to the community. In this age of litigation, it is 
his pride that lie has never sued a man, or been sued 
himself: lie lias never wilfully wronged anyone. 

Jj AMES UPDIKE. .In. The linely api ited 
little farm of eighty acres wliieli oci-upies a 
I portion of section i:i, Fianldiu Ti.>wnsiiip. 
' became the property of the >ubjeet of tliis 
sketch in 1875, and he has since bent liis energies to 
its improvement and cultivation, with most admir- 
able results. The proprietor is a gentleman of more 
than ordinary intelligence and good taste, and while 
having a proper resjiectfor the wherewithal to make 
life comfortable, has embellished his homestead with 
the various features which render it one of the most 
attractive spots in the township. The buildings 
are of modern style, the fields are fenced in a neat 
and substantial manner, and everything about the 
premises is kept in first-class order, nothing allowed 
to go to waste or become an offense to the eye. 
Around the residence are fruit and slia<le trees with 
a fine orchard in the rear, wiiilo the live stock and 
machinery give evidence of the care and thought- 
fulness of the proprietor. 

Our subject, the son of i>ne of the earliest pio- 
neers of this county, first opened his eyes to the light 
in the primitive log cabin, which was the fii-st 
dwelling of liis parents in Tecnmseh Townshi|), and 
which was located upon land which been but 
slightly cultivated before his father took possession 
of it. The latter, also James Updike, a native of 
New York State, was reared to manhood in his native 
county, and married Miss Belinda Hause, whose 
birthplace was not far from the early home of her 
husband. They continued in the Empire State until 
after the birth of three children, when they came to 


Michigan and located upon the land which they 
(.)ccupied until retiring from active labor. 

The parents of our sulijeet came to this county 
prepared to meet hardship-^ and ditHcidties, and 
proved themselves equal to the emergency. 'J'hey 
succeeded in building np a comfortable home, oc- 
cupying the log cabin but a few years and then re- 
moving into a good frame dwelling. The father 
was a mail of excellent judgment, kind and generous 
as a neighbor and friend, and l)ecanie known as one 
of the most thorough and successful farmers of 
Tecnmseh Township. He is still living, and makes 
his home with his son Martin G., a resident of 
Tecnmseh Township. He is now over eighty-four 
years of age, having been 1 " )rn ( )ct. 1 , 1 803. During 
his residence of over forty years in this county he 
has made many warm friends, and has abundant 
reason to feel that his life and labors have not been 
in vain. The wife and mother departed this life at 
the homestead Nov. 80, 1 873, when about sixty-five 
years old. Both [larents were devoted members of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church in the days of their 
youth and strength, and the father is still identified 
with the old societj'. 

James Updike, Jr., was the eighth in a family of 
ten children, four sons and six daughters. Of 
these, three sons and two daughters are living and 
residents of this county. James, in common •^vith 
his brothers and sisters, remained under the home 
roof and availed himself of the instruction afforded 
at the district school. Upon reaching manhood he 
was married, April 2, 1873, at the homeof the bride 
ill Tecnmseh Township, to Miss Atlanta A., daughter 
of John T. and Caroline II. (Thompson) Bates. Mr. 
and Mrs. Bates were natives of New York State and 
were married in Cortland County, where their three 
children were born, the wife of our subject being 
the youngest of the family. Her birth took place 
Nov. .5, 18,53, and she was fifteen years of age when 
her father came to Michigan and located on a farm 
in Tecnmseh Township. The mother had died in 
Cortland County, N. Y., in 1863, at the age of 
thirty -seven years. Mr. Bates subsequently married 
Miss .Salina Coyle, who accompanied him to the 
West and remained here until after the death of 
Mr. Bates, which took place in the village of Tecnm- 
seh, July 31, 1877, when he was sixty-three years of 






i\ge: Mrs. B. then returned to New York and is now 
a resident of Homer, that State. Mr.Bates was a 
man of much force of character, and became quite 
prominent in the politics of the county. He affiliated 
with the Republican party and with his estimable 
wife, was a member in good stnnding of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church. 

The wife of our subject continued with her father 
until her marriage, in the meantime receiving a 
good education and developing those elements of 
character which have constituted her a true wife and 
mother. Of her union with Mr. Updike there have 
been born two son.s — Earl B., Dec. 7, 187G, and 
Lucius C. Dec. -29, 1878. Mr. Updike, politically, 
uniformly votes the Republican ticket. By good 
management and industry he has accumulated a 
competence and lias something laid by for a rainy 

T^jOBERT B. SUTTON, a farmer, residing on 
1^^ section 16, Dover Township, is the son of 
("ii X[ Pharis and Hannah Sutton, of that town- 
^pjship (see sketch of Pharis Sutton for par- 
ental history), and is a native of tliis State, where lie 
was born in Hillsdale County, Sept. 22, 1841. 
When he was scarcely two years old, his parents 
came to Rome Township in this county, where his 
boyhood was passed on a farm, and in the i)ublic 
schools, where he received a good education, which 
was supplemented by two terms of instruction in the 
excellent college at Adrian. In ls.-)8 he came with 
his parents to Dover 'I'ownship, whicli since that 
time has been his home. 

When Mr. Sutton grew to manliood he preferred 
the healthful, free life of a farmer to the routine 
and continement of ofHee work, and he has ever since 
paid close attention to tilling the soil. Bringing to 
his work an intelligent and practical knowledge of 
the principles that govern agriculture, he has been 
particularly successful in their application. His 
farm comprises 138 .acres of land, most of which 
is well improved and very productive. 

Mr. Sutton has a pleasant home, over whicli liis 
wife presides with grace and hosjMtality. Hei- 
maiden name was Alice C. Pontius, and siie is the 
daughter of David and Cordelia (Bryant) Pontius. 

(See sketch of D. Pontius). .She was born in Seneca 
County, N. Y., Dec. 2, 1851, and was united in 
marriage with our subject M.arch 29, 1871. This 
union has resulted in the birth of two children — 
Maggie A. and Florence A. 

Both Mr. and .Air-. Sutton are member- of tlie 
Methodist Episcopal Church, and in their daily life 
they show that theirs is not a meaningless creed. 
They are active in whatever promotes the best in- 
terests, socially or morally, of tiie township in which 
they reside. 



HARLS SUTTON, a veteran farmer of 
Dover Townsliip, is one of the few men 
f^ still living in our midst, who, in days long- 
gone by, were among the brave and liardy 
jiioneerswho opened up Lenawee County for settle- 
ment. His parents were John and Sarah (Blaine) 
Sutton, natives of New .Jersey where, after their 
marriage, they first settled Thence they removed 
to New York, where they spent the most of their 
wedded life, living in the following counties, at 
different times: Onondaga, Wayne and Seneca, in 
the latter of which they died. They were worthj' 
people, of frugal, honest habits, and tliej' trained 
their children, six sons and four dauuhters, to fol- 
k)W in their footsteps. 

Our subject was the seventh child in ti;c p.arental 
family, and was liorn in Onondaga County, N. 
Y., Oct. 18, 1800. In the days of his youth no 
idle hands were allowed in the household, and our 
subject was early initiated in the best ways of mak- 
ing himself useful in farm labors. When sixtecL 
years of age he was apprenticed to learn the carpen- 
ter's trade, and after he had mastered its details, he 
went to Chautauqua County, where he put it in 
practice for some years. 

On the 9th of October, 1828, Mr. Sutton married 
in that courtj-. Miss Hannah M., daughter of Mil- 
ton and Lois (Briscoe) Foote, natives of Connecti- 
cut. In 1830 Mrs. Sutton's parents left their home 
in New York and came to Lenawee County, in this 
State, settling on a farm now owned and occupied 
by J. A. Townsend in Madison Township, where 
they lived until 1835. They then disposed of that 
property, and removed to Hillsdale County, where 





Mr. Foote (lied in 1843. Mrs. P'oote survived the 
ilejith of her husband forty yejirs, dyinu' in Adrian 
Township in the year iss;;, ;it tiio ndvanccd Mge ,,f 
ninety years. They had ti.'n cliildrcn. tiw sons and 
live daughters, of whom JMrs. Sutton was liie eldest; 
she was horn in Newtown, t'onu., Dee. IS, 1809. 

In 1830 Mr. Sutton came to Michigan with his 
wife and our child, performing tiie entire journey 
■with hordes and wagons, and occupying sixteen <\a\^ 
to reaeli ids destination. They .settled in wdiat is 
now the city of Adrian, where Mr. Sutton bought 
140 acres of land. The roundhouse of the L.-ike 
■Shore <fe Michigan Si.ulhorn Uaihoad is now located 
on land that once formed a part of his farm. Mr. 
Sutton remained in Adrian engaged in carpentering, 
and established quite a flourishing business. lie 
erected a number of buildings not only in the city 
of Adrian, but he .also built nearly all the hiuises 
between that city and DeerHi'ld that were erected 
prior to the year 18;J;i. In 1837 he removed to 
Ilillsd.ale, where he lived until 1843, farming, and 
also engaging at his trade. Ilis next move was to 
R(.)me Township, this county, where he remained 
until 18.t8, contuuiiug in his former occupations. 
In March, 1858, he came to Dover Township and 
bought about 100 acres of land on sections S) and Hi, 
where he has since made Ids home. Mr. Sutton has 
made many v.-du.-dile imi)rii\ ements on his farm; 
he has erectcil cummndjous and comfortalile build- 
ings, and his fertile, well-tilled acres show evidences 
of thrift, industry, and intelligent judgment on the 
part of the owner. 

Six children have been born to .Mr. and Mrs. 
Sutton, two of whom, Sarah A. .■Mid .Iuli:i A., died 
in infancy. The foUowing is the record of tlioM- 
living: Lois B. is the wife of 11. M. lloxter, and 
Deborali, of Jacob Gambee; Milton F. married 
Charlotte E. Barkley, and lives in Hillsdale Coiinty. 
while Robert B. married Miss Alice C. Pontius, and 
lives in Dover Township. 

Mr. and Mrs. Sutton have long >iiice passed the 
golden nule-stone which marked the half century of 
their wedded life. This iiniisnnlly long pericnl of 
wedlock has been productive of much good :iiid 

advanced age is attributable to the active, tem- 
perate lives that they have led. They have always 

earnestly striven liy praclice and precept to uphold 

years they have been members of the Methodist 
Epjiscopal Church. In politics Mr. Sutton has 
formerly voted the Democratic ticket, but hopes to 
cast his liext vote for Prohibition. 





'l( es! IS.'il. and engaged in farming near the city 
■^^1 of Adrian in the f.-ill of 1 .s.s5. He served 
in the Union army as First Lieutenant, and for four 
years was connected with the United States Express 
CViinpany route from Toledo to Chicago. Thence 
he removed to a farm in Rome Township, which 
lie operated until locating in his present home. 

Mr. C'urtis was born at Saratoga Springs, N. Y., 
March 2.'!, 1835, while his father, Elijah, Jr., and his 
grandfather, Elijah Curtis, .Sr., were natives of Con- 
necticut; the family is of English descent. The 
paternal grandfather of our subject was born near 
Bridgeport, Conn., in 17G0, and .at the age of fif- 
teen years, he enlisted as a .soldier among the troojjs 
raised by Benedict Arnold, and was at the siege of 
Boston after the battle of Bunker Hill. Upon the re- 
organization of the array, he was detailed In the Col. 
John Moi'gan Riflemen, and was with them until the 
close of the war. He |)articipated in the series of 
battles at Stillwater, Bemis Heights, and other places 
resulting in the capture of Burgoyne's army. After 
this he was transferred to the .Southern States, and 
was in the battle of Cowpeus, 8. C. At the close of 
{]\r war the Goverinnent granted every soldier a 
section of land, and he located his in the town of 
(i.alway, Saratoga Co., N. Y. He spent his last 
j-ears at Saratoga Springs, dying at the age of sev- 
enty-five years. He was a farmer by occupation, 
and acquired a comfortable property. 

Our subject's maternal grandfather was Capt. Iclia- 
bo<l Chamberlaiu, of Revolutionary memory. Elijah 
^\ . Curtis, the father of our subject, migrated from 


York to Michigan in 1 
,n, where his death took 
After the death of hi 

•a ted in 
urge H. 






continued with his mother until he was sixteen 
years old, and was afterward employed in railroad- 
ing until sixty-one. Aftei- the outbreak of the late 
war, he entered the Quartermaster's Department of 
the army, and near the close enlisted in Company 
B, 'id New .Jersej' Infantry, as First Lieutenant. 
He went to Richmond with his company, and at the 
termination of the war, eiglit months aftenvnrd, was 
honorably d ischarged. 

Mr. Curtis, while a resident of Adrian, was mar- 
ried, Feb. 13, 1866, to Miss Harriet E., daughter of 
William Dutton, a native of Lyndeboro, Hills- 
boru Co., N. II.. who emigrated to Michigan dur- 
ing the early settlement of Adrian Township, 
and accumulating a large fortune, died Nov. 30, 
1884. The mother of Mrs. Curtis was formerly 
Miss Harriet Thomas, and passed away July 12, 
1843, at her home in Adrian. Mrs. Curtis was born 
June 15, 1843, in Adrian, and of her union with 
our subject have been born se"ven children, all 
living — Fanny L., Mamie, William Wheeler, George 
Oscar, James E., Eva and Ethel. The three eldest 
of them have been in attendance at St. Mary's and 
Notre Dame Colleges, South Bend, Ind., whilst the 
others attend the public schools of Adrian. 

Besides his handsome residence near town, a 
dwelling finely finished and furnished, and an orna- 
ment to the county, Mr. Curtis retains posse.ssion 
of his farm, which is operated by a tenant. He is a 
man of prominence in his community, one of its 
solid business men, and a most reliable citizen. He 
commenced in life with comparatively little means, 
but was blessed with good judgment, and the resolu- 
tion and perseverance which are always necessary to 

W. L()\'E. Few persons remain long in 
Franklin Township without hearing some- 
thing of this gentleman, who has lieen 
Supervisor for the l;ist seven years. He 
carries on farming and stock-raising quite e.xten- 
sively on section i), dealing principally in high-grade 
animals, embracing Merino sheep, tlioroughbred 
I'oiancl-Cliin.-i liogs, with good horses and cattle. 
TIk' f:inu (-(imprises ninety acres of land under fine 
(•ulti\alion, with modern buildings, first-class ma- 

chinery, and all the other adjuncts of the skillful 

Mr. Love came to tills fmiii in the spring of 1862, 
and has effected n.ost ui' the Improvements upon it, 
as it had lieen Imt indifferently cultivated and there 
were upon it ii<. buildings. He is a native of 
tills county, ami was born Oct. 22, 1836, at the 
homestead of his father, Austin Love, who came to 
Michigan from New York in 1834. The latter was 
born in what was then Barry County, N. Y., and 
was the youngest son of William Love, whose par- 
ents were natives of Scotland. Thej^ emigrated to 
America, and were among the j^ioneers of Bany 
County, where Grandfather Love carried on farming 
and spent his last days. William Love passed his en- 
tiic life in hisna.tive county, and like his father before 
him engaged in agricultural pursuits. The mother 
of our subject was in her girlhood Miss Clara A., 
daughter of William Bradley, who was married in 
his native county, and came to Michigan in 1834, 
locating in Franklin Towniship. Mr. and Mrs. 
Bradley here spent the remainder of their lives, 
dying within a few months of each other, and both 
being eighty-two years old. They were excellent 
people, highly respected, and devoted members of 
the Presbyterian Church. William Bradley was 
formerly a Democrat, but after the organization of 
the Republican party, he ideiititied himself with 
that organization. 

Austin Love continued a resident of his native 
county until after his marriage and the birth of 
tliree children. In the spring of 1834 he disposed 
of his interests in the Empire State, and made his 
way, via lake and canal, to the Territory of Michi- 
gan. The latter part of their journey was effected 
by means of teams, and they located first in Monroe 
County. From there shortly afterward they moved 
into Franklin Township, this county, and the elder 
Love secured a tract of heavily timbered land, 
located oil sections 21 .-iiid 27, near what is now the 
ol<l tiinipiUe. Ills first residence was built of logs 
and covered with swamp-elm bark. Under this 
humble roof 1). W. of our sketch was born. A few 
years later he put up a hotel, where he resided with 
his family and dispensed hospitality to travelers. 
He conducted his house strictly upon the temper- 
ance plan and it became a great success financially. 




and popular witli the people. About 1840 he 
started the town of Franklin Center, and erected a 
residenee there, wluMe his denlh touU place aliout 
1872. Tlie )iarciils wore debited members of the 
PresNyterian Cinircli. The mother survived Ijer 
hushand nearly tu,, years, dying on the lOtli of 
.June, 1874, when si.\^ty-six years of age. 

I). ^\'. Love was the third son and fourth child of 
his parents, and received a good education in the 
common schools. He also became familiar with the 
various employments of the farm, upon which he 
labored in summer, and when becoming of suitable 
age employed himself as a tcai'her in the winter. 
He was married, Sei)t. 22, 18o8, to a maiden of his 
own township, Miss Delia A. P^isher, who was born 
in Otsego County, N. Y., April 15, I8;J4. She re- 
mained the companion of her husband only eight ! 
short years, dying Nov. 1, 1866, at the homestead j 
in Franklin Township. Her f.ather, Pliny Fisher, \ 
Esq., a native of Massachusetts, married Miss Lovisa [ 
Gates, of Pennsylvania. Soon afterward they came 
to Michigan, and located in Franklin Township, [ 
where they spent the remainder of their lives, Iie- 
ing quite aged at the time of their decease. Mrs. 
Love continued with her parents until her marriage, 
and by her union with our subject became the 
motiier of one child. Addic L., vvhfi is now the wife \ 
of FrenKjnt Leonard, a successful fai'iner of L'ome 
Township; they have three ehildien — Delia E., 
Bertha L. and Hiram W. I 

Mr. Love was .again mai-ried. Dee. 22. 1 si(18, to I 
Mrs. Mary E. (Smith) Edwards, daughter of Robert 
and Emelinc (L:ingdon) Smith, an<l widow <jf 
Charle.s Edwards. .Air. Smith wa> .-i native of 
Yorkshire, Englanil, where he was reared ami mar- 
ried, and whence in early manhood he emigrate<l to 
America, settling in this State. His first wife died 
a few years later, and he vvas then married to Miss j 
Langdon, the mother of Mrs. Love. They are now j 
living on a farm in Fr.-uiklin Township, and by 
their sterling worth of character, kindness and iio^,- 
pitality, have gathered around them a large circle 
of friends. 

■ Mrs. Mary E. Love born in Franklin 4'own- 
ship, this county, Sept. 24, 18.3!). and in |s,-,7 «:is 
married to Charles Edwards, by wli,,in >lie bee.une 
the mother of two children: Archie, born July G, i 

1858, and Libby, Nov. 19, 1860: Mr. Edwards died 
.Ian. IG, 18G;i. Mr. and Mrs. Love have four chil- 
dren—Flora M.. Leon A.. Lidu E. and Norah .1., 
all at home with their l)ai-ents. Mr. Love, politi- 
e:illy. :illili:ite> u itb the Republican party, and his 
eslini.ible lad\ i> a member in good standing of the 
('.>iigreg:iti<jnal tlnu'ch. He has officiated as High- 
way Commissioner three years, and occupied the 
various other hx'al offices, being a gentleman in 
whom the peoiilc have entire confidence, and pos- 
sessing the good judgment which enables him to 
discharge the duties of his office in a manner cred- 
itable to him,-,elf and satisfactory to the people. 



I ^.lll wiiat. IS now 
r^j ucerncui wa.^ e;iiieii " Kedzie"s (rrove." 
/f^ — ^ One eveninj;, upon agreement, three of the 
live heads of families who made uji the most im- 
portant portion of the population, met at the post- 
office for tile pinpose of changing the name of the 
hamlet. On account of the abundance of deer dur- 
ing its first settlement, Ephraim Hall suggested that 
the future name be Deerfield, and it was accord- 
ingly changed to the name by which it has since been 
known. Mr. Hall came to this county in 1 836, 
and first engaged in the lumber business, becoming 
junior member of the mill firm of Clark & Hall. 
He built and owned the first dam and sawmill at 
DecrfiehL which subsequently became the property 
of .Tason Hemenway. Three years after embarking 
in this venture he concluded to take up farming, 
and purchased a part of the Kedzie farm on the 
west side of the river, wliere he afterward built his 
home. Another reason for his preference for the 
name of Deerfield was, tiiat it reminded him of the 
home of relatives in Massachusetts to whom he 
much attached. 

Ephraim Hall was boi n in Sudbury, Rutland Co., 
Vt., -Ian. 20, [,s|(i. His father, Abner Hall, a na- 
tive of Dedham, Ma^,^., was born about 1755, and 
-er\ ed first as a soldier in the Revolutionary War 
and subsequently^ as Ca|)tain in the A'ermont Militia. 
He owned a farm in Sudbury, where his death took 
|)laee ill is-il. The mother of our subject, form- 
erly Miss Alary Jackson, of Newton, Mass., became 




tlie wife of Capt. Hall in 1775, and their family 
included seven sons and five daughters, Ephraim 
being the eleventh child and sixth son. He is the 
only one now living. Mrs. Mary Hall died at the 
homestead in Sudbury several years before the death 
of her husband. 

pjphraim Hall continued in the Green Mountain 
State until a young man twenty-three years of age 
then made his way to the Tei-ritory of Michigan,, 
landing in Detroit in May, 183.3. He erected the frame house in the village of Deerfield, and was 
foremost in many of the enterprises which helped 
to place the struggling hamlet upon its feet and 
encourage within its limits the settlement of an 
enterprising and intelligent class of people. 

On the 12th of September, 1837, Ephraim Hall 
took to wife Miss M.ary A. Smith, one of the play- 
mates of his childhood, and who was also born in 
Sudbury, Vt., Dec. 30, 1818. The wedding was 
celebrated at the home of the bride in Middleport, 
N. Y., and the young people shortly afterward set 
out for their new home in this county. Mrs. Hall 
was the daughter of Daniel and Sarah Smith, natives 
respectively of Sudbury, Vt., and Troy, N. Y. 
After marriage they removed to Ro.yalton, in the 
latter State, where the death of Daniel Smith took 
place in 1871. His wife, Sarah, died in 18^6, aged 
ninety-three years. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hull conuncuced life in tlie jjioueer 
fashion, laboring industrioush' to build up the home, 
and became the parents of six children. Their 
eldest, Mary E., was born Dec. 27, 1838, and died 
in infancy; Walter G., born Aug. 9, 1840, also died 
in early childhood; Helen J. was born Sept. IG, 
1841, and married A. li. Hurnham, of Louisville, 
Ky., who died .Tuly 24, 1887; his family are now 
residing in Denver, Cul. Ada A. was born Oct. 
27, 1845, became the wife of Neal McQuarie, of 
Deerfield, and died Dec. 12, 1879; Hervey G. was 
born Dec. 27, 18;")!, and i^ a resident of Louisville. 
Ky.; Florence A. u-;is boni Aug. 19, 1858, and is 
at home with her father. Mis. Mary A. Hall died 
on the 30th of August, 1881, in Denver, Col., to 
which place siie had journeyed a few weeks previ- 
ously in the hope of regaining her health. She was a 
lady of manj' estimable qualities and held in the 
highest i«teem by all who knew her, 

Mr. and Mrs. Hall became members of the Pres- 
byterian Church in Blissfield about 1858, and sub- 
sequently transferred their membership to Deerfield. 
In politics Mr. Hall is a Democrat. 



ENRY 11. lAHOR, a retired farmer and 
stock-raiser of Lenawee County, by years 
of patient labor, coupled with shrewd busi- 
ness management, has accumulated sufficient 
means to enable him to spend his declining years in 
the enjoyment of well-earned leisure. Mr. Tabor was 
born in Herkimer County, N. Y., March 29, 1815. 
His parents, Benjamin and Elizalieth (Humphrey') 
Tabor, were natives of New England, and after their 
marriage settled in Herkimer County, N. Y., on a 
farm, although Mr. Tabor was a cooper b\' trade. 
The_y resided in Herkimer for several years, then 
removed to a farm in Wayne County, the same 
State, and there made their home for some years. 
There also the mother's death took place. In 1844 
the father removed to Hillsdale County, Mich., 
and settled on a farm with his youngest son, Benja- 
min F. Tabor, Jr., with whom he remained until 
his death, Maj- 11,' 1857, aged eighty-two years, 
one month and twenty-five days. He was the 
father of eight children, five daughters and three 
suns, six of whom grew to maturity; they were 
named as follows: Paraelia, Sarah A., Gaj'lord G., 
Calistia, Henry H., Elizabeth, Hariiet and Benja- 
min, Jr. Our subject is the only surviving mem- 
ber of the family. 

The j'outli of Henry H. Tabor was passed in his 
native State in attendance at the common schools. 
He was early trained to those habits of industry 
and frugalit}^ which helped him to attain prosperity 
in later life. At the age of sixteen he went to 
Pittsford, and served an apprenticeship of three 
years to the tinner's trade. He then retuuied home 
and actively engaged in assisting his father on the 
farm for some years. 

On the 25th of April, 1839, Mr. TMl)or was mar- 
ried to Miss Lucy B. Upton, the daughter of David 
and Marj- (Marsh) Upton. She was born Oct. 28, 
1816, in Victor, Ontario Co., N. Y. She was care- 




fully trained in home duties, and received a good 
education, which enalded her to teach school. After 
marriage Mr. and Mr^.. Tabor settled mi a farm in 
Wayne County, where they lived three years, or 
until the spring of lst2. when they r;iine to Miehi- 
ganand settled in \\'a>hten:nv County. reuKiiniiig 
six months. They then removed to Hillsdale 
County and settled on a farm in Wlie.-itl.-md. wliei-o 
they lived until \sr,:,. In that yeai- Mr. Tabor 
bought 200 acres of choice land on sections iC, and 
27, in Adrian Township, Lenawee County, which 
they moved upon and made their home, and with 
indomitable energy and persevei'ance Mr. Tabor at 
once set to work to make this a moilel farm. Ue- 
sidos attending to the cultivation of the soil, he 
paid great attention to the rearing of choice blooded 
stock. In this venture he met with marked suc- 
cess, and secured a number of first-class premiums 
for his fine cattle at State fairs. In the year I.S87 
Mr. Tabor retired from active labor, and now- makes 
his home in the city of Adrian. After retirement 
he sold a part of his farm, and rents the remaining 
1 13 acres to his son. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Talior have been born the fol- 
lowing children : Norman B. ; Mary E., who died 
when eighteen months old; Adelbert, who married 
Ella Giinsolus, and is now deceased, leaving one 
daughter, Lena M.: Henry II., .Ir.. residing on tlie 
farm. For forty-nine years Mi', and Mrs. Tabor 
have shared life's joys and sorrows together. They 
enjoy the full confidence and esteem of their neigh- 
bors and friends. Mr. Tabor's life has not 
permitted him to mingle much in public :iffairs, yet 
he takes an interest in them, nnd in politics is a 

J^OHN A. HAWKS, in former years a wi 
known and highly respecte<I citizen 
I Adrian Township, rested fi-oin liis eartl 
^ ' labors on the ; of March, Lsc,.-,. He m 
born in Franklin County, .M:i-s.. in .Inly. |so;i. a 
came to the West in is;!:!. On the u'd of M:iy 
that year, lie was united in marriage with .Mi-s 1 
vina Smead, one of the playmates of his ehildhoi 
and born in tlie same county. May 21, isi:.'. M 

Hawks is the daughter of Rufus Smead, of Massa- 
' ehusetts, who emigrated from the Ray State to 
Michigan in i.S.34, and located willi his family ne^n- 
the present home of his danuhter. where be lived 
and labored many years, ami |)assed away at the 
a.Iv:inced age of eighty-four. The mothei- snr- 
\ iveil lier h\isband .several years, dying when nine- 
ty-four 3'ears of age. 

The subject of this sketch was the -on (if .\aron 
Hawks, who with his wife, came to this section of 
conntry in ls.!7, ami died in Adrian Township 
when sixty years of a^e. His wife was married a 
second time, and li\'ed t<i be seventy-two years 
old. Their son. .lohn A.. ha<l preceded them to 
1 Michigan in l.So3, and took up eighty acres of land 
in Adrian Township, where he i)nt up a log house 
1 and remained for a [leriod of twenty-three years, 
when he secured possession of the farm which his 
widow now occupi<'s. He was ;i man grc.-Uly re- 
spected by his neighbors, kind and hospitable, and 
one who had scarcely an enemy in the world. He 
performed his duties as a husband, father and mem- 

ner. and .'it hi> death was universally mouiiied. 

i The chUdren of Mr. and Mrs. llauks. liv,. in 

I nundter, are recorded as follows: Er;i-lns Sheldon. 

Electa F., Frederick A., Alvin A., and one who .lied 

in infancy. Er.astus S. was b,,i-n Minvh 'J. \s:]r,: he 

learned the cai-penter's trade in e.arly niaiil d, and 

i during the progress of the late war, enlisted in Au- 
I gust, 18()2, in Company F, 4th Michigan Cavalry. 
I under command of Capt. Robbins. In the battle at 
Lovejoy's Station he received a, -erions wound, 
which was the occasi.m of his diselKU-e in March, 
ISt;,"). Previous to this, liowever, he had been 
quite ill, and was confined in the hospitals at Nash- 
ville and Louisville eight months. Upon return- 

until his de.-illi, which oceurrc.i .hme 2:.', 1.SS7. 
He was first married to Hawley, of Rome 
Township, who bore him two children — John H. 
and Estella M. — and died in lS7ii. Sept. 30, IXfi:', 
he married his second wife, .Miss .lane ,1., daughter 
of .lohn Fleming, of New State, wb,, eame to 
this county in the pioneei' days, and is now, with 
his estimable wife, decea.sed, at tlie aL;c- of -eveuty- 
six and seventy-one years respect ivel\-. Electa F. 





Hawks was born April 30, 1 838, and died Nov. 1 , 
1863; Frederick A. was born March 27, 1841, and | 
died May 27, 1884; he also served in the Union 
army, being in the same company with his bri)ther, j 
.and mostly in the transportation service ; he escaped 
unharmed, and ilied at home surrounded by his 
friends and family. He had been married, and his 
wife had died eight years previous to the death of 
her husband. Alvin A. was born April ID, 1847, 
and for the last sixteen years has been :i resident of 
Wyoming Territory. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hawks early in life identified them- 
selves with the Congregational Church, of which 
the latter, with" her son's wife, still continues a 
member. During the lifetime of her husband, Mrs. 
H. proved a worthy helpmeetjandjcompanion, and 
since his decease, has endeavored to train her chil- 
dren to emulate his virtues as a man and a citizen. 
Both the ))rothers, Erastus and Frederick, were faith- 
ful and earnest members of the G. A. K. 

=t^ ^"^4! 19^^'" '^^"^■ 

JIIDGEMAN J. WELLS. This name is 
familiar to all the old and many of the 
residents of Franklin Township, 
being that of a man who came to this section 
of country during its earliest settlement, and who 
proved one of its most efficient and praiseworthy 
citizens. For a period of fifty-two years he has 
gone in and out among the people of this county, 
and presented before them an example worthy of 
imitation. As the result of a temperate life and 
correct habits, he is of remarkably strong and 
vigorous constitution, and always ready to put his 
shoulder to the wheel whenever assistance is needed 
in building up the various interests of the county, 
to which he gave his attention and his affections 
as being his abiding-place for <iver half a centur3^ 
The early home of Mr. \Vells was in the town- 
ship of Richmond, Ontaiio Co., N. Y., where his 
biith took place .June 16, 1829. His father, James 
B. Wells, was the sou of ('yrus Wells, who was 
born and reared in \'ermi>nt and w.-is of New En- 
gland ancestry. Ills p.-ucnls were among the 
earliest settlers of the Green .Mountain .Slate, where 

the father met his death at the hands of an Indian, 
who shot him. Cyrus Wells married a lady of Rut- 
land County, and followed his trade of carpenter in 
his native State until after the birth of several chil- 
dren, of whom James B. was the second. The 
family then removed to Ontario County, N. Y., 
locating in Richmond Township when but a'small 
"portion of the soil had been disturbed by the plow- 
share. Here Cyrus Wells continued to make his 
home until his death, which occurred after he had 
arrived at an advanced age. The mother subse- 
quently came to this State, and died at the home of 
her son James B., in Franklin Townshii), lieiiig also 
quite aged. 

James B. Wells was born in Rutland County, A't., 
Sept. 21, 1798, and when a young man removed 
with his father's family to Ontario County, N. Y. 
He was married, Jan. 24, 1822, in Richmond Town- 
ship, that county, to Miss Sallj- Harmon, Rev. 
Warren Day, of the Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church, officiating. Mrs. Wells was born in Rich- 
mond Township, on the 6th of July, 1799, and was 
there reared and educated. She remained with 
her parents until her marriage and the young peo- 
ple located in Richmond Township, where they re- 
mained until after the birth of eight children. 
These were named respectively: L. C, Emily G., 
Jlehitabel D., Loamis, Bridgeman J., Elizabeth L., 
Nathaniel H., and Clyrus, who died when an infant. 
After the arrival of the family in this county five 
more children were added to the household, namely : 
Cyrus W., Julia H., James B., Amelia B. and S.anuiel 
P. ; eight of the thirteen children are yet living, and 
residents mostly of this State. 

The father of our subject landed with his family 
in this county in the spring of 1835, and took up 
a tract mostly of wild land in Franklin Township. 
They all labored after the fashion of the peoj^le of 
those days, putting forth their most strenuous ef- 
forts in order to cultivate the soil and build uj) a 
comfortable homestead. James li. \Vells. Sr., was 
a man of excellent judgment :nid forethought, and 
was greatly prospered in his labors. As time passed 
on he invested his surplus capital in land until he 
became the owner of 600 acres lying in one body 
in Franklin and Tecumseh Townsliijjs. Here he 
continued until resting from his earthly labors, 

■► i 




Dec. 16,1864. The wife and mother, who had 
been in all respects the suitable coni]»nioii of lier 
husband, survived liim seven years, her death 
taking place at the liumestead Sept. s. IsTl. The 
parents were reared in the faith of the ohl-school 
Presbyterian Church, but some years before their 
deatii had identified themselves with the Congrega- 
tiunalists. Tiie stern and sturdy traits of their New 
England ancestry hail bei'U transmitted to them in 
ji, niariied degree, and tliey reared their children in 
a manner strongly similar to tlie stern precejits of 
the old Puritans. They adhered strictly to tem- 
perance princiiiles, and ever advocated that Liigli 
m(n'alit3' which is the basis of all true citizensiu'p, 
and without whicli the fabric of a community is 
Hal)le at any time to degenerate into something 
more unworthy. James B. AVells, ))olitically, was 
in early UU- a Whig, but upon the abandonment of 
the old party allied himself with the Republicans, principles he advocated and supported with 
all the strength of his (-onvictions. He took con- 
siderable interest in local politics and was a man 
whose opinion was generally resiiected. During 
the last thirty- years of his life he had suffered much 
from asthma. He officiated as Deacon in his church 
and was numbered among its most cheerful and lib- 
eral supporters. 

L. C. Wells, the eldest brother of our subject, 
married Miss Clara K. Allen, and is farnnng in 
Franklin Townshiii. Emily (i. bee-ime ihe wife of 
Joseph Estarbrook, and died (»et. l.;. is.' Vpsi- 
lanti, Mich.; Mr. E. is now i're-ident of Albion 
College and State Superintendent of Srbools. Ale- 
hitiibel is the wife of Robert C. .McCollum, a uell- 
to-do farmer of Franklin Township; Nathaniel H. 
married Miss Sarah Hemphill, and is coiuiected with 
the management of a college at JIauchester; Loomis 
married Kmily C. '.regg and died .l.-iu. 1 l', 
1800: his widow is a resi.lenl of Ypsilanti. Amelia 
B. is the wife of C. K. li^>lii\. who is farming in 
Richmond Township, Ontario Co., N. Y., and a 
man of considerable [>roi)erty, while J.anies B., .Jr., 
married Miss Addie M. Vandemark, and is a lesi- 
dent of Los Angeles. Cal., largel}' interested in real 
estate: Cyrus W. married Miss Mattie C. Howard, 
of Kewanee, 111., and is a successful dealer in real 
estate at Minneapolis, Minn. Besides Cyrus (.Ist)^ 

who died in infancy, Elizabeth died at the home of 

her parents, Aug. 5, 18.50, when an interesting 
young lady of nineteen ye.ars. Sauuiel 1'. mair-jed 
(Irace A. E. Marshall, in Lawrenee. Kan.. .Ian. 
II. 1872: he is also engaged in the real-eslale 
business in Los Angeles, Cal. 

Our subject spent his time alter the uiannei- of 
most sons of pioneer farmei-s. recei\ ing a limited 
educattion and making himself useful about the 
homestead until reaching his majority. He married, 
in Tecumseh Township, April 16, 18o(), Miss Eliza- 
beth M. Owen, a native of Clinton, this county, 
where she was born May -.'a, 1 s:!7. The wedding 
took place at the honu> of the briile in Clinton 
Township. Rev. J. S. Estarbrook officiating. She 
is the daughter of Henry and Mary A. (King) 
Owen, of Herkimer County, N. Y., and Hartford, 
Conn., respectively, who came to when 

Their first home was in a log cabin on an unbroken 
tiact of land, and they took up the battle of life 
with the same courage that a(-tuated the people 
aidund them, and .after the lapse of a few years 
found themselves in pos^^ssion of a comfortable 
home. The household circle was completed by the 
liirth of two children, of whom Mrs. Wells was the 
elder: lier brother, Henry C., is farming in Clinton 
Township. The parents eontinued upon the farm 
which the father had built ni. from the wilderness 
until his de.alh. ubieh t..ok [.la.'e Aug. 1, I. SSI), 
uiien he was >,-venty-six years (,f age. lie having 
been born .Maicli 17. I sill. Iju' mother, who was 

■I'hey. like the Wells family, were ( ongi'egational- 
ists at the time of their death, and the fatiier. f.,r- 
merly a Whig, subscqn.aitly idenlilied hiinselr with 

The wife of our suliject carefully icared, re- 
cei\c(| a good education, ami employed herself as a 
tc.aeher some time before her marriage. .Soon after- 
ward they located up<ju their present homestead, and 
in due time beeame the parents of a daughter, Ella 
K.. who is the only eliild. Mr. and .Mrs. W., like 
their respective parents, are prominently c(jnnccted 
with the Congregational Church, attending .services 
, at Clinton, where our subject has been a leader of 





the choir for a period of thirty-five years. Polit- 
ically, as may be supposed, he is a stanch Repub- 
lican. The farm of Mr. Wells includes eighty-flve 
acres of choice land with a neat and substantial 
residence and otlier jrood buildings. 

:i)EKlCK W. WICKWIUE. The men- 
tion of this name invariably recalls among 
tlie old settlers of Lenawee County many 
thrilling incidents of tiie days that are past and 
gone. The subject of this sketcli was then a young 
man, and had made a long journey with his newly 
wedded and courageous wife from Litchfield, Conn., 
to the wilds of Michigan Territory. Here he acted 
well his jjart in reclaiming from the " forest prime- 
val" those homesteads which havebecome the pride 
of their owners and the admiration of the passer-by. 
On the of December, 1S.S7, he sank under his 
burden (if fourscore years, an<l was laid t(i ids final 

On their journey to this State, Mr. and Mrs. 
Wickwire made the first 100 miles by team from 
their home to the city of Albany, and from there by 
canal to Buffalo, thence by the old boat " William 
Fenn" to Detroit, at which they arrived in the 
night. The wife was then worn out with illness and 
fatigue, and they tarried six days for her to recuper- 
ate, and upon again setting out she took a stiige to 
Tecumseh. Mr. W. purcliased a yoke of oxen in 
Toledo, b}' which means their personal effects, 
packed in two casks, were conveyed in a small wagon 
which they had shipped from their home in New 
York. They finally landed in Raisin Township, 
where Mr. Wiekwii-e purchased forty acres of wild 
land in the woods, and tliey tliere began the estab- 
lishment (.r the home which tliey occupied for a 
period of lirty->ix years. 

Mr. Wickwire, u|)on leaving Connecticut, had a 
capital of *;!0() and of this, after they had com- 
pleted tiieir jonrne}' and made tiieir investment in 
land, there was but very little left. Tiie wife of 
our subject, although comparatively 3oung in years, 
had already given evidence of beinii- a most remark- 

able woman. She possessed great force of character, 
a resolute will and a splendid constitution, and in all 
the undertakings of her hu.^band was iiis mainstay 
and wise counselor. She encouraged him in the midst 
of difficulties that would have dismayed tiie most 
stout-hearted, and held up his hands in his effort> at 
clearing the wilderness and preparing the soil for 
cultivation. When Mr. and Mrs. Wickwire came to 
this county, the settlers were few and far between, 
and each man was dependent upon his own resources. 
There was no dwelling ready for their reception, 
not even the rudest cabin of those times, and Jlr. 
W. was compelled to put up their first shelter in the 
best manner possible, with indifferent tools, and in 
the erection of which his wife proved, as usual, an 
able assistant. This, as may be supposed, was a 
very rude structure, being simply a hut with a mud 
and stick chimney. Mrs. Wickwire the first year 
did her cooking by the side of a stump and after- 
ward by a fireplace for more than fifteen years. 

Although there was great diflttculty in obtaining when they first came to this county, 
our subject and his wife were alwa3's supplied with 
rare wild meats in the shape of deer, turkeys and 
other choice game, which roamed unrestrained 
through the forest. Mr. W. was fairly prospered 
in his first efforts at tilling the soil, and in LS-'!.'! 
purchased eighty acres additional on section 34, 
adjoining his first possessions, and which was of the 
same quality of land, being an unbroken fore-t. In 
1838, having made still further headway, lie nilded 
to his posse.ssions imtil he became the owner of 1.54 
acres, 100 of which is under a good state of culti- 

The Wickwires advanced steadily, financially, un- 
til the breaking up of the " wild-cat" banks, which 
practically left them stranded and distressed like 
scores of their neighbors. The pioneers, however, 
were always ready for an emergency, and our sidi- 
ject, like his neighbors, did not allow this calamity to 
discourage him, but in due time was on the old f i lot- 
ing. The scenes and incidents which transpired 
during the first twent.y years of their residence in 
this county, as related by Mrs. W. in her quaint 
and interesting style, would make a ^ood-sized 
volume. This lady jjossesses a remarkal/ie niemoiy 
and is gifted by natiu'e with fine conversational 



colors tiie experiences ol' lierself nml lier I'ninily 
(luring those trying times. 

Frerlerick W. Wickwive w.-is born in Litelilield, 
Conn., March 7, 1«()7, .and is the son of firant 
Wickwire, who was horn in Colchester, that State. 
The latter settled in Litchfield County in ITSS, 
where he became possessor of a fine farm and was 
one of the prominent men of that section. He 
served as a soldier all through the Revolntionary 
VV^ir. engaging in most of the important battles of 
that great struggle, and for his services receiverl a 
pension from the Goverment. He married, in 1 78it, 
Miss Sarah Throoi). and became the father of thir- 
teen children, ten of whom lived to be men and 
women. He died in Connecticut in 1.S47, and his 
wife, the mother of our subject, had died twenty- 
six years before, in is-il. 

The subject of this sketch received a common- 
school education and remained a member of the 
parental household until reaching his majority. He 
then worked his father's farm on shares until the 
spring of 1832, soon afterward starting for the 
West. In the meantime, on the 4th of April, 1830, 
he was married to Miss Susan A., daughter of 
David C. and Rebecca (Reynolds) King, of Liteli- 
lield, Conn. Their eldest child, Charlotte M., was 
born in Litchfield, Jan. 2, 1831, and is now the 
wife of Edwin S. Mudgett, a lawyer of Vallejo, Cal. 
After coming to this county the little household 
was increased by the birth of four more children : 
Henry (x. was horn in Raisin Township, Sept. 2."(, 
1832, and i> now farming near Dnvali's Rluff, Ark.: 
Mary E. was born March 5, 1835, and is the wife 
of Homer E. Wilson, a prosperous farmer of Raisin 
Township; William K. was born June 14, 1838, 
and is farming in Hudson Township; Susan J. was 
born Feb. 11, 1847, and is the wife of Join) W. 
Niles, a merchant of Brooklyn, N. V. 

Mrs. Susan A. Wickwire. was born in Rethlehem, 
Litchfield Co., Conn., which was also the birthplace 
of her parents. David C. King, her father, was a 
soldier in the War of 1812, and died soon after its 
close; the mother survived .several years, her ileatli 
taking place in 1821. The King family was widely 
and favorably known throughout New England as 
one combining all the essential qualities of good 

.1 U. 

well e.bicnted,|iiiiled. and in 
cnnt.ihir ciliz.Mis. 4'he family is of 

y in the Colonial days. Mrs. Wick- 
■itcd largely the qualities ..f her fnm- 
inie is familiar in a, large proi)(iitiun ()f 
the li(iiiM>hoid< ni Len.-i\v,T ('..nnty. where she is 
kuMwii for hei' kindly <]vr<U during m and act- 
ive life. Although now (|uiti' well advanced in 
years, her days of usefulness are by no means over, 
and her counsels are still sought among her friends 
as those of a woman of rich experience, who h.-is 
made good use of her opportunities and learned 
well the lesson of life. 


AMES F.\RRAR, who the greater part of 
is life has been engaged in mercantile and 
manufacturing pursuits, is now the owner of 
valuable pi-operly. :nid is living in a plea>ant 
himieat Adrian. His chihlhood and youlh were 
spent among the New Hampshire hills, where his 
birth took place in Troy, Cheshire County, on the 
2'.)th of June, 1S2(). His father, Daniel F.arrar by 
name, also .'i, native of the Old (iranite State, 
and was born in November, 17.S3. He married in 
early manhood Miss Sena Mellen, of Fitzwilliam, 
N. H., and the daughter of Daniel Mellen, who was 
of English birth and parentage. After their 
riage they journeyed to the vicinity of Ti-oy, Ches- 
hire Ct).. N. II., and located upon a farm, upon 
which the^' brought about excellent improvements 
and which remained tiieir home the balance of their 
days. Here their children, seven in nuniljer, were 
born and reared, and ini'luded three son-^ and four 
daughters, of whom six lived to mature years. 

James Farrar was the sixth child of his parents 
and received his e.nrly education in the common 
schools, which he attended during the winter season 
until eighteen years of age. Then, like many other 
young people brought up in the country, he became 
anxious to make the experiment of life in the town ^ 
and accordingly engaged as a clerk in a dry-goods 
store in Boston. He found, however, that "there 

•► ■ ^» 





is no i)lace like lioiiie." niul a fow iiumths found him 
on tlic old stain piu^i" grounds. His next venture 
was neaici- lHini<-. ulici-e he entered a store at Fitz- 
williarn, liiit a yeai' l;iter he repaired once more to 
Massachusetts and became clerk for a. firm at Roy- 
alston. After two or three more changes he i)iir- 
chased the interest of a firm by which he had been 
employee!, and in company with a partner, AIi'. 
Damon, carried on general merchandising, and had 
a large trade, especially in woodenware. At the 
end of two years they sold ont, and coming to Mich- 
igan in 1.S.53, they located in Adrian, and opening 
up a stock of dry-goods, and a branch boot and 
shoe store conducted by a brother of Blr. DauKjii, 
operated together five more years. In l.S;'>."i Mr. 
Farrar erected a nice residence on the corner cjf M:nii 
and Merrit streets, which he occupied as a home 
for thirteen years. Mr. Damon continued the dry- 
goods business and Mr. Farrar, in 1860, |)urchased 
part of tlie hardware business of H. .T. Bni;k. in 
which trade he continued ten years. 

In 1868-69 Mr. Farrar and Mr. Damon erected a 
fine double residence on Maumee street, and in 
1870 Mr. Farrar sold out his interest with Mr. Buck 
and purchased what was known as the Loomis 
machine-shops on South Winter street, and in part- 
nership with John Dodge engaged in the manufact- 
ure of blacksmith and foundry supplies, giving 
employment scimetimes to fortj'-five men. The 
buildings include a general machine-shop and a 
pattern and molding room. This work was carried 
on for a period of ten years, vvhen Mr. Farrar pur- 
chased the interest of his partner, a part of which 
he transferred to Messrs. McKenzie and Knapp, and 
the three continued in business together several 
years, in the meantime adding to their operations 
the manufacture of brick tile, machine and clay 
crushers. In 1883 the works were destroyed by 
fire, and the firm then purchased a piece of ground 
and put u|) the buildings now occupied by McKin- 
sey, Knapii it Co. Mr. Farrar the year following, 
considering that he had been in the harness long 
enough, sold ont his interest to William Humphrey, 
and since that time has lived retired from active 
business. In ls,s4 he invested a portion of his 
surplus capital in what is known as the Armory 
Block, wliich occupies the old site of their factory. 

This building is 60.x7-') feet in area, constructed of 
brick, and three stories in height, besides a base- 
ment. It is employed by various business firms 
and yields to its owner a handsome income in 

.Mr. Farrai- was united in marriage with Miss 
Claia Brown on New Tear's Day, 1852. Mrs. 
Farrar is a native of Warwick, Mass., and the 
daughter of Russell and Clara Brown, who were 
also born in the Bay State. The father spent his 
last years in AVarwick, and the mother is now living 
with the subject of this sketch. Mr. and Mrs. 
Farrar after their n)arriage located in a modest 
home at Fitzwilliam, N. H., and always made it a 
point to live within their income. They became 
the parents of three daughters, of whom two died 
in infancy. Their only living child, Ida R., is the 
wife of T. M. McFarland, who is engaged in the 
milling business at Cambridge, Ohio. 

Mr. and Mrs. Farrar occupy a handsome and 
comfortable dwelling on Maumee street, and are 
held in the highest respect by the friends who have 
known them so long and well. 


F:TER B. SUTFIN is a native-born citizen 
) of Clinton Township, this county, his birth 
occurring here Sept. 18, 1845. Here the 
years of his boyhood were passed, and here, 
since he grew to manhood, he has followed the vo- 
cation of a farmer, and has by diligence, energj' 
and shrewd management, prosecuted it ti> a success- 
ful issue. His farm of 172 acres is in fine condi- 
tion, yielding abundant harvests, and is supplied 
with first-class buildings. 

The father of the subject of this sketch, William 
Sutfln, was born and reared in the State of New 
York, and there married Almira Bennett, also a 
native of that State. The3- came to Michigan 
about the year 1832, and located in an unsettled 
part of this county, whei'e there were no roads but 
the trails of Indians. Mr. Sutfin, with the aid of 
his good wife, accomplished the hard task of im- 
proving a farm in the wilderness. Thej^ were good, 
intelligent and energetic citizens, occupj'ing a warm 




place in the hearts of the early ])i(iiiiTi>. whom 
they were ever ready to help in tirjie uf trniiliK'. 
The lil.ither died in thi^. t<.nvn>hi|., ;ind tile father in 

Our snl)ji'et is the youngest luit twn of the nine 
children born to his parents, three of wliom are yet 
living. He was reared in the pioneer lionie of liis 
parents, receivin"- from them tiie tlioidiii;h trainini;' 
in the labors of the farm uhieli has since ma(K' 
him successful in life. In 1.S72 he i>>tahlislie(l .a 
home for himself, aftei- hi> marriage to .AIi>s .Mary 
Service on the ■>t^^] of June. His wife is, lil<e him- 
self, a native of Clinton 'I'ownship. where she was 
born Aug. 20, 1 s.^-i. She is the younuest ehild of 
David and Margaret (Gamble) Service, natives of 
(4roveland Township, J.,ivingston Co., N. Y., where 
they were reared and married. They afterward 
came to Michigan in ISoi, and loe.iteil on (Jovern- 
ment land on section 2, Clinton Township, which 
was then Tecumseh. Mr. Service improve.! a large 
farm embracing nearly a section of land, and made 
it his home until his death, June 20, 1867, at the 
age of fifty-nine. He was an energetic, thrifty 
man, and his efforts to build up a home in the for- 
est of Michigan met with success. His good wife, 
now seventy-flve years of age, is living wuth her 
daughter, Ann Gragg, on the old homestead in 
Clinton Township. Mrs. Sutfin was trained to hab- 
its of industrj' and economy by her good parents, 
and is a woman of much force of character and 
capability. She is a wise manager, and looks well 
t«^ the ways of her household, and to her valuable 
assistance Mr. Suttin is greatly indebted in his ef- 
forts to establish a pleasant and comfortable home; 
she owns ninety-two acres of land in her own right. 

Since their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Sutfin ha\e 
lived on the farm which they now occupy, and have 
become the parents of three children — Bertha M.. 
Ina M. and Iva M. Mr. Sutfin is a leading Demo- 
crat of this place, and takes a great interest in pub- 
lic and political affairs. 

JI^RANKLIX OSBORN, a representative 
|-^g\ the well-know^n family of that name in tl 
ill, county, for many years carried on farniii 
successfully in Franklin Township, and was nui 

lather. James ()>l.oni. 
w:i> ,,f New Kn-land 
emigrated to the Km 
ried to Miss Hetsey I 
place at the home of 
.Mis. ( )-.!„, rn was a na 

of Ovi.l.Senec.a Co., N. V., 
pl.ace Aug. H;. ISl'iI. His 

native of Cohr.ain, .Mass., 
parentage, and in his youth 
re State, where he mar- 
ngcore, the wed, ling taking 
K' bride in Seneca County, 
ve of New .ba-sev. as were 


s after 
? quite 
1 been 

came to .Michigan and locat 
ship, this county. 

Mr. and Mrs. Dsborn, the 
of our subject, only lived 
coming to this Slate, the 
place in Franklin Township. 
well advanced in years. ' 
reared to farming pursuits, and rejnained a ri'sideiil 
of his native State until after his marriage. This 
interesting change in his life occurred on the 1st of 
January, 1845, his bride being Alice 1).. daugh- 
ter of William and Isabelle (Clayton) (irove, who 
were born, reared and married in New .lersey. 
The_y remained in their native Stale until after the 
birth of their children, then became residents of 
Ovid, Seneca Co., N. Y. There the wife of our 
subject was born March 24, 1820. The parents 
remained residents of New York until their de- 
cease, the mother dying in 1S(;3, and the fnthei- ten 
years later. 

Franklin Osborn and his wife migrated to Michi- 
gan in the spring of 1845, taking up their residence 
in Franklin Township about the middle of April. 
Here he carried on farming, and liv('d until the 
winter of 1876, when in the month of December he 
set out on a journey to New York, and was one of 
the victims in the terrible railroad disaster near 
Ashtabula, Ohio, where a train of eleven cars went 
through a bridge, and a large number of people 
were either killed outright or met their death by 
burning. The body of Richard Osborn, a brother, 
was never recovered, and is supposed to have been 
entirely destroyed. F'ranklin Osborn was with him, 
and just escaped with his life, being terribly man- 
— •► 





rcoivins>- sucli .a sliock tn his -ystciii lli;it 
illy recovered, and died l^'cli. (J, issi. 
nil resides on tlic oM lionio. The I'am- 
■ of five childreii, of whom only one 
niaiiis at home. 

J^'OIIN \AN \LKET. The Win Meet family 
came originally from Ilolhmd and settled in i 
New Jersey, where in time there grew up a 
large number of representatives who were 
uniformly noted for their excellent qualities as citi- ' 
zens and Inisiness men. One generation after an- ; 
other came into existence and passed away, occupy- 
ing homesteads mostly in the State of New Jersey j 
until the early development of the great West at- | 
tracted the attention of the New Englanders, and 
sent many abroad to discover for themselves what 
lay beyond in the new country. Among these was j 
Peter Van Vleet, the father of our subject, who came I 
to Macon Township, this county, in the spring of 

Peter \'an Vleet. like the majority of the ad- 
venturous emigrants of those days, had started out 
with little means, trusting to his strong hands and i 
resolute disposition to carve his fortune from the j 
undeveloped soil, and for a pei'iod of eighteen j 
months whs obliged to content himself with the oc- | 
cupation of a farm laborer. At the end of this 
time he took up a tract of land on section 31, in I 
Ridgeway Township, and from that humble begin- 
ning in the wilderness of Lenawee County there 
sprang the foundations of the present valuable and I 
comfortable homestead now occupied by his son 
John, our subject. 

The parents of Peter Van Vleet, in the early 
years of their married life, left their native State of 
New Jersey, and settled in the wilds of Seneca i 
County, N. Y. Thei'e tiiey reared a large family of 
children, of whom Peter P. was the fifth child and i 
son, there being nine sous and three daughters, all 
of whom lived to become men an<l women. Peter j 
was reared to manhood in Seneca Count}^ and was 
there married to Miss Lois Swarthout, who was born I 

and reared 'not far from the home of her husband. 
Eight children were born to them before their im- 
migration to this part of the country. Thej- made 
the journey in a slow and tedious Tnnnner, via canal 
and lake to Detroit and from there overland by 
horse or ox teams. The father first took up 320 
acres of land in Macon Township, and thence re- 
moved to Ridgeway Township, in J 834. The loca- 
tion of his land in this township pleased him much 
better than that of the first, and he was content to 
remain, and give his best efforts to the building up 
of a homestead. He was permitted to realize his 
hopes and here spent his declining years in ease 
and comfort, passing away on the 31st of June, 1 879. 
The mother followed her husband a few days later, 
her death taking jjlace in July of the same year. 
They were members in good standing of the Meth- 
odist Elpiscopal Church, and Peter Van A'leet had 
been quite prominent in township affairs, serving as 
the first Road Commissioner and discharging credit- 
ably the duties of the various other local offices. 
He laid out the old Ridge road, and was promi- 
nently identified with most of the early institutions 
of the kind. 

The parental household of our subject included 
thirteen children, seven sons and six daughters, of 
whom John was next to the youngest. With the 
exception of one son, they are all living and num- 
bered among the most reputable citizens of Lena- 
wee County. John, in common with his brothers 
and sisters, was educated in the district school, and 
at an early age began to make himself useful about 
the homestead. Upon reaching manhood he fully 
understood the art of successfully managing a farm, 
and continued in single blessedness until Dec. 12, 
1867, when he was married, in Rome Township, to 
Miss Sarah L Luce, who was born iu that township, 
Feb. !), 1843. Her parents, Samuel H. and Eliza 
(Peebles) Luce, were natives of New York State, 
and married in Onondaga County. After the birth 
of one child they came, in 1837, to Michigan and 
located in the wilderness of Rome Township. 
Their efforts at building up a home were crowned 
with success, and after years of persevering indus- 
try they were enabled to pass their last days in ease 
and comfort. The mother departed this life hi 
September, 1862, and the father survived until the 






1st of Mux, 1886. He was a Universalist, relig- 
iously, aufl during his later life a staiieii memher of 
the Ropiiblicar. party. 

The wife of our siilijoot \va> n':irc(l In uohkiii- 
hood in Rome Townsliip. and made Mic most of her 
advantages in the distrid schnnls. dcvc'loiiiug \uUi 
an intelligent young L'hIv <>( .-(Mind, inactical com- 
mon sense, and one dotiui'd Un- miirii usefulness. 
She is the mother of on,- rhild unly. .-i son, .laivd, 
who, when not attfuding >cli(>ol in Tccumseh assists 
in the labors on the f.uin. Our subject, besides the 
property which he occupies, owns sixty acres of 
land in Ridgeway Township, and forty-five in Ma- 
con Township. The family residence is a shapely 
and convenient structure and the other buildings 
fulfill all the requirements of the modern agricultur- 
ist. Mr. Van V. has for some years officiated as 
School Director, and politically, is .-i solid Dem- 

The paternal grandfather of oui- >nbject, Peter 
Van Vleet, Jr., who was lioin and reared in New 
Jersey, during his early manhood served as a 
Revolutionary soldier, and aftei- the Colonists had 
established their independence, he left his native 
State for Seneca County, N. Y., where he spent the 
balance of his life engaged in farming pursuits. 
He had inarried Miss Mary Blue, who was also liorn 
in New Jersey, and who died in Seneca County, N. 
Y., at an advanced age. 

=i-<tf5tf^ — * 

Monroe County, N. Y., Aug. 21. ls;U, 
and came with his father to Michigan when 
a youth of seventeen years of age. Upon the out- 
break of the Rebellion he enlisted iu the Union 
army, and at the battle of Gettysburg, in a li.nid- 
to-hand encounter with a company of rebel iid.inlry. 
was overpowered by superior numbers, and re- 
ceived injuries which terminated fatally on the fol- 
lowing da3', July .'i. 186:!. 

The father of our subject, Solomon .leftords, was 
also a native of Monroe County, N. V., whence lie 
emigrated as before stated to the Territory of Mich- 
igan, and located with bis family in Washtenaw 
County. The son, Harrison H., after a brief time 

spent in the common branches of study, entered the 
Union School of his native town, and in the mean- 
time live.l at the li,,me>lead in .Monroe County. 
Aftei- the removal of the fmnily to llii- Stale he en- 
lered th.' law .lepnrtment ..f Michigan University 
at Ann, wliich was then nn.ler the Mipervis- 
ion of .Indg.' Cooley. He was gradu.-ited with 
honors in IWCI, .-okI on the 24th of Mardi f'olh.wing 
o|iened a law ollice at Dexter, Washten;iw County, 
and had just inaugurated a successful practice when 
the att.ack upon Ft. Sumter compelled a call to 
arms. Young Jeffords was one of the first to re- 
spond, enlisting upon the 4th of May in the 4th 
Michigan Infantry, and being a memlier of Com- 
pany K, which he assisted to organize. 

Before the company moved to the front, our 
subject was elected First Lieutenant, and was nuis- 
tered under command of Capt. John Randolph on 
the 2oth of June following. The regiment was or- 
dered to Washington, and the young Lieutenant 
assisted his Captain in leading the company in the 
engagements at Bull Run, Gainesville and Harrison's 
Landing. On account of his bravery in these 
charges he wa,- promoted Captain of Company D, 
in the s.ame regiment, and subsequently received 
the commission of Colonel. He was afterward pres- 
ent at Antiftam, Shepherdstown, Fredericksburg, 
Chancellorsville, and finally at Gettysburg, where 
he received his death wounds. In this encounter 
he had made a desperate effort to maintain the 
colors, while his comrades were falling around him. 
The remains of the flag in which he wrapped him- 
self when shot are i)reserved as a sacred relic of the 
past. His remains were brought home and laid to 
rest with military honors, amid the tears and sor- 
row of a large concourse of people — the friends who 
had known him long and intimately, and those who, 
at a distance, had watched his career, and had be- 
come acquainted with the manner in which he per- 
formed his duties as a soldier and patriot. 

Solomon Jeffords was united in marriage with Miss 
Phoebe Houghtaling, the wedding being solemnized 
at the home of the bride in Henrietta, N. Y. Mrs. 
J. was the daughter of Peter Houghtaling, and of 
her union with Mr. Jeffords' there were boi'u six chil- 
dren, the eldest being Col. Harrison H. ; Carrie C, 
Mrs. F. Werner, lives in Chicago; Helen M. is the 



wife of H. C. Cooper, of; J. Etta married 
Edwin M. Lawn, of Chicago, and Rose N. is tiie 
wife of J. V. Stecii, of Kiuffniim. Kan.; Ida M. 
died in infancy. 

Mrs. Jeffords died April 8, 1873, at her home in 
Leslie, Ligham Co., Midi., and was buried with the 
remains of her son in Dexter. Washtenaw Co.. Mich. 

a^ ARON NORCROSS is a veteran of Frank- 
( jSalII I lin Township, having settled there in 

Ipll 1855. lie now lives on section 27, where 
^ he owns a farm of 1 30 acres, mostly well 

improved, where he has lived many years. His 
grandfather was John Norci'oss, by birth a native 
of New Jersey, and by trade a hatter. He enlisted, 
and was an active participant in the Revolutionary 
War. At the battle of Bunker Hill he was shot 
through the shoulder and neck by the British, but 
he recovered and remained in the army through the 
struggle. In the early settlement of Pennsylvania 
he experienced all the perils and vicissitudes inci- 
dent to those times, and was frequently obliged to 
conceal his wife and children from the scalping 
knife of the Indian while he was away in search of 
the British and Indians. 

After the war John Norcross went to Geneseo, 
Livingston Co., N. Y., where he lived until his 
death at the age of seventy-seven years. He had 
married Mary Solomon, by whom he had one child, 
Aaron, the fathei' of our subject, who was born in 
Livingston County, among the first of its native 
population. Aaron tiiere grew to manhood, learn- 
ing the trade of his father. He married Mary 
Kelly, the daughter of a Revolutionary soldier, 
Daniel Kell}', who fought as a private through the 
war, and came out without a scar. During these 
troublous times his family were in constant peril 
from the depredations of the Indians. Mr. Kelly 
was a native of the North of Ireland, of the old 
Presbyterian stock, and died in Livingston County. 
N. Y., at the great age of ninet^'-seven years. He 
was for forty years Deacon in tlie Presbyterian 

The parents of our subject settled on a farm in 
the township of Grover, Livingston County, and 
in 1832, after the birtli of their family of six chil- 

dren, of wiiom our subject is the third, came to 
Michigan and located at Sulphur Springs in Monroe 
County. At the end of one year they came to 
Tecumseh Township, where they purchased a large 
tract (jf land, most of which was obtained from the 
Government. On this the father resided until his 
death, which occurred in January, 1840, at the age 
of sixty-six years. He liad lost his wife shortly 
after his removal to Monroe County. 

The subject of our notice was born April 23, 
1812. At twenty years of age he came to Michigan 
with his parents, where be was afterward married 
in Tecumseh to Miss Helen Allen, a native of Ver- 
mont, and a lineal descendant of Ethan Allen. She 
came to Michigan with her parents, Ethan and 
Cynthia (Blanden) Allen, who located on a farm 
in Tecumseh Township, where they died at about 
the same time. Mrs. Norcross vvas gifted by nature 
witii a retentive memory and remarkable intelli- 
gence. She was the mother of two children — 
Eugene and Frank. Eugene was educated in Te- 
cumseh and at Ann Arbor University, and now 
lives on a farm in Franklin Township; he married 
Miss Alice Lacy, of Wisconsin. Frank married Miss 
Leltie Bradley, and they also live in Franklin 
Township. In the midst of her usefulness Mrs. 
Norcnjss died at her home in Franklin Township, 
July 22, 1876, aged fifty years. She belonged to 
the Presbyterian Church. 

In politics Mr. Norcross is a .Tackson Democrat 
of a strong type. He comes of fine Puritanical blood, 
as did also his wife, and is proud of his ancestry 
and their war record during the Revolution. He 
is a man of great good humor, and his large fund 
of incidents in the early history of Lenawee 
County makes him very entertaining. Although 
seventy-five years of .age he is hale and vigorous, 
and bids fair to see a ripe old age. 

J~ ESSIi H. WARREN. Among the induential 
farmers of Dover Township the subject of 
this notice occupies an honorable position. 
His father, Samuel Warren, was a native of 
New Jersej'. and a descendant of that brave patriot. 
Gen. Joseph Warren, who nobly surrendered his 
life for his country at the battle of Bunker Hill in 






the very early part of the Revolution. Snmnel 
Warren marrierl Lucinda Dewey, a native of Massa- 
chusetts, of Scotch descent. After their marriage 
they settled in Farmington, Ontario Co., N. Y. Ke 
was engaged in agricultural pursuits there until 
1834, when he decided to emigrate to the Territory 
of Michigan. On May 23 of that year, he and liis 
farnil}' arrived in Dover Township and located on 
.section 24. Lilcing the country, he purchased 400 
acres of land on sections 24 and 2.5, and this they 
made their permanent home, Mr. Warren dying 
there in January, 1868, and Mrs. Warren May 11, 
1880. They had a family of seven children — Isa:u-. 
Matilda, Ira, Minerva, Jesse H., Allen and Austin 
A. Isaac died in Dover Township, Feb. 1 1, 1883; 
Matilda was dro^vned in Demings Lake in the latter 
township, April 23, 1835; Ira died in Dover Town- 
ship many years ago; Minerva resides in Medina 
Township; Allen in St. Louis, Mich., and Austin 
A. in Madison Township. 

The subject of this slcetch was born in Farming- 
ton, N. Y., May .5, 1822, and was twelve years old 
when he came to Dover Township with his parents. 
He remained at home, and prepared himself for the 
position of a teacher, the duties of which position 
he assumed when eighteen years of age. This pro- 
fession he successfully followed the ensuing eight 
years. On the 6th of May, 1848, his marriage with 
Miss Lucinda Hutchinson was celebrated in Madison 
Township. Mr. and Mrs. Warren connnenced their 
wedded life in Dover Township, where they settled 
on section 24 in the home which they now occupy. 
The years intervening between 1867 and 1886 were, 
however, spent in Adrian, Micl)., where Mr. Warrou 
owns considerable property. His fine farm in 
Dover Township embraces 122 acres of well-tilled 
land. Mrs. Warren was born in New Yorl< State. 
July 26, 1,826. Her parents were Chester .nnd 
Rachel (Childs) Hutchinson, botli natives of tlie 
same State, who lived in Genesee County until 1831, 
when they came to Michigan and settled in Madison 
Township, where Mr. Hutchinson died in 1844. 
Mrs. Hutchinson died in Dover Township in 1862. 

Mr. and Mrs. Warren have <jne child only, 
Kvelyn G., who married Robert Carpenter, of Dover 
Township, and is now the mother of two children — 
Grace and Merta. Mr Warren is actively identified 


wit!) the interests of his township, and in the general 
affairs of the county. He is a thorough business 
man, honest and upright in all his transactions, and 
of excellent judgment. These qualities have made 
him a desirable candidate for town and county of- 
fices, many of which he has filled with credit and 
honor. During 1863 and 1864 Mr. Warren was 
Supervisor and Justice of the Peace of Dover Town- 
ship. He was Drain Commissioner for four or five 
years, when he resigned. He has also held the 
various school offices in the township. While in 
Adrian he was Supervisor of the Fourth Ward for 
six years. He was also a member of the committee 
of three appointed by the Board of Supervisors of 
Lenawee County to examine the valuations of all 
the land in the county. This was an important 
office, and he performed his part to the satisfaction 
of the citizens of the county. Oct. 2, 1879, when 
the grand stand fell at Adrian, Mr. Warren was one 
of the victims of the disaster, his right leg being 
broken, which crippled him for life. In politics Mr. 
Warren uniformly casts his vote with the Repub- 
lican party. 

(p!iA YLV ESTER KEMP was one of the suc- 
^^^ cessful agriculturists and stock-raisers of 
(il^\a) this county, located on section 33, Franklin 
Township, where he owned at the time of 
his death, May 17, 1857, 105 acres of land under 
a high state of cultivation. Mr. Ivemp was a na- 
tive of New York State, where his birth took place 
Jan. 25, 1826. He was the eldest son of Ellas J. 
Kemp, and came with him, at the age of nine years, 
to Michigan, where the father located on section 
33, Franklin Township, in 1835. Here our subject 
grew to manhood, and was first married to Elizabeth 
Morfelt, who died a few years after marriage. 

Mr. Kemp was a second time married, in Ridge- 
way Township, this county, Dec. 14, 1867, to Mrs. 
Julia (Morsmau) DeLapp, who was born on the 
27th of April, 1831, and daughter of Herman and 
M.ary A. (Zibble) Morsmau, who afterward came 
with their family to Michigan. Mrs. Kemp was 
first married to Richard DeLapp, who also came to 
Michigan at the same time, locating in Tecumseh, 




at which place Mr. Moi-siiian engaged ;il liis trade 
of wagon-making. Mr. Morsman afterward re- 
moved to Hidgeway wlierc lie established a shop, 
and later went to .Tnnesville, Hillsdale Co., Mich., 
at which place he now lives ;it the advanced age of 
eighty-two years; his wife is ;iliout the same age. 
Mrs. Kemp is the second daughter of her parents' 
farailj'. She and her first hnsliand, Mr. DeLapp, 
after their arrival here, lived in Blissfield for some 
time, and here Mr. l)eLap|) died, leaving one son, 
Irving T., a telegraph ojierator now living at 
Auburn, Ind. 

After their marriage Mr. .-nid .Mis. I\(in|i located 
on their farm on section '■)'■'< of Franklin Township, 
where hi> donth occurred as before stated. He w;i> 
a \v<.irrhy and [irogressive citizen, and an upright 
man: in ))Olitics he was a Republican. Since their 
bereavement Mrs. K. and her sons have managed the 
farm, which is well located, and supplied with first- 
class buildings. She has liy her last marriage three 
children — Charles, Delia and Minnie. Charles took 
to wife Josephine M. Bntrick, of Franklin Town- 
ship, and they live there on a farm ; Delia, Mrs. 
Charles Pentecost, lives near Napoleon, Jackson 
County, while Minnie is at home; they are worthy 
and intelligent children. Charles Kemp, like his 
father before him, is a Jxepulilican in politics. 



^^ ONRAD ICKLER is ;t native born citizen 
{l[ of Riga Town.ship, and an intelligent repre- 

^^' sentative of the yoiuig men of Lenawee 
County who are coming to the front to take their 
share in maintaining the agricultural interests of 
the county. He possesses in a large measure those 
admirable traits of character which distinguished 
his ancestoi's, and has the promise of a bright 

J. Conrad Ickler, father of our subject, was born 
in Hesse-Cassel, Germany. He attended school 
quite regularly during his youth, and after com- 
pleting his education learned the tailor's trade, 
which he followed for some years in his native land. 
In 1851 he came with his bride to make their home 
in this country, and located in Vermillion, Ohio, 

where he was employed at the iron furnaces for the 
following two years. He then decided to turn his 
attention to farming, and coming to this county, he 
bought a tract of timbered land on section 1.5, Riga 
Township. lie then s<.| roolulcly to work to clear 
and dr;iiii liis Innd, which was in the Cottonwood 
Swamp district, and by his energy and perseverance 
he not only cleared his f.arm, but earned enough 
from it to buj' more adjoining, and at the time 
of his death, Sept. s. issi. IkkI a fine farm of 
eighty acres, sixtj^-fivc of wliit-ii were well improved. 
The maiden name of the mother of our subject was 
Barbara Smith; she was born in Hesse-Cassel, and 
died in the home in this county which she had aided 
her husband to build up. Six sons wer<' born to 
her, five of whom are still living— A.lam, John, 
David, Henry and Conrad. 

Conrad Ickler was the third child of his [larents, 
and was Lorn Nov. 20, I8(;(i, in the humble 
log caliin in which they first made their home 
when they came to Riga Township, in the days when 
that part of Riga was a swampy wilderness. In 
that home he learned from his good parents many 
a lesson of thrift, honesty and industrj^, which has 
since guided him to success. He attended the dis- 
trict school and acquired quite a good education as 
he was a bright scholar. At an early age he was 
deprived of the care and counsel of his mother, and 
he remained with his father until the death of the 
latter, assisting him in the clearing of his land and 
the cultivation of the soil. He then found employ- 
ment in other places for three years, and at the ex- 
piration of that time bought the farm where he has 
since resided, and here by strict attention to busi- 
ness, shrewd management, and a good knowledge 
of the laws governing agriculture, he is fast acquir- 
ing success in his chosen calling. 

Mr. Ickler married, April 2.S, 188.5, Miss Ella 
Dings, like himself a native of Riga Township, 
where her birth occurred July 5, 18.5fi. Her grand- 
father, Peter Dings, was, it is thought, a native of 
the State of New York, where he passed the most of 
his life, with the exception of a few years spent in 
Lenawee County. The father of Mrs. Ickler, John 
Dings, grew to manhood and married in New York, 
his native State. He came to this township about 
the vear 1850, and located on section ^S. on a tract 



COUNTY. 2fi7 

of timber land, which by persistent toil he con- 

get it in working order as soon as possible, and Mr. 

verted into a fine farm, which remained liis home 

Griswold volunteering to prepare the stone, the 

until Ills death. April 17. 1.SS4. The maiden name 

owner very gladly a,vailc<l himself ,,f his skill. He 

,,f Mr>. k-lder-s motlier w;(s Elizabeth Roekafeller; 

soon had evcrythiniiin readim-.--. and from the lirst 

she was born in Columbia. K. Y., and was the 

grist ground hue wheat cakes were made to cele- 

daughter of Teal Roekafeller, a native of the same 

brate the Fourth of July in the year 182(!. 

State; he spent the last years of his life with his 

Thomas Griswold immediately after he was fairly 

daughter in Township. 

settled coinnn'ne<-d the improvement of his farm. 

Mr. and .Mrs. Ickler enjc.y tlu- confniener an. I 

.and built the liist fi'.amc house tiiat was ever erected 

esteem of those around them. .Mr. Ickler is a wl'II- 

in this county, into which he .and his family re- man, and is thoroniihly roii\iT-:int with all 

moved in Novembei-. |s2.'i. the autumn following 

topics of general interest. 

their .arrival. He soon became ,a prominent figure 

in the caily .annals of this (amnty. doing much 

. ::=>> ^?|-*-p- «^^- 

toward opening it up for settlement, while he gave 

nuich valuable assistance to new settlers as they 

^^E0R(;E (iUlsWOLI) is a fariniM- .,f Tecum- 

came in. and gave them sm-li information in regard 

1/ sell Township, and a representative of one 

to the land and resouic a- of the (a)nntry as would 

^^^ of the earliest pioneer faniilii'> of Lenawee 

be benelicial to them in their selection of a, Innne. 

County. He is not only the son of a pioneer, but 

In ISL'ti he was appointed ( ouimivsi,,ner of Lena- 

is alsf) the grandson of a pioneer of another and 

we." County, by the Teriilorial Governor. (4en. 

older .State, liis grandfather, David Griswold, being 

Ca,-s. and in the discli,ai-c of the duties of that 

among the early settlers of .Sonthport, Chemung 

ollita'. di.l veiy ellicient, s.a\i(a> for' th,. (iovern- 

Co., N. Y.. where he went in 177S from his native 

meut. In his ,le.ath. which ocairrcd Oct. 1.",, 1 .S.-.i;. 

vState, Connecticut, lie was a >oldiei- in the Revo- 

the county .a public luaicfaetor. .and his uei.uh- 

lutionary War. 

bors a. kind frieml. who was ever ready to help 

Thomas Gri>wol<l, the lather of our subject, was 

horn Feb. 22, 17'.K), on his father's liomestead in 

of the h.aidy, sclf-ieliant |none(a- women of the 

.Sonthport. Like his father, he di-l -ood service 

early days of thi- cuntry. eneruetically t.iok nj) 

for his country .-i.- a soldier, takiuo part in the War 

the bnideii ,.f supporting their children, which her 

of 1812. He married Betsy, daughter of .John 

husband's lamented death had left wholly under her 

Wier, Esq., and born in Southi)ort in 17118. After 

care, and noldy tlid she discharge her duties as a 

their marriage they settled in their native town. 

mother, keeping them with her until they had grown 

where Mr. (Jriswold followed the occiipati.ais of 

u|). .an<l no loniiir ncedcal hca' .'aiv and protection. 

farmer and miller for .some years. In .Inly. 1 .SJ.",, 

She was the mother of four sons and lliree daugh- 

concluding to seek a new hon)e in the forests of 

ters, .all of whom iirew to m.atuiity. though only 

Michigan, they came to Lenawee County and pro- 

t,,nr of them survive! her; her death o.a-urred in 

cured a tract .of IGO acres of lan«l in Tecuniscli 

Decemhci-. 1.S71. 

Township, on .section 21. They were anion- the 

(leoi-ee (oiswold wasthcthinl child of hi.^ 

very earliest settlcrsin this part of I.en.awee ( ounly . 

caits. .and wa~ born on his grandfather's homesiead. 

-as only two families ha. I |.r(aa-de.| iheni. .Mr. 
Grisw..!.!'- lan.l was hcavil.N t inibei-e.i. wit h n.i im- except .a lu.jc mill whi.-li ha. I been 
built by a .Mr. Brown an.l a Mr. Evans. The mill, 
however, was not in running or.ler. as the niilka- 
who )iad been .sent for t.. .a.mplcte the .arran-v- 
ments for grinding wheat an.l corn. iMianne si.k 
and could not come. It uas ipiite imp.irtant l.i 

.anir-eh. which h.a.l tin 
.Vfl.a- the .l.-ath ,,f his 
in .-arrying ,m t^hc fa 

u- fathei- was born, in 

.N. v.. Oct. .-ll, lt<22. 

a.i:e when I ir,. light by 

.11.1 when hv be.-anu' old 






aflfording her great assistance, until his marriage, 
which f)c'currec] in his twenty-seventh year, to Miss ' 
Helen M., daughter of Thomas FitzSimmons, Esq. 
After liis marriage Mr. Oriswold settled near the 
old homestead, and began farming for himself, and 
after the division of his parents' estate, he settled 
on tiie property that had fallen to his share. From 
time to time ho has added t(i the acreage of his I 
farm, until lie now owns ninety-eight acres of 
choice Laud in a high state of cultivation, on which ! 
he has erected a good dwelling-house, two good 
barns and other convenient farm buildings. Mr. 
Griswold has conducted mixed husbandry, deem- | 
ing it more profitable and reliable than to depend ' 
entirely on one branch of agriculture; he has some ! 
well-gi'aded stock. 

Mr. and Mrs. Griswold became the parents of , 
three daughters, namely: Hattie Estelle, who died j 
at the age of four years; Isabel, the wife of Will- 
iam Waldron, a farmer, and Alice E., who is at 
home. All the family are members of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, in the affairs of which Mr. 
Griswold is very prominent, having held the offices 
of Trustee and Steward for raan^' years. i 

In politics, our subject is rather conservative, 
voting independently in matters of local interest. I 
In his upright character and in his honorable deal- 
ings with his fellowmen, lie shows himself a worthy 
descendant of his honored parents. I'or several 
years the state of Mr. Griswold's health did not per- I 
mit him 'to transact much business, or to take a very | 
active part in affairs in general ; he was constantly 
under the care of a physician, but his health is now ! 
greatly improved. 1 

resident of Palmyra Township, was born in ; 
Florida Township, Montgomerj- Co., N. 
Y.. on the 15th of September, 1807, and is 1 
now in her eighty-first year, but still hale and 
hearty. She inherited a strong eonstitutiun, has 
always been of a lively disposition, not given to Imr- 
rowing trouble, and is now better preserved, both 
mentally and physically, than many people twenty 
years younger. Her father, John Wemple, was born 

in Florida Township, when that part of the State of 
No w York was known as Tyrone County. His father, 
Ephraim Wemple, had a patent to a tract of 900 acres 
of land in Florida Township, and engaged in farming 
there until his death. The father of Mrs. Davis was 
also a farmer, and spent his entire life in his native 
township. His wife's maiden name was Jane An- 
thony, and she was born on Manhattan Island. Her 
fatiier, the grandfather of Mrs. Davis, was an earl^' 
settler of Manhattan Island, and once owned a large 
tract of land upon which a portion of the city of 
New York is now built. 

The subject of this sketch was mariied to Ramus 
Davison the 27th of December. 1837. He was 
born in that part of Fulton County now known as 
Montgomery County, N. Y., on the of January, 
1807. His father, John P. Davis, was born on 
Long Island, and his father was a commissioned 
oflicer in the Revolutionary War, and while in a 
British prison was poisoned. John P. Davis was a 
farmer, and removed to Montgomery County in the 
days of its early settlement, where he cleared a farm, 
on which he lived until his death. Ramus Davis 
grew to manhood in the latter-named county, and 
was reared upon the farm. His father gave him 
tiiirty acres of land in Amsterdam Township, and 
he added thirty more acres to it by purchase. In 
18.S8, accompanied by his wife, he went to Indiana, 
going b}^ way of the Erie Canal through Utica, the 
raiU'oad to Buffalo, the Lakes to Detroit, and then 
by railroad to Y))silanti, where he employed men 
with teams to take them to Calhoun County, Mich., 
where Mrs. Davis stopped with friends, and Mr. 
Davis, with his team, proceeded to Indiana and 
bought a farm near Mishawaka. He then hired a 
team and returned to Michigan for his wife, whom 
he brought to the farm in Indiana. Here his health 
failed two years later, and he returned to New York 
and settled on the land which his father had given 
him, where he resided until 1850, when he moved to 
Onondaga County, and bought land in Eldridge 
Township. He lived there until 1 863, when he sold 
out and catne to Lenawee County, and bought the 
place on which Mrs. Davis now resides. There 
were but a few acres of this laud cleared, the bal- 
ance being timber and stump land. He devoted all 
his energies to the clearing of his land, and sue- 




y (J. 1-22(1 New Wnk Iii- 
hv close uf the \v:ir; he 
;in<l settled ;i,t Adrian, 

ceeded in making of it a most excellent farm, where 
he resided until his deatli, which occurred on the 
21st of July, 1«77. 

Mrs. Davis became the uiuthei-nf four children — 
Susie J., Ramus B., John VV. and Theophihis A. 
Susie J., the only daughter, died in 1871, at tlie age 
of thirty-three years; Ramus B.. the oldest son. en- 
listed ill isci' in Com 
fantry. and served iiii 
then came to Mieliij^, 
where he engaged in the Ituuber business for a few 
years, and then moved to Riga Townshii), where he 
engage<l in the .same luisiness; he now operates a 
flour and grist mill at Dundee, Monroe County. 
John W. entered the army in 18G4 as a member of 
the Michigan Volunteers, and served until the close 
of the war, since which time he has been a resident 
of Adrian: 'riicophilus A. now niaii:ig\> the home- 
.stead; he was bom in Moiilgomery County. X. Y., 
Feb. 7. I84i), and was married to Clara T. 
8, 1874; she was born in Palmyra Town.- 
the daughter of Ira Tooker; they 
—Minnie A., Ramus T., Ella M.aii.l Thcpliiius. 

Mrs. Davis is a very clear-minded old lady, and 
of remarkable memory. During her lifetime the 
most remarkable events in the history of this conn- 
try have occurred, and she retains in memory the 
details of most of theiu, and readily recalls the stir- 
ring events connected u ith the early settlement of 
Michigan and Indiana. She is blessed with ex- 
cellent health, aud is not the victim of those atllic- 
tious which generally befall those who reach her 
age. She is univci-.sally cstceiiu'd .and i-cspeeled. 
and is living liappily and <'ontrntedly. 

r, Fel 

•four ell 


DWARD F. I'iNDKRWOOl). Kveiywheiv 
Lenawee County are evidences of thrift. 

wisdom and euter|)rise, and on >ectioii 1 .s. 

Palmyra Townshi|), is comfortably loc.-iteil the 
farm where the subject of tliis sketcli is prcjseeuting 
his chosen calling with succes>. He li.-is been a 
resident of the township since his birth, and lives 
on a part of tlie old homestead, which is a farm of 
finely cultivated land, with a tasteful and 
tial dwelling, a good barn, and all the accessories of 


the intelligent and progressive farmer. Here he 
spends his time as an industrious and law-abiding 
citizen, enjoying the respect of his neighbors, and 
fuUilling the obligations incident to his station as a 
substantial member of the community. 

Our subject was born in Palmyra Township on 
the 2d of November. 1851, and is the son of 
Thomas Underwood, who was born in Waj'ne 
County, N. Y. His grandfather was Edward Un- 
derwood, who was a native of Dutchess County, N. 
Y., and moved from there to Wayne County, where 
he bought a farm, and made his home there until 
I8;i(i. In that year he sold out. ami accompanied 
by his f.aniily of wife and four children, st.arted for 
the State of Michigan, coming by way of the Erie 
Canal and the Lakes to Toledo. At the latter 
place they started with teams and came overland to 
Lenawee County, where they settled in Palmyra 
Township, and bought land on section 19. A large 
proportion of this land was heavily timbered, but 
iMr. Undei'wood went to work at once clearing away 
the timber, and in the course of a few years had most 
of it under eulliv.alion. During his occupancy of 
the farm he built a brick <lwelling-house. The 
father of our subject was but a boy when he came 
to this county with his parents. Here he grew to 
manhood and married Mary Comstock. who vvas a 
native of New York. He bought a farm on section 
18, which lie occupied for many years, but now re- 
sides on a part of the ohi homestead. 

The subject of this sketch has lived nearly all his 
life in Palmyra Township, where he grew to man- 
hood and in whose schools he secure<l his first educa- 
tion. He took .a, short course in Ailrian College, 
and at the age of eighteen began teaching school, 
following that occupation during the winter months 
and woiking upon the farm the remainder of the Afterward he engaged in Evans' Com- 
mercial College in .Adrian. Subsequently he rented 
his uncle's farm in Raisin Townshij), which he man- 
aged for one year, and then located on the old 
homestead, of which he bought a portion after his 
grandfather's death. 

In 187;") Mr. Underwood was married to Miss 
Alice Wade, who was born in Litchfield, HilLsdale 
Co.. Mich. This union has been blessed with three 
children— Annie C, Hattie ami Metta. Mr. and 




Mrs. Underwoofl are both highly esteemed members 
of society. In politics Mr. Underwood acts with 
the Republican party, and has held the office (jf 
.Justice of the Peace in the township in which he ! 
resides. He is not what might be called an active 
politician, but he endeavors on all occasi(_)ns to dis- 
charge the duties which devolve upon good citizens. 


-^ ,in Englishman by birth, and a descendant 
\V of an old Lincolnshire family. His great- 1 
Vi© <irandfather, .loseph Thompson, was a land- 
liolder in Lincolnshire, England. The grandfather 
of our suliject. .lol) Thompson, was bf)rn in Liu- ' 
colnshire. inlierited his father's estates, and spent } 
his entire life in tiie i)lace of his nativity. t 

Th(^ father of our subject, Joseph Thompson, was I 
l>orn and reared in that ancestral home, and mar- 
ried in hi- nnti\e shire, Betsy AtI?iuson. He was I 
an itinerant preacher in the Primitive Methodist 
Church, and was consideied quite a power in that 
denomination. He preached in Lincolnshire, Yoriv- 
shire, Leicestershire, Shropshire and in Walesi 
During his sojourn in Lincolnshire as a preacher, 
his wife died and left a family of six children. In 
1838 he came to America tuiaceompanied by any 
of his children, and preached in several places in 
New York State, finalh' identifying himself with i 
the Baptists and becoming a minister in that de- 
nomination ; lie spent the last years of iiis life in 
Pleasant Valley, N. Y. 

The Rev. Josepli Thomp>on was hoin iu Halifax, 
Yorkshire, Kngland. Mareli IC, 18l".». He attended 
scho«)l (juite regulaijy durinij his youth, and ac- I 
quired a very good education. In 18,53 he came j 
to America, and is the only one of his father's j 
children who ever came to this country. He lo- | 
cated in Herkimer County, N. Y., and there pi'ac- 
ticed the profession of a veterinary surgeon for a 
few years. Tlien he traveled in the South .-uid 
West for a jieriod of twelve years, practicing his 
profession in the most important places. He sub- 
sequently located in (leauga County, Oiiio, for a 
time, afterward removing thence to Lucas County. 
In 1873 he left Oliio and came to this State, where j 


he bought a farm on section 3 of the fractional 
jjarl of this townshijj. Since tiien he has made 
four or five ch,anges, settling on his present farm in 
188'j. He has forty acres of land, twenty acres of 
which are under good tillage, and has substantial 

While Mr. Tlioinpson lias paid the necessary at- 
tention to his worldly interests, he has also been 
enunged for many years, in the various connnuni- 
tie> of which he lias been a member, in earnest 
work for the spiritual and moral welfare of the peo- 
ple. He coiiunenced to preach when quite young, 
and was ordained as a preacher in the Church of 
God while a resident of Lucas County, Ohio. He 
has been quite successful in his chosen work, and is 
an influence for good in the coinmunity. 

IMr. Thompson has l)eeu twiee married, the first 
time to Helen Ironside, who was born near Aber- 
deen, Scotland, and was the daughter of Alexander 
Ironside, who passed his entire life in that country. 
His daughter came to America when she was twen- 
ty-tvi^o years old, and her death took place April 
11, 1883. She was ~a faithful wife, and a true 
mother to the three children born to our subject 
and recorded as follows: Caroline is the wife of 
Peter (Gillette, of Riga Townsliip: .Joseph is living 
iu Cl.nid County, Kan., and Ellen is the wife of 
AUiert Sanderson, of Lucas County. Ohio. 

JNlr. Thompson's second marriage occiu-red Jan. 
7, 188(), at which time he was united to Miss Nora 
Jones, ^he was lioni iu Anderson Township, Ham- 
ilton Co., Ohio, and is the daughter of John Jones, 
who was born in Rowan Count}', N. C. His father, 
Robert Jones, was a native of Maryland, who when 
a young man went to North Carolina and married 
there. After residing in that State a few years, 
he removed with his family to Ohio, and was among 
the early settlers of Clermont County, where he 
afterward died. The father of Mrs. Thompsini was 
reared in Rowan County, his native place, and 
there married Eleanor M. Austin, also a native of 
that county, and a daughter of Samtiel and Lydia 
(Railsback) Austin. In 1828 Mr. and Mrs. Jones 
moved with the family of the former to Ohio, 
where they lived a few 3'ears iu Clermont County, 
and then removed to Hamilton County. Mr. 
Jones was a blacksmith by trade, and bought a 







COUNTY. 27.1 , 

married .'i lady of his own .State, Miss Catherine 


home in Anderson Townshi]), nnd inirsiied his cull- 

ing there until his death in ls,')'J. Mis widiiw lived 

Ci;iiu. who was of Scotch ilescent, and they resided 

in Anderson until 1870, when she removed to Ken- 

near Morristown, N. .1.. until .-ifler the birth of six 

ton County, Ky.. mid resided there until her death. 

children, when they removed to Schuyler County, 

Sept. (I. IS.S2. Mrs. Thompson lived with her 

N. Y. The father took np a tract of l:ind iu Head- 

niKther until thr death of the latter. 

ing Township during its early settlemenl. ;iiid 

.Mr. Thumpsdn is, as every good citizen should 

opened up a Hik' faun of 1 .iO acres, which in <lue 

be, much interested .in the affairs of the nation. 

lime became very valuable. 

and believing that the principles promulgated by 

.lohii Eddy was a tliorou-h and -killfid a;:ricult- 

the Republican p:irly are for the best interests of 

urist, and availed himself of th.' pro^resMv,- meth- 

the country, he loyally suppoits that party. Mrs. 

ods by wliieli only -iieeess could lie olit.iilied. He 

Thoni|is<_in is -.i \alue(l nienilier of the Methodist 

Episcopal Church. 

lo-ilo citizens. He took' .-i li\ el v iiiteii-t in the wel- 


eiKMJurage the \arioiis eiiler])rises lending to the 

/^) ^^^'^^'^^^'^ EDDY, a wealthy au<l prominent 
[l[ I-. farmer of Franklin Township, is the uwnei- 

devi-lopmeiit of .-1 new <-oiiiitry. He retained pos- 

sesion of his lirst until his decease, which 

^^ of 200 acres of finely improved laii<l. which 

oceiiired uluai he was fifty-eight years of age. 

he has acquired by the exercise of his nwn iudn.-tiy 

After their iemo\.-il to New York, live more chil- 

and perseverance. He commenced in life for him- 

dren were added to the houseln.l.l eiivle. wliieh now 

self comparatively without means, and became a 

hiclnded seven .m.iis and four dan-htei.-. All of 

resident of this county in 1845, soon afterward 

them with one exception are now living. :ind the 

making his first purchase of eighty acres of land on 

l)rother deceased had attained the advanced age of 

section 12. to which he afterward added as his 

seventy-eight years; the ehlest surviving is eighty- 

means permitted. The family residence is a sub- 

four years of age, and the youngest is sixty. 'I'lie 

stantial stone building, and considered one of the 

wife and mother survived hei- husband a, nunibcrof 

best of its kind in tiiis jiart of the State. It con- 

ye.Mis. and died at the homestead iu Schuyler 

sists of two stories and a basement, finely .Miranged. 

County when eighty years of age. She w;is a good 

combining both lieauty and couveuience. The 

mother in every sense that the word inplies. and a 

barns and out-lniildings arc neat :iiid substantial. 

devoted member e>f the I'resl.y Church. 

and the farm stock ami machinery aic iu kee|)ing 

.lohu Eddy, politically, was an ol, 1-line Whig, and 

with the genenil air of thrift and prd.sperity which 

maintained his principles with .-ill the eainestness of 

is apparent upon all sides. ]S'<_) man perhaps in 

hi- deeide<l and energetic nature. 

Lenawee County is lietter entitled to reiireseuta- 

Our subject remained under the p:irenl.-d roof 

tion in a work nf this kind than the subject of this 

until about twenty-cnie y<ars of .■!"(■. ;ind then 


served :in api)ivnticeshii. at the carpeiilei's trade in 

Mr. Eddy has made a science of farming and 

his native county. I'pon leaving New York he 

stock-raising, dealing largely in Duriiani cattle and 

migrated to Erie County, Ohio, and for nine years 

JMeriuu sheep, and has obtained .-in enviable repu- 

following lii,~ trade in .Milan i'owii>hip. 

tation IU this .secti 1 eouutry on accoinit ..f his 

Meantime he was married, .Iniie :i. |s.">i;. (o Miss 

skill and knowledge iu thir- department of agricull- 

Mary A. Spears, the daughter of a well-to-do far- 

lire. He migrated from far_New England to estab- 

mer who had einigrat.'d from Tenfield. N. Y.. to 

lish his iiermanent homi-. having been born in Mor- 

Ohio in the pi.meer days. Mr. .and Mrs. Spears 

ristown, N. .1., April C, 1811. His father, .lohn 

were most excellent people and enjoyed the conli- 

Eddy, E.sq., also a native of .New .lersey, was of 

deiice and esteem of all who knew them. Th<y 


, New England parentage and English descent. He 

were of New England birth and paientage, .ind were . 









residents of Erie County probably tliirty years, 
where they labored to build up a good home, and 
spent their last days in peace and comfort, <lepart- 
ing this life at an advanced age. 

The wife of our subject was born in Monroe 
County, N. Y., Feb. 3, 1817, and spent her child- 
hood and youth under the home roof, receiving a 
common-school education, and being trained in 
those employments which have so much to do with 
the happiness of a home. Of her union with our 
subject there were born ten children, of whom two 
are deceased. Charles died at the age of twenty- 
two, at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., while on his way 
home from the army ; at the outbreak of the war 
he enlisted in the 18th Michigan Infantry, and at 
Athens, Ga., was captured by the rebels, who held 
him some time in confluemcnt. The other child 
died March 6, 1857, at the age of eight years. 
Five of the eight living children are married and 
settled in comfortable homes of their own, and four 
of the sons — Henry H., George W., Horace G. and 
James C. — are in business at Vinton, Iowa, con- 
ducting a large dry -goods house ; John J. is farm- 
ing near Akron, Col.; Edwin A. is a successful 
farmer in Manchester Township, Washtenaw Coun- 
ty ; the two daughters, Libbie S. and Catherine, 
continue at home with their father. Mrs. Eddy de- 
parted this life at her home in Franklin Township, 
in March, 1885, when sixty-eight years of age. 
She was a lady held in high esteem by the people 
of her neighborhood, energetic, intelligent and of 
kindly disposition, and a devoted member of the 
Congregational Church. Mr. Eddy, religiously, is 
a Universalist. Politically, he affiliates with the 
Republican party, and has served his township as 
Road Commissioner and Treasurer for some years, 
and also as Justice of the Peace. 


<| Jf.ILLIAM E. WLSNEK first opened his eyes | 

\m/ ''" ^^^' '^^'''^ '^" "''^ ^*'^'''" '" ^''■='"'^''" '-Town- I 
W^ ship where he still makes his home. He | 
received a good education, and being naturally j 
bright and ambitious niailc the nmA. of his oppor- 
tunities. He engaged in tcacliinu before reaching 
his majorit}', spending his time tlius during the 

winter and in the summer emplo3'ing himself on 
the farm. We can scarcely conceive of a more 
pleasant life or one from which more thorough en- 
joyment can be extracted. The emancipation from 
the close housing of the winter season to tiie broad 
fields of the country in spring, must be one of the 
most grateful changes that can be imagined. Amid 
these quiet scenes our subject has spent the greater 
part of his life, and with the pure country air im- 
bibed those princii)les which have constituted him 
a man araoug men, well-bred, and filling his niche 
in life in an unostentatious, but tlioroughly worth}' 
and useful manner. 

Our subject was born Jan. 14, l.s;3L), and is the 
son of Abraham Wisner, a native of Phe]i)s, Ontario 
Co., N. Y. The latter was born in 179S), of an- 
cestry who came originally from Holland, and was 
the son of Rev. Jehiel Wisner, also a native of the 
Empire .State, who was reared to farming pursuits, 
but in early years distinguished himself as of a 
deeply pious temperament, find when but a 3'outh 
began preaching the Baptist faith, whose doctrines 
he upheld in this manner for a period of forty years. 
Subsequently he left New York State and joined 
his son Abraham, in this county, at whose home his 
death took place in the fall of 1 839. He had mar- 
ried in early manhood Miss Luanna Chandler, a 
near relative of the well-known Zach Chandler (^f 
tins State. Grandmother Wisner accompanied her 
husband to Michigan, and died at the home of their 
son in Franklin Toivnship. 

Abraham Wisner was reared on the farm and while 
a resident of Niagara County, N. Y., was married to 
Miss Sarah Wisner, a distant relative. They con- 
tinued in the Empire State until after the birth of 
six children, and in the spring of 1833 set out for 
the Territory of Michigan, via the Canada route, 
making the journey overland with teams, camping 
and cooking by the wayside, and landing in the 
woods of Franklin Township several weeks later. 
The land in that locality was still owned mostly by 
the Government, and Abraham Wisner purchased 
from '"Uncle Sam" 240 acres on section 11, Frank- 
lin Township. Standing upon his new purchase 
Abiuhani Wisner could scarcely discern at either 
point of ihc compass the cabin of a settler. The 
Indians bad scarcely left this locality and wild aui- 





mals loamed in unrestrained freedom tbrougli the 
forests and over tlie iinbrolien country. Tliere lay 
a great task before the |)ioneer and his family, but 
one for which they were amply i)reparod. As somi 
as ho could put up a sbcltei' foi- themselves and 
their household goixls hr rdninicnccd cultivating 
the soil around him, and after years of steady in- 
dustry began to reap his reward. In due time theic 
appeared substantial fences to mark the outline of 
his possessions, and one building after another grew 
up on the homestead, so thai liefore his death llie 
father of our subject had ani|)le time to survey liis 
possessions and relax the fatiguing labors to which 
he had first been necessarily- devoted. The " ifc 
and mother, who had shared with her husband his 
trials and successes, passed to her long home in the 
spring of 1866, .and Mr. Wisiu-i' followed in the tall 
of 1867. 

The parents of oui- subject possessed all the 
qualities of the early pioneers wht> made of their 
venture a complete success. Abraham Wisner in- 
terested himself in the development of his adopted 
county and contributed as lar as able toward its 
progress and prosperity. lie was instrumental in 
the organization of the BaiJtist Church at Clinton, 
in which he officiated as Deacon many years, and in 
which his devoted wife stood bj' his side also as a 
worthy and consistent member. The parental 
iiousehold included twelve children, of whom Will- 
iam E. was the ninth in oidei- of birlli. Wisner. during hi> boyhood and youth 
assisted in building uj) the homestead and made the 
most of his advantages, first in tiiesubscrijition and 
later in the district scliools. When twenty-one 
years ^)f age he began teaching in W.-iyne Couiitv. 
where he made his re()utation as an instructor, and 
subsequently taught in Franklin County until about 
1882. He vvas married, dan. 1, 18C2, to Miss 
Emeline, daughter of \Villiam and Emily (.loslin) 
Whelan, natives of New York Slate, who came to 
the Territory of Michigan in is.i;;. The father 
entered a tract of Giiverninent land on section l.^i, 
Franklin Township, where the parents iiave con- 
tinued to reside for the long period of fifty-four 
years. They also labored industriously lo improve 
their farm and establish a comfortable home, and 
enjoyed the confidence and esteem of a large circle 

of friends and acquaintances, both among the old 
and young. Father Whelan and father Wisner 
lioth belonged originally to the old Whig jjarty, and 
upon its abandonment cordially endorsed Repub- 
lican principles, takinga warm interest in National 
and State affairs. 

.Mrs. Wisner was born in Franklin Township, 
March i;i. lsiL'.nu<l like her husband obtained her 
education in the common scho(.)ls. She was trained 
by ber excellent mother in all those donicslie .blties 
wliieh have siicli .-m iiilbiencc n[u,n tli.' bappiMes.- of 
a liouselioM. and reniaineil with her parents until 
lier rnani.-ige. ( )f ber union witli our subject there 
li;ive lieen boiii nine eliililrcn, one (.)f whom, Maude, 
diecl at tlie .-ige of ten months. Those surviving 
are Krnest. .a prosperous farmer of Logan Count}', 
Neil.; Owcii, who makes his home and works with 
his brother in Nebr.aska; Grace, a teacher and living 
with her parents; Jlinnie, also a teacher; .Stella, 
Dewey. Emily .and Scott. 

Mr. and Mrs. Wisner after their marriage began 
life together at tin; Wisner homestead, where tiieir 
children were born, and where they pinpose to re- 
main. Our subject keeps up the reputation of the 
estate in the ni<ist praiseworthy manner, and from 
year to year adds the embellishments in fav<ir with 
the modern agriculturist. He has held the various 
township offices, and bke his father befoie him, is a 
solid Republican. His amiable and e.-ccellent wife 

J;(.)SEFII II. 15LAIN, Alderman of tlie .Second 
I Waid, Adrian, and book-keeper ffirthe Lake 
j Shore & IMichigan Sotithern Railroad Ct>m- 
/ pany, is a gentleman of good business ability, 
worthily filling a responsible position ami numbered 
among the reliable citizens who go to make up tlu^ 
bone and sinew of a community. His earl^' home 
was in the city of Liverpool, England, where his 
l)irth took place on the 26th of February, l«2-l. 
He emigrated to Americii when a mere lioy with his 
parents, Joseph and Agnes (Mclntyre) I'.l.ain, who 
settled in Montreal, Canada, in 1832. The father 





died there of cholera the same year; the mother 
survived her husband until 1872, spending her last 
years in the city of Toronto. 

Mr. Blain received his eduttatiou in the city of 
Montreal, and when of suitable age entered a dry- 
goods store there as clerk, being in the employ of one 
firm several years. He then began railroading, and 
in the course of time was given the position of Pay- 
master on tin- \'ermoiit Central Railroad, which he 
held three years. During the ten years following- 
he was employed mostly upon the Great Western 
Railway, running fiom the suspension bridge at 
Niagara Falls to Windsor, Canada. 

In the fall of 1862, Mr. Blain made his way to 
Michigan as the employe of the Lake Shore &. 
Michigan St)uthern Railrfiad, and with the excep- 
tion of two years in which he was engaged in rail- 
road construction, has held continuously his present 
position. While a resident of .St. Catherines he 
was married, in 1857, to Miss Catherine VauEvery, 
who was a resident of Lincoln County, near Niagara 
Falls. Their first modest'Jiome was at Toronto, 
where two of their children were born. Of the six 
children who completed the household circle, four 
are still living: Joseph M. is operating in the 
vicinity of Puget Sound as the employe of the 
Northern Pacific Railroad; Abraham L. is Track- 
master on the Ft. Wayne Division of the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern; Agnes M. and Katie 
L. are at home with their parents. 

Mr. Blain politically is Democratic. lie was 
elected Alderman of tiie Second Ward in the spring 
of 1886, and is nearing the close of his first term. 
He is a gentleman of excellent judgment and fre- 
quently presides at the meetings of the City Coun- 
cil in the absence of the Mayor, having been elected 
President 7;?-o tew of the council. 


reliable citizens of Riga Town> 

of Mr. Wcsi 
account of h 
a man of nui 

plc'iscd to give a brief 
t's VVesterman, who was 
wide expei'ience. The 

grandfather of our subject, also James Westerman, 
was a native of England, where he married, and 
reared a family. He finally left the land of his na- 
tivity and came with his family to America, where 
he spent the closing years of his life in Butler 
County, Pa. 

James Westerman, father of our subject, was 
boi'n in Manchester, England, where he grew to 
manhood and became a skillful coppersmith. When 
he was twenty-one years of age he came to America 
and first lived in Baltimore, pursuing his trade of a 
coppersmith. He there met Elizabeth Wil.son, a 
native of ALaryland, who afterward became his 
wife. Ficim Baltimore he went to Lowell, Mass., 
and there plied his calling until his removal to 
Pennsylvania. After a few years' residence in 
Pittsburgh and Allegheny City he removed in 
1840 to Butler County, in the same State, where he 
bought a farm and became actively engaged in ag- 
ricultural pursuits. In 1852 he left Pennsylvania 
and came to Michigan, where he bought a farm of 
224 acres in Riga Township, this county, forty acres 
of which were cleared, and included a frame 
house and a log barn. Two years after he bought 
the place the dwelling-house was burned with all 
its contents. Mr. Westerman then built a com- 
fortal)le log house, in w^hich he and his family lived 
till after the war. He then sold his farm in Riga 
Township, where he had been much prospered, and 
removing to Adrian he lived in retirement. 

Not long after the completion of the Central Pa- 
cific Railway James Westerman took a trip to Cali- 
fornia, and soon after his return from that journey 
he sold his property in Adrian, and moved to 
Blissfield; he sub.sequently spent a wiuter'in Florida. 
During the many years of his long life spent in the 
United States he visted many parts of it, and be- 
came well acquainted with the many and varied 
resources of this magnificent country. After his 
rctui-n from Florida Mr. Westerman had the mis- 
fortune to lose his sight, and during the last years 
of hi-^ life he made his home with his children, dy- 
iiiu :il tiir home of a daughter in Detroit, in 1882. 
He had long been a member of the I. O. O. F., and 
at the time Of his death was the oldest representa- 
tive of that order in Michigan. His wife did not 
long survive him, as she died the following year at 





the home of ii <hiuuhter in 'I'liltMld. Ohi 
were the parents of ten cliildreii. six of wl 
to n]atiirit3'. 

Jessiah AVesterman, of whom we write. 
in Allegheny Cit3-, Pa., Aiii:. s, is:;7. 1) 
teen 3'ears old when his parmts removed 
gan, and he can remeuiher well wlier, 
other wild animals roamed tlirougii tii 
of Lenawee County at will. He attendee 
neer schools of Riga Township, .•ind win 
wa.s not in session, he Ii:hI lir |>eil'orm 
of work on the farm. \\'hile he w;is 
assisting in tlie labors of tlie farm the w 
out, and on the 1st of .Scptembei-.'.l, he was 
enrolled as a member of Comi).Tny F, 14th Ohio 
Infantry, which regiment soon went to tlie front 
and did good service as a part of the Army of tlie 
Cumljcrland. Mr. Westerman took part in the 
battles of Wild (at Mountain and Chickamanga, and 
in December, 18G3, he was assigned to iluty as 
Gen. Palmer'.s bodygnaril, and elliciently served 
in that capacity until the latter was superseded l)y 
Gen. Jefferson C. Davis, whom lie served in the 
same capacitj^ He was in Sherman's campaign 
from Chattanooga, under Gen. Talmei', .-ind with 
Gen. Davis at Jonesboro. He w.-is d<'tained in 
service at Atlanta three months after his terra of 
enlistment expired, and then received nn honoralile 
discharge and returned home. 

The spring following his i-eturn from the seat of 
war Mr. Westerman was married to Miss Bet tie 
M. Grover, the date of their marriage being April 
23, 180.5 She was born in Richfield Township, 
Lucas Co., Ohio, and is the daughter of Leonard 
Grover, who was a native of Vermont. After he 
grew to manhood he went to New York to live 
and there married. He afterward removed to Lo- 
rain County, Ohio, and thence, in 1837, to Lucas 
County, and became one of the early settlers of 
Richfield Town.ship, where he bought timber land, 
and built a log house for the residence of his fam- 
ily, and in that house Jlrs. Westerman was born. 
He had a well-improved farm at the time of his 
death. May L5, 1861. His widow married again, 
ind now resides in Riga Township. 

After his marriage our subject bought the north- 
east forty acres of land on section 33 of Riga 

.. They 


Ihti. neie then ten atus cleared, and 

10m grow 

h( Indt 1 
\ 1 

-n dl fnuK h us( ml In d there seven 
11 _ t 1 1\ f hi 1 ilie meantime. 

was born 

H II 1 

11 II t 1 1 11 1 m \ 1 io the ]ilace 

e was tif- 

\n n \ 

M n 1 11 1 llii -inn is niiieh 

to Miehi- 

lll.ll llM 

h s III ( 1 t 1 iiu 1 II ines of land. 

leer :nid 

uhu 1 

\lii i 1 \ II mill \ 1 with eomforta- 

e n.n-sts 

11 n, 

li 111 1 lm^-~ On mother page of 

the pio- 

lln^ \ il 

1 1 Ml 1 \i( \ 1 All Westerman's 

■U S.'h.H,! 

> 1 n 

111 It 11 II 1 1 ^ Mr. Westerman 

his sll:uv 

1 \ I 

1 111 1 1 1 ti II iiKi md has been 

at home 

l)less, 1 1 

111 1 Ml \li 111 1 me ranch to 

ar In'oke 

fuitlui 11 

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11 il- home has 


\ll cit I wik of Gtoigc L Ltll 
4lhe Dili Maud and Ma\ 

lilt sunt patuotisin which caused Mr. Wester- 
m in to enlist in his countiy s defense twenty-six 
^eiisa_,o nnkts hiiii 1 _,ood citi/( n to-day. In 
pi 111 us ht IS r st iiK h IIP It I t the Democratic 
pnt\ ( f thisStitt lit s t 1 eiiil 1 of the llrint 
and MtBiide 1' >st No >>i d A R 

WIIII4M I ANDRI-WS wh )se early home 
WIS on the othd side of the Atlantic, 
^ ^ was bom in I eiccsteishiie England, June 
12 1S27 uid Clint to Amtiiti in 1850, when 
1 \oinu man twenty thiee \tii^ of age. Soon 
aftem ud he si ii^ht 1 home imong the pioneers of 
Ri(Utwi\ lowiishii and has sun e been one of its 
most honoied in<l vilutd dtizens Like many of 
his biethun win n 1 inding upon American soil, he 
possessed litth iiit ms md was obliged to commence 
j at the toot of the li 1 lii m his effoits to build up a 
I home and setnie i tompetente The voyage 
across the water had been long and tedious, occu- 
pving seven weeks, during which time Mr. An- 
drews nearly expired from sea sickness; but he had 
a remarkably strong constitution and survived this 
and his later troubles, eventually finding himself on 
the road to prosperity. 

The father of Mr. Andrews died in Eiiglnnd in 

early life, and the mother when quite aged; their 

household included six children. William .1., hav- 

' ing parted from his mother early in life, did not 






vi'nlize tho impoitnnce nnfl pleasure it would be to 
him in later years to obtain and i)resorve their fam- 
ily record, and consequently can only trace his his- 
tory from his childhood days. These were spent 
after the manner of children whose parents pos- 
sessed but modest means, and he was in early life 
required to make himself useful in assisting his par- 
ents to provide for their family. He thus acquired 
the habit of self-sacrifice and persistence, which has 
served him so well in his later years. 

Mr. Andrews after coming to this county em- 
ployed himself at whatever he could find to do and 
lived in the most frugal manner. In this way he 
managed to save something from his earnings, and 
the prospect of a home in the future lent a stimulus 
to his exertions. He had formed the acquaintance 
of a most attractive young woman in Ridgeway 
Township, namely. Miss Elizabeth Pilbeam, who 
was also of linglish birth and parentage, and they 
were united in marriage Oct. 24, 1855. Mrs. An- 
drews was the daughter of excellent parents, who 
upon their arrival in this country came to Michi- 
gan and located in Ridgeway Township dniing its 
early settlement; they are now dead. 

Mrs. Andrews only lived four years after her 
marriage, and proved herself a most worthy wife 
and helpmeet, who assisted her husband during his 
early struggles and was always the same cheerful 
companion and kindly counselor, endearing her- 
self to him in a thousand ways. The tie between 
them was strengthened by the birth of two children, 
one of whom, Amanda M., died when an interest- 
ing maiden of sixteen years; the other daughter, 
Mary A., is the wife of Andrew Jackson, a pros- 
perous farn)er of Wilmington, Will Co.. 111., and the 
mother of three children — Willinm S.. Charles ami 
a babe unnamed. 

The present wife of our subject, to whom he was 
married March 19, 1860, was formerly Miss Eliza- 
beth, daughter of John and Elizabeth (Horton) Bur- 
nett, natives of Yorkshire, England, where they were 
reared and married. There also Mrs. Elizabeth 
Andrews was born, in September, 1822. Her par- 
ents came to the United States about 1 850, and Mrs. 
A. joined them here five years later, after a brief 
stay in Canada with her brother. Both the Horton 
and the Burnett families were people of prominence 

in their native county .and well-to-do financially. 
Most of them were agi'iculturists and the pro- 
prietors of extensive tracts of land in Yorkshire. 
Upon coming to this county the parents of Mrs. A. 
located in Macon Township where their decease 
took place some .years ago. 

By this later marriage Mr. Andrews became the 
father of two children — Orin P., who died when 
three months old, and William J., an intelligent and 
industrious young man who a.ssists in the manage- 
ment of his father's farm and possesses the same 
energy and industry which have made our subject so 
successful in life. Soon after his marriage Mr. 
Andrews located upon his present farm, which com- 
prises sixty-eight acres under a fine state of cultiva- 
tion, and lies on section 5. In addition to this he 
owns 174 acres in another part of the township and 
considerable village property. He has been, in all 
respects, the architect of his own fortune, and does 
not regret the experience which called out the 
strongest points in his character. 

Our subject and his estimable wife are members 
in good standing of the First INIethodist Episcopal 
Church of Ridgeway Township. Upon becoming 
a naturalized citizen Mr. Andrews cast his first 
Presidential vote for Pierce, but is usually inde- 
pendent in politics, preferring to support the can- 
didate whom he considers most worthy to serve the 
interests of the people. 

(« l>)ILLIAM C. MORAN, Treasurer of Lena- 
\/fJ// "'ee County and a gentleman now in the 
V^^ prime of life, was born near Hudson, this 
county, on the 23d of November, 1848. He has 
since been a resident of this section, and the people 
among whom he has lived so long and before whom 
acquitted himself so creditably, have learned to 
respect him for his excellent traits of character, 
which condiine uprightness and integrity with good 
business capacities. He was elected to his present 
office in 1886, and is discharging its duties in an 
efficient and praiseworthy mannei'. 

Michael Moran, the father of our subject, was a 
native of Ireland, where he was born in 1813. 
Staplestown Parish, county of Kildare, was the 




lenawp:e county. 


piaccMif his nativity, and from there he iiuinioTated 
to this country when a young man nineteen years 
of age. He first located in Xevv York wliere lie re- 
mained until 1835, when he cast his lot with the 
pioneers of Michigan, locating upon tlie tract of 
land where he continued to live until called lienee 
His death occurred on the l»th of May. 18.S1. wlicn 
sixty-eight years of age. 

The father of our subject was a man who had 
traveled extensively, and had been Iveenly observ- 
ant of what he had seen during his wanderings- 
He visited California in 1850, remaining upon the 
Pacific Coast two years, and upon his return traveled 
over many of the new States and Territories of the 
West. As a father, husband and citizen, he was 
held in the highest regard, and found to be uni- 
formly upright and straightforward in his business 
affairs. He was a great suft'ei'cr during his last 
brief illness, having typhoid-[)neunionia. liut bore 
his attiiclion with great patience and retained 
full consciousness until quietly breathing his last. 
His death was the occasion of universal regret in 
the community which had known him so long and 
learned to resjiect him for his personal worth. 

The mother of our subject, formerly Miss Lucy 
Andrews, was married to Michael Moran, in Toledo, 
Ohio, in 1844. fShe aceomi)anied her iinsband to 
this county, sharing witii liini tlie trials and dillicnl- 
ties of life in a pioneer seltlemeut. Tliey became 
the parents of six children, of whom William C, our 
subject, was the eldest son; JMattbew C. is a resi- 
dent of Warsaw, Ind.; Julia E., the eldest daughter 
and child, married B. F. Richardson; Mary F. and 
Addison B., all reside in War.saw, Ind. The mother 
of our subject is now a resident of Hudson, and has 
reached the age of sixty years. 

The subject of this biography received his edu- 
cation in the common schools of his native town- 
ship, which was supplemented upon his approaching 
manhood, by attendance at Oak Grove Seminary. 
He then returned to the farm and continued act- 
ively engaged in agricultural pursuits. In the 
meantime his warm interest in public affairs and a 
more than ordinary intelligence, had attracted the 
attention of his fellow-citizens and commended him 
to them as one worthy of preferment. He was ac- 
cordingly elected County Treasurer, and assumed 

.f January, 1887 
I interests he i 

if h 

the duties of his office on the 
As the conservator of impoitanl 
looked upon with <'ontidcncc and 
pi'oving himself worthy of these 

Mr. Moran, March lf<, l.s74, wji 

riage with Miss Uachcl McCarty. 

hood associates, and who was l)orninliis own town, 

Fell. -JO, 1850. She was reared to wonian- 

hood there and remained with her parents, H. N. 

and Regina (Unangst) McCarty, until becoming 

the wife of our subject. Mr. and Mrs. McCarty 

were natives of Fennsylvania. Our sulijcct and his 

j wife became the parents of six chilch'cn. four sons 

j and two daughters, namely: Gertie C, Bertha E., 

I Charles Frederick, Jcr<ime N., William iM. and 

j Benjamin R. 

; During his residence on the farm Mr. Moran 

[ served live years as Commissioner of Drainage. 

j Politically he has alw.ays voted the straight Repub- 

[ lican ticket. Socially, he belongs to the Masonic 

I fraternity, being a member of Clayton Lodge No. 

278. He is genial in his niaiiiier and popular as a 

citizen and occu[iies a snug home in Adrian, which 

is the resort of the cultivated ijcople of his ac- 


Prominent among the well-kntiwn and highly 
resi)ccted citizens of Lenawee County, who enjoys 
the confidence of its best citizens, stands Mr. Moran, 

and as such we gladly jiresent his portrait in this 

\Y/OIIN H. \AN PELT, a pr(jsi)erous farmer 
|| living in Riga Township, was born in High- 
li land Count}', Ohio, July 20, 18.37, and is of 
(^J/y German-English origin. His great-grand- 
parents on the Van Pelt side of the house were 
natives of Germany, and were there reared and mar- 
ried. After they had been married for several 
years, they came, sometime away back in the eight- 
eenth century, with their children to this countiy, 
and made their new home in the wilds of the Slate 
of Pennsylvania. There their sou, the grandfather 
of our subject, who was born in Germany, married, 
and made his home in that State the rest of his life. 
The father of our subject grew to manhood and 



lp:nawep: county. 

WMS iniHTied in his native State to Elizabeth Taylor, 
a native of Penns.ylvania, of Eiiglisli descent. In 
tiie year 182Hthey left the Statr n( their nativity, 
and removed to Highland Goiinty, Ohio. Air. \";in 
Felt was a shoemaker l)y trade, and followed, his 
calling here, in the village of New Petersburg, 
where he bought land and built a home. In the 
year 1850 he sold his property in New Petersburg, 
and accompanied by his family, pushed on further 
West, having resolved to engage in agriculture in 
the State of Iowa. There were then no railways be- 
yond Chicago, and they made the entire journey 
with teams, w;dking a part of the time, and cam)i- 
ingby the way at night for needed rest, and to [ire-- 
pare food; they located in Mt. Pleasant. They 
seemed to have chosen a particularly unfortunate 
year for their new venture, as the summer of 1851 
was a very wet season, and there were frequent 
freshets in the rivers. At one time the father and 
one of his sons went to Keokuk. While they were 
away it rained, and the river which they had to cross 
near their home rose during their absence very 
rapidly, so that on their return to its banks it was 
almost unfordable; but they pushed boldly into the 
stream. The son was riding one of the oxen, when 
the wagon uncoupled and floated down the stream 
with the father in it. The son arrived at the op- 
posite bank all right, and then succeeded in getting 
the wagon ashore and rescuing his father from his 
perilous position. Their fare while in that country 
was very much restricted, as no wheat was procur- 
able, nor many of the other things which are tf)- 
d.ay considered indispensable articles of diet. The 
settlers were so far from a mill that often they 
could not get their corn ground, so they used to 
boil it and make hominy, which was their chief 
food. Their prospects in Iowa were so discourag- 
ing that the family returned to Ohio. They located 
near Sylvania. Lucas County, where iVIr. Van Pelt 
bought a farm, on whicli he and his wife spent their 
remaining days. They were the parents of six cliil- 
dren. who grew to maturity. The family record is 
as follows: Isaac died in 1887; Sarah Jane is the 
wife of Aaron Cleveland, of Clermont County, 
Ohio; Lewis, George and Thomas are residents of 
Ohio, and John H. is the subject of this sketch. 
Our subject was thirteen years old when the family 

removed to Iowa, and remembers well the exciting 
incidents of their journey to and from there, and 
the experiences of their settlement in that place. 
As a boy his days of labor on the farm were varied 
b}' attendance at the district school in his native 
place, and after his return from Iowa, in a district 
school in Sylvania. He was sixteen when his father's 
death occurred, and he continued to reside at home, 
assisting his mother, until he was twenty years of 
age, when he commenced to learn the trade of car- 
penter and joiner. 

In 1 8fiO Mr. Van Pelt married Celestia Mer.sereau, 
a native of Owego, Tioga Co., N. Y., where she was 
born March 10, 1843. Her grandfather, Daniel 
Mersereau, was a farmer, and spent his last years in 
the State of New York. The story is told of his 
wife, who was born while Pennsylvania was yet an 
English colony, and was ten years old when the 
Revolutionary War broke out, that she narrowly 
escaped capture during an Indian raid, in which her 
father's house was burned. Fortunately the house 
was near a fort, and the family managed to escape 
to it and were saved. 

Mrs. Van Pelt's fatlier, Cornelius Mersereau, was 
a woolen manufacturer, and when he was a young- 
man he came West and located in Lucas County, 
Ohio, taking up a tract of land now included in To- 
ledo. He married there Sarah Phillips, of Ger- 
man antecedents, though born in America. Shortly 
after his marriage, Mr. Mersereau sold his property 
in Ohio, and returned with his wife to New York, 
the entire journey being made with a horse and 
sleigh. He engaged in the manufacture of woolen 
goods in Owego until 1847. In that year he re- 
turned to Ohio, and settled in Sylvania, where he 
improved a farm. He is still living in Lucas County 
with one of his sons, at the advanced age of eight}'- 
five years. The death of his wife occurred some 
years ago in Sylvania. 

After his marriage Mr. Van Pelt continued to 
work at his trade of a carpenter till 18(;(;, when he 
turned his attention to agricultural pursuits, to 
which he had been bred. He came to this count^^ 
and bought the farm on which he is still living, con- 
sisting of eighty acres of timber land. His first 
work was to build a log house for the home of him- 
self and family, and he then set diligently to work 






to clear his land. He now has forty-five acres 
cleared and well tilled, mid he has exchanged the 
log house for a more eominodions and convenient 
frame dwelling, while he has a good set of farm 
buildings. The marriage of Mr. and Mrs. Van Pelt 
has been blessed by the birth of eight children, 
namely: Alice, who married Henry Gnll, of Riga 
Township; Louis, living in Lima, Ohio ; and George, 
Arthur, Ernest. John, Charles, and a babe unnamed, 

Mr. and Mrs. Van Pelt arc well regarded by the 
people in this community for their sterling worth, 
and they are devoted members of the Cluircli of 
God. Mr. Van Pelt is a man of earnest convictions. 
For many years he was a stanch Hepiiblican, but, 
althongh still believing in the principles of liiat 
party, being much interested in the cause of temi)er- 
ance, he has now become an earnest advocate of the 
Prohibition movement. 

^•^^HOMAS S. WETER, one of the oldest resi- 
fl^^ dents and most successful agriculturists of 
^^^ Palmj'ra Township, was born in Floyd, 
Oneida Co., N. Y., on the 3d of March, 1821, .■uid 
is the son of Josephus Weter, who was born in tlie 
same State and was a farmer of Oneida County. The 
grandfather of our subject, it is believed, was a 
native of Germany, and spent the last years of his 
life in Oneida Count}', where lie died at the age of 
ninety-five years. The father of our subject was a 
farmer, .and also a boatman on the Erie Canal, and 
engaged extensively in the transportation business. 
He followed the canal from 1820 to 1840, after 
which he devoted the greater p(jrtion of his time to 
agricultural pursuits. He remained in Oneida 
County until 1849, in which year he removed to 
Lenawee County and purchased a small tract of land 
in Blissfield Townsliip, upon which he lived until 
his death, which occurred about 1877, when he was 
in his eighty-third year. About the year 1815 
Josephus Weter, the father of our subject, married 
Miss Annie Buckley, a daughter of John Buckley, 
who came from England in 1777 and settled in the 
eastern portion of New York. Josephus and 
Annie Weter had seven children, five sous and two 

daughters, our subject being the second son and 
third child. Only one of the family is now living, 
Thomas S. 

Our subject attended the common schools during 
his 3'outh, and lived witli his parents until eleven 
years of ago, when he went out to work in order to 
earn his own living. The first two years he re- 
ceived in the way of compensation simply his board 
and clothes, at the end of which time he commanded 
$11 per month, which in those days was considered 
good wages. He continued on a farm, working by 
the month, until he was seventeen years of age, at 
which time he undertook to learn the trade of wagon- 
maker. At the age of twentj', in 1841, he went to 
Ross County, Ohio, and leased a farm for four 
years, paying his rent with a portion of the grain 
raised. In 1845 he removed from Ohio to Michi-, and purchased forty acres of wild land on sec- 
tion 3, in Palmyra Township, for which he paid 
$7.50 per acre. He immediately began clearing the 
timber off this land and making permanent improve- 
ments, and at tlie same time rented an improved 
farm adjoining, which he fanned for a couple of 

In 1852 Mr. Wetei' went to California by way of 
New York and the Isthmus, landing in San P"ran- 
cisco in thirty-one days from the time he started. 
After arriving in California he procured work at $4 
[ler day, at which he continued for sixteen d.ays, 
when the rainy season set in and stopped his work. 
He then engaged at mining at $6 per day, until the 
water supply gave out, and that was discontinued. 
For two months he devoted his time to prospecting 
with varied success, during which time he spent the 
greater portion of his earnings. At this time he 
engaged to build a flume on the American River, 
and when the flume was completed he, with two 
others, purchased the claim, and worked it for 
eighteen weeks with good success. Our subject then 
sold his interest in the claim and went to San Fran- 
cisco, and from there to his home in Michigan. It 
was his intention to return to California, but soon 
after arriving in Lenawee County he was prostrated 
by severe sickness which prevented it. He then 
purchased twenty more acres at $7.50 per acre, and 
five years later paid for the farm he now occupies, 
containing 160 acres of fine land, which has good 


■ ^m ■« < > 



Imilflino-s and other fivst-class impi-ovfiiiciit>. In 
1873 Ml'. VVeter wfis attacked with sci:ilic iheii- 
matisni, ami in llie rail of 1 s7.'.. witli llic liupc lliat. 
hisjiealth niiulit lie lu-nfliteil, lie went lo t'alitoinia. 
and reiuaiiied there niilil the folkiwing ^prillg' 
Since tliat time he has visited nearly all the cele- 
brated springs in the country, including the Ar- 
kansas Hot Springs and the different magnetic 
springs in Michigan, none of which, however, have 
afforded him permanent relief. 

On the .Oth of November. 1843, Mr. Weter was 
married to Mary Pooley, daughter of Edward 
Pooley, of Marion, Wayne Co., X. V., wliiii- Airs. 
Weter was also born, .July 17, 1824. Of this union 
there were born two children — Ann Maria, horn in 
Jackson County, Ohio, Jan. ,i. 1845, now the wife 
of Wayne Roberts, of Palmyra, and Edward, born 
in Palmyra, Aug. 29, 1849, and who died in August, 
1 8.51 . Mrs. Mary Weter died in Palmyra in August, 
18,51. On the 27th of March, 1853, Mr. Weter 
married Mrs. Mary Ann Wood, daughter of David 
and Mary Upton, of Roland, Lenawee County, by 
whom lie has had six children, all born in Palmyra, 
as follows: Shepherd, born Jan. 4, 1854, is married 
and resides in Pennsylvania; Arabell, born July 1(1, 
1855, married Ilarrop Freeman, of Ridgevv.ay, Ma- 
comb Co., Mich., and after his death married 
Thomas Fanning, of the same county; James E.. 
born April 9, 1858, lives in Macomb County; Nel- 
son C, born April 1, 1861, graduated from the 
Adrian College and is now practicing law in Antrim 
County, Mich.; David E. was born Nov. 16, 1863; 
Cora M., born March 4, 1865, married George Lsley, 
and they live on the old homestead. Mrs. Marj' 
Ann Weter was born in Ontario, Wayne Co., N. V., 
March 27, 1825, and came to Michigan vrith her 
parents in 1846, settling in Wheatland, Hillsdale 
County. She vvas married to Nelson \\'oo(l in S<'|)- 
tember, 1847, by whom she had one chiM, who died 
in infancy. Mr. Wood died Sept. 16, 1849. David 
Upton, her father, was horn in Charlemont, Mass., 
and died in RoUin, this county, in 1859. He mar- 
ried Mary Marsh, by whom he had ten children, 
three sons and seven daughters, Mrs. Weter being 
the eighth child and fifth daughter. David Upton 
came from Puritan stock and represented tlie sixth 

Ml-. Weter has been a successful farmer during 
his residence in Lenawee County, and has estab- 
lished for himsf-lf and family a home which is com- 
fortable in all its ^nrroundings. Asacitizen of the 
county and township lie >tands high and enjoys the 
esteem of all who know him. 


(^ LONZO MITCHELL. The preservation of 
d^wjl j facts making up the lives of prominent and 

jlr^- useful men is not only a great source of 
i^ gratification to personal friends, but serves 
as an incentive to those who would achieve fortune 
or distinction in something a little above the ordin- 
ary walks of life. Upon sketching the biography 
of a man who has been successful and earned the 
respect of his fellowmen, it is but natural to revert 
to the beginning of his career, and note in what 
manner he commenced in life and what were the 
difficulties with which he had to contend. The 
early pioneers of the West were noted for their cor- 
rect moral principles and their wonderful energy. 
They endured hardships which are unknown to their 
children, and persevered through difficulties that 
would dismay the spirits of the present day who 
have been aided by the light of an advanced civil- 
ization. The least that posterity can do for them 
is to preserve the history of their lives, and imbue 
their children with the principles which guided 
those lives and which have rendered this age what 
it is to-day. As one of the important factors vvho 
assisted in bringing about the era of piety and intel- 
ligence in the Northwest, we strive to give as near 
as possible the main iioints in the history of the 
gentleman whose name stands at the head of this 

Mr. Mit<-hell is a native of the Bay State, and 
was liorn in Cumniington, Hampshire County, March 
28, ISOl. His father, William Mitchell, was a native 
of the same town, and born Dec. 10, 1782. His 
paternal grandfather was a native of Bridgewater, 
Mass., where he farmed during his early life and 
removed thence to Hampshire County. The country 
was then but a wilderness, and he took his station 
in the forest, where he felled the trees around him 
and in due time had cleared a farm and built up a 








foinfoitable homestead, whioh hf ocfiiiiied the re- 
mainder of his life. His oiiildreii, twelve in num- 
ber, all grew to mature ve.'us, weri' married and 
reared families of their own. 

AVilliam Mitchell, the father of our suhjert. not 
quite content with farm life, learned thr trade of 
tanner, and locating- at Cuiiiniiunloii. followed his 
trade there until 1X3:1 lie llieii s(jI<1 out hi> Im-i- 
ness, and migrating to iMichiuau. located in Pal- 
myra Township on section I'.l, wliei-e lie erected a 
frame house and afterward put up a tainierv, wIk^c 
he carried on business until resting from his earthly 
labors, his death taking pl.ace July 17, l.s.'iG. lie 
had married in his native State Miss Clarissa Bi^lM■e. 
who was born in I'lainticld, .Mass., .luue i!, ITs.s. 
.She came to the West with her husband, endured 
cheerfully the inconveuiences and liardslii|is of life 
in a new country, and passed iiway just one month 
previous to the death of her husband, her death 
taking place .lune 17. ISfiC. The parental house- 
hold included twelve cliihlicn, se\ en sons ;ind live 
daughters, eleven of whom grew to mature years, 
hut only three are now living. 

Alonzo Mitchell was the second child of his par- 
ents, and in common with hi- hrothci's and sisters 
commenced going t<.) school at an early age, .-uid 
continued his studies unl il tifteen years old. After- 
ward his services were utilized in the tannery, in 
the details of vvhich he became thoroughly poste(l. 
and remained a memlier of his father's household 
until 1820. He then proceeded to .New York City. 
where he worked a few months as a carpenter, hut 
returned to Massachusetts and engaged in a tannery 
at Cummlngton for two years following, lie was 
not satisfied with hi> coudition oi- his pros|]ect> in 
the East, and accordingly, iu the mouth of April, 
1831, accompaiiied by John Bryant, brolJuM- of the 
poet, William Cnllen Bryant, started for the gieat 
West. Til ej' proceeded liy wagon to Troy, >;. 'i'., 
where they took passage on a canal boat tcj Ibiftalo. 
thence by the lake to Monroe, Mich., and I'ldiii there 
on foot to Adrian, about forty-live miles distant. 
They landed in what was then but the beginning of 
a town on the 4th of May, after sixteen days' 
travel. The post-olfice at Adrian wa- then iu a log 
house and the country around was hut tliiuly set- 
tled. Mr. Mitchell entered a tract of Government 

land on section 
part of which is 



n Palmyra Township, and a 
included in the village. Hav- 
ty to SI' 1 1 he i.arted witli this 
■ntei-ed another tract on the 
il; now taken the first steps 
nut of a future h<mie he re- 
tt> to fulfill a pledge made to 
a youiiu lady there, wa- married, and two weeks 
later started with his hride again for the West. 
Their journey was made in much the same manner 
as had been that of Mr. Mitchell before, and upon 
arriving in Palmyra Townsliip he rented a small 
hou>e adjacent to his laud, ndiich the young people 
occupied a little more than a year, then went into 
the new log dwelling on tlieir own land. 

In the embryo town of Adrian there was fortu- 
nately a saw and grist mill, which proved a great 
convenience to the early settlers. The country 
all mud, however, abounded with all kinds of ani- 
mals, including deer, wolves, bears, wild turkeys and 
wild-cats. Mr. Mitchell was a good marksman and 
kept the family supplied with choice meats. The 
howling of the wolves was a serenade they would 
willingly' have dis]3ensed with, but it gave way in 
time as the country liecauie settled and the rifles of 
the pioueer> caused these animals, with the others, 
to disappear. 

Mr. Mitchell from his early training and natural 
gifts was at once recogui/.ed as a man of more than 
ordinary ability, and destined to become a useful 
nieuilier of the coniuiunity. He was foremost in 
those enterprises calculated to develop the resources 
of the country and improve the condition of the 
people. He encouraged the establishment and 
luainteuaiice of schools and was one of the seven 
oiiginal luemliers who organized the Presbyterian 
Church at Adrian. Later he assisted in the build- 
ing of the church edifice at Palmyra, and was one 
of the most liberal and cheerful conti'ibutors to the 
snp|)orl of the society t,hei-e. He labored early and 
late, lioth on his farm and iu behalf of the interests 
outside, and was prominent in local and political, 
as well as religious affairs. He assisted in the organ- 
ization of the Republican party in this section, and 
has since been one of its most faithful adherents. 
He served as Assessor and Highway Commissioner 
and in his district as School Director and Trustee. 




He aiifl his estimable wife are still connected with 
the Presbyterian Church, at Palmyra, of which he 
has been a Trustee for many years. Mrs. Mitchell 
became identiBecl with the Congregationalists in her 
native State when a young girl. 

Notwithstanding his incessant and arduous labors 
and the toil and care involved in building up the 
comfortable homestead he now enjoys, Mr. ISIitchell, 
rather than failing in bodily health, has seemed to 
derive strength from what he has accomplished, and 
preserves his physical and mental powers in a re- 
markable degree, considering the fact that he is now 
over eighty years of age. He converses with all 
the vigor and intelligence of his youth, of which he 
can relate many interesting incidents, and has 
learned to look with a philosophical eye upon the 
changeful life which it has been his to witness. It 
is hardly necessary to saj^ that he is regarded with 
the utmost reverence and respect by all wlio know 
him. His life has been worthy of imitation. Din- 
ing the Black Hawk War of 1831-32, Mr. Mitchell 
campaigned seventeen days. 

Mrs. Mitchell was before her marriage Miss 
LyandaShaw. She was born in Woithington, Hamp- 
shire Co., Mass., in March, 1813, and is the 
daughter of John and Polly Shaw, natives of Mas.^a- 
chusetts, and who passed to their long home in 
their native State many years ago. She became the 
wife of Alonzo Mitchell Aug. 16, 1831, the wed- 
ding taking place at the home of her uncle in Cuni- 
mington. She has since remained his faithful anil 
affectionate helpmeet, and enjo3"s with him the 
esteem and confidence of a large circle of friends. 


J. BARTHOLOMEW, who has been suc- 
cessfully engaged in agricultural pursuits 
on his present farm in Riga Township since 
I, is a native of Madison County, Y. Y., 
his birth occurring June 22, 1840. His father, 
Albert J. Bartholomew, was also a native of that 
county, was there reared to manhood, and thej-e 
married Miss Nancy Smith, of Hartford. Conn. 
They continued to reside in Madison County for 
some years after marriage, and in 18.54 removed to 
Jefferson County, Wis., where Mr. Bartholomew 

bought a farm, and was there engaged in agricult- 
ural pursuits with much success until his death in 
18G8. His widow died Jan. 24, 1888, in White- 
water, Wis. Thej' were eminently worthy of the 
respect of the people among whom they settled. 

The subject of this sketch received a practical 
education in the district schools of his native place 
and of Jefferson County, and was also well trained 
in the duties pertaining to farm life. He remained 
with his parents until the fall of 1862, when he 
enlisted in Company H, 21st Wisconsin Infantry, 
and went with his regiment to Kentucky. He was 
afterward taken sick, and at tiie end of five months' 
service discharged on account of disaljility, and re- 
turned to his home in Wisconsin to recruit his 
health. In 1SG4 he enlisted a second time, and be- 
came a member of Company II, 1st Wisconsin 
Heavy Artillery'. He did good service in the Army 
of the Potomac, and was honorably discharged in 
June, 1865. when he returned home and resumed 
the occupation he had left to go forth in the 
interests of his countrj'. 

Mr. Bartholomew was married, July (J. 1870, to 
Jliss Emily Morrison, a native of Oneida County, 
N. Y., her birth occurring there Aug. 6, 1844. She 
is a lady of much intelligence and ability. She was 
well educated, and commenced teaching at the early 
age of sixteen. After her mother's death she went 
to Wisconsin and taught school there. Her father, 
Orrin Morrison, was a native of Colerain, Mass., 
but when a boy went from there to Oneida County, 
N. Y., and there grew to manhood and married Miss 
Laura Barrett, a native of Connecticut. Her father, 
Gains Barrett, vvas .also a native of the latter State, 
and was one of the early settlers of Stillwater, 
Oneida Co., N. Y., where he died aged over ninety 
years. Mr. and Mrs. Morrison continued to make 
their home in Oneida County until their death, his 
occurring in 1861, and hers in 18G3. 

In the year 1873 our subject and his family went 
to Iowa to try farming in that State. He bought 
a tract of wild prairie land in Pottwattamie County, 
and there improved a farm, on which he resided 
till 1880, when he sold his property in Iowa and 
returned to tiiis part of the country. He spent the 
winter in Blissfield, this county, and then bouglit a 
farm, where he and his family have since made their 

— •►- 



home. He has fifty-foiir acres of land, tlie grcatci- 
part of whicli is cleared, under good improvement, 
and capable of producing rich harvests; he also lias 
good, convenient buildings, and is very pleasantly 

To Mr. and Mrs. Bartli.ilomew have been born 
two children — Jolin C. and Louisa \V. Mr. Bar- 
tholomew is a member (if limit and McBride Post 
No. 22 o, G. A. R. He is a good citizen and a man 
of upright character, and though he has been a resi- 
dent of tliis community but a few years, he has 
already gained the respect of its best people. 


if W: 

EW. (;0[IEE>; isuf WeL-bdcbccut. aii.l is the 
eldest son of John Goh 
Edward Goheeu, was a n; 
came with his parents to America uhen he was a 
young cliild, about tlie time of the American Revo- 
lution. They located in Pennsylvania or New 
Yorlc, w-liere Edward grew to manhood, and mar- 
ried Christiana Roup, who was of German descent, 
and some of whose ancestors were early settlers in 
New York State. They spent the (irst few years (jf 
tiieir married life in Nortiiumberiand County, Pa., 
where Mr. Golieen followed the trade of hand 
weaver. They afterward remov3( 
Township, Livingston Co.. N. Y., 
tinned his occupation of a weaver i 
the age of thirtj'-six. His wido 
many years, and lived to come t( 
her son, and died here in ISio. 

John Goheen, father of our subjiM-t and tlie eld- 
est of eight children in the i)arental family, was lioni 
in Northumberland County, Pa., in tlie year IT'.iil. 
In his boyhood he went to (TroNclnnd Tuwuship. 
N. Y, with his parents, .■iiid there mcl and after- 
ward ni.-irried Elizalieth llea.ily. ^^U,, w.-is boiii in 
1707, and was reared liy the lUm\> laniily. After 

Towushi[), and there continued to li\c iiutil after 
the birth of four children, when lie :iud his family 
came to Michigan. They first went U> Detinil by 
the way of Lake Erie and the Detroit River, and 
thence came across the country to this county. t>c- 
cupyiiig four days in coming from Detroit, a dis- 

to tiroveland 
where he coii- 
itil his death at 

survived him 

tance of sixty miles. He took up a tract of 160 
acres of Government land in the northwest quarter 
of section 13 of what is now Clinton Township. It 
lay in an unbroken wilderness: the Indians still 
made their home in that primeval forest, where 
their fathers had dwelt from time immemorial; 
wild game abounded, and our subject, who was a 
small boy, has a vivid remembrance of hearing 
many thrilling stories of encounters with bears near 
the settlements. John Goheen and his wife lived 
to see the land which they obtained from "Uncle 
S.'im" when it in a wild and uncultivated con- 
dition developed into a good farm. His death oc- 
riiired in ISGIJ. and his wife survived him until 
1881 ; they were both stanch members of the Pres- 
byterian Church. I\Ir. (iohoen was a Whig, and 
later, on the formation of the Republican party 
jniiied that organization. They were good, honest 
.'iiul industrious people, and they have left a pleas- 
ant memory behind them of many acts of kindness 
toward their neighbors and others less fortunate 
ilian themselves. Their old homestead was trans- 
ferred to one of theii' sons and is still in the family. 

E. W. (Toheen, of this sketch, was born in Grove- 
laud, Livingston Co., N. Y., Nov. IG, 1822. He 
was reared ill his jiMtive State, and being an intel- 
ligent, eagerly took advant.age of his chances 
for attending school. When he was nineteen 
years old he spent one winter in school, where he 
made ra|)iil progress in his studies and was fitted 
for leaching, which vcjcation be pursued for awhile 
I'd'ore his iiiari'iage. That important event in his 
life ocenried in Saline. Washtenaw County, on the 
l.llli of .Mareh, Is.Vi. wlu^ii he was united to Miss 
Charlotte, daughter of John and Hannah (Harri- 
M.ii) Niblack. natives of I'ennsylvania. 

Mr. and Mrs. Nifilack were married in Sparta, 
l.iviniistoii Co.. N. Y., where they lived for many 
\ears. and had born to them ten children, Mrs. 
C(.)heen, (_>f this notice, being the youngest. She 
was born Aug. Ki, 182G, and was a child when her 
|i.irents came with their family to Michigan in tlie 
.\ ear 1833, and located in the township of .Saline, 
Washtenaw County, on a tract of (Government 
land, which they made their home the rest of their 
active lives. The mother died on the old home- 
stead in 1859, and after her death the father re- 





tired to Tecnmseh Village, where he died at the 
home of his daughter, Mrs. Arvilla Davis, in 1862, 
having reached the Scriptural limit of hiiniiui life, 
"three.score years and ten." Airs, (ioiieen re- 
mained in the home of hor jjarents until her mar- 
riage. She became the mother of six children, one 
of whom died in infancy. The following is the 
record of those living: Frank is an engineer and 
mechanic, and lives in the West; Fremont married 
Sophia Talbot, .■ind ]i\es on a farm in Ingham 
County, while Patience, Liliie and Fred live at 

After marriage Mr. Goheen established his home 
on the farm on section 1 4, Clinton Township, where 
he still lives. It then contained seventy-three acres, 
to which he has added forty acres more by purchase, 
and it is all under a good state of cultivation. Mr. 
and Mrs. Goheen are people whose daily lives are 
guided by principles of truth and honesty in all 
their dealings, and they are held in high esteem by 
their neighbors and numerous other friends. They 
are attendants at the Baptist Church. In politics 
Mr. (Goheen i> a Hepidilican of loim .standing. 

JAMES R. CAIRNS, one of the well-to-do 
and influential men of Raisin Township, as 
J well as one of the successful farmers and 
stock-raisers, has occupied a prominent place 
in the history of Lenawee County since 188S, in 
which year he first located in the township of Te- 
cumseh, coming liere with his father when he was 
but six j'ears of age. 

The father of our subject. William Cairns, was 
a farmer by occupation, and a native of tlie State 
of New York. He was the second son and tliird 
child of Robert Cairns, who was married to Eliza- 
beth Wood, May 11, 1786. Robert Cairns was a 
native of Scotland, who probably came to this coun- 
try when quite a young man, and died in Seneca 
County, N. Y., about 1797. He was a very suc- 
cessful man, and enjoyed an enviable reputation. 
His wife, Elizabetli. died in Seneca County, N. Y., 
Feb. 8, 1812: they were both jnendiers of the Pres- 
bvterian Churcli. Their children were seven in 

number, all of whom married and are now deceased. 
.Toiui was born in 1787: Nellie, in 1789: William, 
the father of our subject, in 1791; Mary W., in 
1793; Jennette, in 179G. and Robert in 1798. 
Nellie, Robert and William died in Michigan; John 
was killed in Pennsylvania by falling from a tree. 
William was reared in Seneca County, N. Y., where 
he uas united in m,arriage with Abigail Wilson, on 
tile I'dth 111' .lanuar}', ISLJ. She was born near 
Trenton, N. J., -huic 1. 179.'). After the birth of 
eleven children, tinee of whom died in Seneca 
County, William Cairns and his family came to 
Michigan in the year 183G, and took up eighty 
acres of land in Monroe County. He finally came 
to Lenawee County, and located in Tecumseh 
T(,i\vnship in 1838, where lie died in 1840, before 
he iiad lieen able to accomplish much in the way of 
improvements. The mother of our subject re- 
mained unmarried after she her husband, and 
devoted her time to rearing her family'. She died 
at the home of her daughter, Mrs. Mary E. Seekell, 
at White Pigeon, Mich., .Tan. 29, 1878, .at the age 
of eighty-three year!-. Four of her cliiidrcTi are yet 

Our sidiject was born on the 28th of August, 
1832, at Seneca Falls, N. Y., and after the death 
of his father remained with his mother and brother 
luitil 1846. when he set out to learn the trade of 
carpenter and joiner, which he soon succeeded in 
mastering, and followed as his occupation \nitii tlie 
breaking out of the war. On the 3d of X,ivt'nd>cr, 
18(i2, he entered the army as First Lieutenant of 
Company B, 9th Michigan Cavalry, which was un- 
der the command of Col. James I. David. The 
(tornpan^' was raised in Lenawee County, and was 
assigned to the Army of the Ohio, where it was en- 
gaged in resisting the raid of John Morgan thi-ough 
Kentucky, Indiana and Ohio, and came in contact 
with that command at Buffington Island, where the 
9tli Cavalr.y assisted in capturing most of Morgan's 
men. The regiment then joined Burnside, and 
went to the siege of Knoxville, and later was at the 
capture of Gen. Eraser and men at Cumberland 
(iap. He was in other minor engagements, and 
remained (l<iing goc.d an(i Caitiiful service, until he 
w;i> taken sick and sent to the Fairmonnt Hospital, 
.■it Cincinnati, Ohio, at which place he received his 




lionorable discharge on account of riisaliilit_y. Re- 
turning home, he turned liis attention to farming. 
h)cating in the tow-n.-hip •<( Vr.\uk\\u. uhciv he 
owned a good property. In IsTiI he \v;i,s elected 
Sheriff of the county, and held the ollice two terms 
of two years, which was ilic limit allowed by the 
law of Michigan. After (piitting the Sheriff's ofHce, 
he resumed farming in l^'janklin Township, where 
he held the office of Tdwnship t'lerU fur seven 
years. In 1 .s.s-2 he sold his pr.>perly in that town- 
ship, and bought IL'O acic- ..f lan.l uii s,M-ti,.n :>. 
Raisin Tnwnsliip. which he has transforujed into a 
pleasant home, liy making coiisiilcralilc impi(j\'c- 


Mr. t'aiin> m.arried. in .lackson County. 
Mich., on the IDtli of August, is,",,",, to Miss Kmily 
A. (ireenleaf, who w.-is horn in Camhridge Town- 
shi)). this county, on the L'4th of M.areh, 1 s:;,s. she 
is the yonn-cst danghtei- .>f .lohn and Susan ( Aver- 
ill) Ci-eenlear. natives of New Y.,rk .and ('<mnecti- 
cut reslH-ctively. Her parents «erc niaia-ie.l in 
Pari.s. N. Y., and came West in l.s:!(;. seeking .a lo- 
cation in Cambridge Township, this county, where 
they made for themselves a good home, and re- 
sided \nitil their death. The father died in May. 
1872, and the mother Feb. 1 1. Is.iT: they were in- 
dustrious and economical people, and sinaeeiled in 
their undertaking in Lenawee (onnly. They were 
both earnest and devoted nnanhers of the i\lelhod- Episcopal Church, and for many \cais preced- 
ing their death evinced much interest in I'eligions 

Mr. and .Mrs. Cairns became tli.^ ].arent> ,>f eiglit 
children, who .are recorded a^ iollow> : .lennie i~ the 
wife of R. S. Wilson. Station .\g.iil at |-'iow,alield. 
Mich.; Ellsw.n-lh W. i> tin- rei-roentativ.. ot the 
Gail Agricidtural .M.annf.aclniing Company, of Al- 
bion, Mich.; Dora 1'.. .and Nor.-i I). (t\vin>). re>ide 
with their parents, .and are hi-jhly educated and in- 
telligent young ladies: Sa<li<' C. i> also :ii honu' .at- 
tending .school. The dcc,-a-,'d were Arllmr. Flor- 
ence H. and an iiifanl. Mi'. ( anii> with his lamily 
attends the I'reshy l, ii:in Chmcli. uhilc politically, 
lie is a Repniilican in all that the name implies. 
Vrevions to hi- election to the ollice of Sheriff, he 
had servi'd eight years as Oepnty Sheriff. He is a 

man who takes a lively interest in public affairs, 
and has done much to give the county the standing 
it eiijoy.5 auKUig the counties of Michigan. 


ylLLIAM II. McDowell is numbered 
among the most comfortable homesteaders 
,y „ in Palmyra Township, and is situated on 

section 11). He became the p,)s>essor of the farm 
on which he resides in CsCt. The family resi- 
dence, which is eligiblv located. i> a neat and com- 
fortable on,., and the iKirns and other farm build- 
ings are commodious ami substantial structures, 
calculated alike for beauty and utility. 'i"he fences 
and farm machinery are kept in good lepair, and 
the stock and other accessories of the estate testify 
in .1 silent but forcible manner to the intelligent 
industry ami enterprise of the proprietor, who pos- 
sesses all the u-o-alu-ad .-haracteristics of the natives 
of New York. :\ class of men \vho have been largely 
instrumental in ile\ eloping the great ^^'est. and 
utilizing its vast ivsonives <,f soil and mine. 

.Mr. McDowell w.a> b,,rii in Cohocton. Steuben 
C.>.. i\. v.. on the 2(;th of April. 1 ,S38. His father, 
Charles ,1. ,M.d)oweli. |„,rn in Broome County, 
N. Y.. where he w: s re.aivd and edn.'ated for the 
profc>ssion of Law. and admitted to the bar at 
i;,.chest,a-. .and later pi-.acticed :i| Colu.cton: 'jic 
continued ill profession .luring his life. The 

where h,. alforde.l fai-ililics for obtaining a 
good ediic.ali.m. which he ■■ixaiied himself of tO the 


rt of th 

lies belwe,-n the North 
cd ill the secession of the South 
d a of u ar on tiic 
meiit. Following his patriotic 
impulses, he tendered his services to the (lovern- 
inent in .May. Isbj, ,ind was accepted .as .a member 
of C.iinpaiiy F. :; New York Infantry, the term 
,.f enlistment being b.r two ycar.s. and lie served 
the whole term and .a few il.ays over. Among a 
b'W of the more impoitaiil engagianeiits in which 
he parlicip.ated weiv ( .Mountain. Antietam, 
Second r.iill Run. liist and s,.,.on.l battles of Fred- 
crickslnirK, lirsl battle of the Wilderness, and many 





smaller engagements. Soon after his return from 
the army he came to Lenawee Coiintj-, and settled 
on the farm which he now occupies. 

Mr. McDowell was married, on the 9th of Au- 
gust, 1 8G7. to Catherine W. Moore, who was born 
in Cohocton, Steuben Co.. N. Y., and they have 
had one child — Fred C. McDowell. Mr. and Mrs. 
McDowell are very comfortably situated, and are 
highly esteemed members of the society in which 
they move. 

^jps^ AMUEL E. IIAKT has been a citizen of 
^^^ Lenawee County for forty years, and has 
^t\/ji) been longer engaged continuously in the 

drug business than any other man in the 

county. lie has always enjoyed a large trade, and 
has an excellent standing as a citizen and as a busi- 
ness man, always paying 100 cents on tlie dollar. 

Mr. Hart was born in Albion, Orleans Co.,N. Y., 
Aug. 13, 1823, and is the son of Deacon Joseph 
Hart, who was born in Berlin, Conn., Nov. 20, 
1773, and remained there until 1779, when he ac- 
companied his parents upon their removal to Dur- 
ham. Greene Co., N. Y. He lived in that county 
until 1812, when be removed to Orleans County, 
and erected a log cabin in the wilderness, where 
now stands th"e village of Albion. Ho located 364 
acres of land from the Government, at $1.25 per 
acre, a portion of which has since been sold at $800 
per acre. His son and grandson still own and oc- 
cupy a large portion of the purchase. He was a 
Deacon in the Presbyterian Church, and was the 
founder and promoter of the first church of tliat 
denomination established in Albion, the first meeting 
being lield in his barn, at which time and place an 
organization was effected. During his long life he 
was a worthy, honorable, prominent man, and en- 
joyed the respect and confidence of all the people 
who knew or came in contact with him. He died 
at his old liomestead in Albion, July 22, 1853. On 
May 3, 1798, Deacon Hart married Miss Lucy Kirt- 
land, of Saybrook, Conn., and they had ten children, 
of whom our subject was the j'oungest. Mrs. Lucy 
(Kirtland) Hart was born in Saybrook, Conn., Nov. 

11, 1778, and died at Adrian, Mich., at the resi- 
dence of her daughter, Mrs. Lucy II. Berry, Jan. 4, 

Samuel E. Mart, our subject, remained with his 
parents on the farm until he was nearly seventeen 
years of age, and then, through the solicitation of 
liis brother-in-law, L. G. Berry, became to Adrian, 
MicI)., in May, 1840. For three years after his 
arrival lie acted in the capacity of clerk in Mr. 
Berry's dry-goods store. During these three years 
he was the only clerk in|the store, and for two years 
kept the books, but all this time was entirely igno- 
rant of what his salarj' was to be. Finally, when 
his time expired, he was informed that he was to 
have no pay for the first year, $5 per month 
for the second, and $10 per month for the third 
year. After becoming possessed of this money 
he returned to Albion, N. Y., on a visit to his par- 
ents, where he remained for a short time, recuper- 
ating from the three years' work. He then went to 
Alton, 111., and secured employment as a clerk in 
the drug-store of his brother. Dr. B. K. Hart, and 
remained with him a little over two years, when 
owing to impaired health he was obliged to make a 
journey to the South and East. During this trip 
he took occasion to again visit his parents, with 
whom he spent some time. On his return to Alton 
he stopped at Adrian, to visit his sisters, Mrs. O. 
M. Roode, Mrs. L. U, Berry and Mrs. L. G. Berry, 
and was persuaded to go into business with the 
Berry Brothers, employing a small capital which 
had been presented him by his father. He remained 
with them for a period of one year, at a profit of 
$500, which he g.ave to the Berrys for permitting 
him to retire from the business, and immediately 
purchased Dr. D. K. Underwood's interest in the 
drug firm of Raymond & Underwood, where he re- 
mained two and one-half years. In 1848 he dis- 
posed of his interest in the business to Caleb Wood- 
bury, and having disposed of all his interests in 
Adrian, returned to Alton, HI., for the purpose of 
joining his brother in going to Chicago, where it 
was intended to jjurchase property and locate per- 
manently ; but owing to some difference of opinion 
in reuard to the value of Chicago real estate at that 
time Samuel E., after about six weeks, returned to 
Adrian, and purchased the store he now occupies, 

*w. ,H ^* 




291 ' ^ 


and in which he has remained in the drng bnsiness 
ever since. 

October 7, 185-2, at Astoria, L. I., Mr. Unrt was 
married to Miss Annie D., danghter of ]-;. A. Crissey. 
and to them two children were l)orn : Otlii> S., .Jan. 
9, 1850, and Kate Elizabeth, Aug. 21, 18G1, liotli 
born in Adrian. Mr. Hart was a second time mar- 
ried, at Pahnvra. N. Y.. to Mrs. Harriet O. King. 
Marcli 1 I. I.S72. She was born in Palmyra. N. Y., 
May 20. 1841, and was the danghter of Thomas 
and Ariiba Galloway, liy tiie second marriage one 
child, Charles G., was born in Adrian, June (I, 

Since Mr. Hart's retnrn to Adrian in, for 
permanent residence, he has been one of the city's 
most honored and prosperous business men, and has 
added as much to its reputation as an honest bnsi- 
ness center as any man i\i the city. There is not a 
blemish against liini as a liiisiness man, being an 
honest, fair dealer, prompt in ])aying bills and meet- 
ing all obligations, and his guarantee is sufficient in 
all matters of business with any man in Lenawee 
(jounty. He has served the cit}' as a member of 
the Common Council, and was Treasurer of Lena- 
wee County Agricultural Society for several years. 
He assisted in erecting the Presbyterian Church, of 
which he has been a member since 1845, and has 
filled all the offices of the church. He has been 
prominent in all enterprises for the upbuilding of 
his city and county, and particularly distinguished 
himself in the interest he took in the location, erec- 
tion and construction of the State Reform School for 
girls, and the Detroit & Butler Railroad. 

CL. LOWE, Supervisor of Ridgeway Town- 
, ship, owns a fine tract of land within its 
limits, comprising 300 acres on sections 5, 
7 and 8. The residence is located on section 7, 
and is a substantial and commodious building, 
flanked by a good barn and all the other structures 
required for the shelter of stock and the storing of 
gTain. The land is finely located, lying partly on 
the ridge, near the old Ridge road, and was pur- 
chased from the Government by John Palmer 
about fifty-five years ago. Mr. Lowe purchased 

the property in 1870, and removed here from 
Ridgeway- Tow-nship where he had settled on sec- 
tion 30 soon after his mari'iage. 

Mr. Lowe has spent his entire life in Michigan, 
having been born June 25, 1838, in Raisin Town- 
ship, a little over a after the Territory had be- 
come a State. Of his father, Justus Lowe, a sketch 
is given elsewhere in tliis Ai.r.iM. Uv received a 
better education than most boys of that day, being 
the pupil of Prof, listerbrook, .at Ypsilanti, for some 
time. His tastes, however, confined him to farm- 
ing pursuits, and upon returning home from school, 
he settled down contentedly, and prepared to fol- 
low in the footsteps of his honored father. 

While a student at Y'psilanti, young Love had 
made the acquaintance of iMiss Emma Smith, to 
whom he was married Oct. 29, 1859, at that city. 
Prof. Ksterlii-ook oiliciating at the ceremony. Mrs. 
Lowe is a native of England, having been liorn 
near the city of Leeds, Feb. 20, 1839. Her 
ents, Charles II. and Mary (Clay^ton) Smith, were 
also of English birth and parent.age, the father a 
tailor by trade. wIk, followed his occupation in his 
iialive town until coining lo the United States, in 
1842. Soon after his anival upon American soil. 
he sought the western country, and located at the 
little town of Ridgeway. in this county, where he 
followed liis trade .a few y<'ars. Farming. Iiou'cver. 
at tliat day. was [)r(jbably more lucrative than tai- 
loring, and Mr. Smitli finally jiurchased a tract of 
timlier land on section 4, Ridgeway Township, of 
which he took possession, felled the trees and cul- 
tivated a portion of the soil, and there, with his ex- 
cellent wife, spent the remainder of his days. His 
death occurred about 1872, and the mother surviv- 
ing about one year and a half, died at the home of 
her daughter, Mrs. Lone. 

The wife of our subject was the eldest of five 
children comprising the household of her parents, 
four daughters and one son. One daughter died at 
the age of two years. The other children are all 
married and settled in comfortable homes of their 
own. They all received a fair education in the dis- 
trict school, and remained mostly under the home 
roof until taking their life i)artners. Mr. and Mrs. 
Lovve became the parents of two children : Jessie 
the wife of William Birdsell, a well-to-do farmer, 





who is at present Assisting in the management of 
the liOwe homestead, and Charles C, vvho remains 
at home. Mr. and Mrs. Lowe are Free Metliodists, 
rcligiousl.y. Mr. Lowe has represented Ridgeway 
Township in the County Board of Supervisors for 
a period of twelve years, been Justice of the Peace 
sixteen years, and Road Commissioner nine j'ears. 
Political I V. he is Democratic. 


J'OHN M. PAYNE is a respected and worthy 
farmer of Dover Township, whose home 
is pleasantly situated on section 1 7. Mr. 
Payne is of honorable lineage and is the 
son of Deacon John Payne, who was born in 
Greenbush, Rensselaer Co., N . Y. After marriage 
he settled in Sehodack, N. Y., and there lived 
till his death, Aug. 2«, 1 838. He was a man of 
high moral character, who wielded great influence 
for good. We quote the following words from 
the obituary notice, which was published at the 
time of his death, as illustrative of the high estima- 
tion in which he was held : " The deceased was an 
energetic man, a consistent Christian, a determined 
enemy of vice, and a uniform advocate and pro- 
moter of religion." His wife, who survived him 
many years, came to Lenawee County in 1862, and 
died in Dover Township, Oct. il, 1872. Her maiden 
name was Jane Van Buren, and she came of a long 
line of ancestry who. as tlie name indicates, were of 
Dutch origin, and were among the earliest emigrants 
from Holland to the banks of the Hudson. Notable 
among the de.scendants of that family, and one des- j 
tined to make the name illustrious in America, was I 
Martin ^'an liuren, the eighth President of the 
United States. To Deacon and Mrs. Payne were ' 
born six children — Harmon Van Buren. Nathaniel, j 
James H., John I\L. Catherine S. and Chauncey S. M. was tlie third child of his parents; 
he was Inim in Scliorlack, >'. Y., Aug. ;).• 1 8211. 
and reared in Mial atmosphei-e of rectitude and lion- 
est3' which so characterized ids parents. His edu- 
cation was conducted in the common schools, and 
he lived at home aliout eight yeais after he liad at- 
tained his majoiity, engaged in farming. In De- 
cember, 1«5«, he left his native town and came to I 

Lenawee County, having come to the conclusion 
that he could pursue his chosen occupation moie 
advantageously and profitably in Michigan tlian in 
New York. He bought seventy acres of land on 
sections 16 and 17, and locating on the latter section, 
has ever since made it his home. His land is quite 
productive and undei the best cultivation, his farm 
buildings are neat tnd well kept, and everything 
about his farm shows evidences of his thrift and 

Mr. Payne was married in East Sehodack. N. 
Y., April 6. 18;>0, to Miss Clarissa, daughter of 
James and Christina (Ham) \Vinters, both natives 
of Rensselaer County, N. Y., where they also 
began their married life; they afterward removed 
to Sehenectadj' County, which they have since made 
their honie. They are tlie parents of nine children — 
Ann, Daniel, Clarissa, Seneca, William, Sarah, Jud- 
.son, Theodocia and ALiby. Mrs. Payne was born 
in Schenectady Count\% N. Y., Aug. 11, 18.31, 
and her marriage with Mr. Payne has been blessed 
by the birth of three children — Spencer, John N. 
and Ida. Spencer married Ellen Dutcher, and they 
live in Dover Township; John married Augusta 
J^awrence, and they live in Chicago, 111., while Ida 
is the wife of William Sanborn, of Toledo, Ohio. 

Mr. and Mrs. Payne are attendants of the Meth- 
odist Church, and enjoy the respect and esteem of 
all who know tiiera. Mr. Payne worthily bears the 
mantle of his father, and is faithful in the discharge 
of his duties as a citizen and a man. He casts his 
vote with the Democratic part3% and winks for the 
interests of organization. 

•'i^J HARLES H. ADAM, of Adrian, is proprietor 
fif ^1 of a livery and hack line, and occujjies a fair 
y^'-^ position among the business men of the city, 
lie is the scion of an excellent family, being the son 
(if .lohii J. A<lani. an old resident and one of the 
prominent men of Lenawee County. The latter was 
a resident of Detroit for a number of years, and in 
that city Charles H. was born, on the 31st of Octo- 
\«-\\ is J 4, and wns the only son. 

John .1. Adam, tlie father of om- suliject. was 
born in Edinlini-gli, Scotland, whence he emigrated 


__ _ t 


' ^' 



-p- ■ 



COUNTY. 293 ■ 


early in life to the United States, and took up Iiis les- 

Middletown, Orange Co.. N. Y., where he was born 

idence first in Philadelphia, Pa. He maiTJed Miss Ar- 

Dec. 24, 1821, and is the son of Samuel Conkling, 

menia Bradley, a native of New York State, and tlic 

also a native of New York, born A|)ril 1 1 . 1 7;t7. 


daughter of William Bradley, who emigrated to 

The father of our sui)ject married .lulia A. Cor- 

Lenawee County when liis daughter was a little 

\\\\. who w;is liiii-u in 180(1. and was I'eared by an 

girl. Mr. Adam e.-iui,' lu-iv in 1827, when its devel- 

ini(4e. her parents lia\iii,i; died when she was ipiite 

opment was just l)eguii, and is one of those who Imve 

young. After their marriage they settled in Or- 

looked upon the huililin- ii|> of a ricli sr.-li f 

aiii^c County, where he carried on his xcjcation of a. 

country with the |.)ri(lc .-iiid sMlislaclion uliicli every 

farniei-. In 1833 he came with his family to .Mieh- 

true citizen experiences. He purchased a tr;i(t of 

iuaii and located on -eclion 1 1. in R.aisin Township, 

land in Franklin Township, ui)on which he tailored 

where lie passed nio~t of Ins days after eoniing 

fora number of years, effecting good improvements. 

to .Miehi-aii. (,)nite laU' in life he ieniove<l to Te- 

and brought the soil to a high state of cultiv.atior. 

eninseh. where he <lied Dee. '.I. 1 .ss.-,. Hi. uitVs 

He is now in Tecumseh. 

ileath oeennvd s,.nieye;us prior to hi- own. in the 

The subject of our sketch was about ten years of 

yeai- |s7r.. They wer.' worthy people, of indus- 

age when his parents removed from Franklin to 

tiioiis. habits. ;ind became the parents of 

Tecumseh, where he was reared to manhood and 

luelveehildien. live sons and seven (laughters, of 

educated in the common schools, rpoi, setting 

the Latter of wl i four die. 1 in infancy: only five 

out for him.self he first engageil in the lixery 

..flhe tamily .are now livine-. four l.i-others and 

business at Tecumseh, and afteiuaid for a 

one sister. 

time engaged in the hotel business at Clinton. 

Hudson W. Conklinii; the subject of this sket.'h. 

Later he repaired to Sand Lake, where he put up 

w:is the eldest of the family, and was in his twelfth 

what was subsequently known as the ••Sand 

yeai- when he eanu' with his parents to .Michigan. 

Lake Hotel. " and where he operated as •• mine Ik ist ' 

lie ;lltcnder| school in the old l,,u -chool-h, ,use in 

successfully for a period of fourteen yeais. Tins 

Haisin 'I'ownship. an.l rem.ained in the hoi f his 

property he finally exchanged for the livery barn 

li.arents until li.' »as niru'teen yi-.a< of .age. lie 

and stock which he now controls, and which was 

then learned the .-arpenter auil joiner's trade of 

the Col. Eldridge property. The business in whicli 

Alon/.o Murr.ay. of Te.- seh. .and aft.'ruard fol- 

Mr. Adam has since operated is located .it No. 17 

lowed oc<-iip.ation until he iM'c.anie .a journey- 

South Main street, where he keeps .-i fine assoil- 

man ill the shop of Aiiilcrs..n A- I'.rewer. continuing 

ment of horses and \ehicies, and his estalili-huient 

ill their employ until In- became .a lueiiibcr of the 

is patronized by the leading residents of the city. 

tillil. in the fall ..f I.S71. n.M4iaiige lieiiig made ill 

Mr. Adam was married, in I 871, to Miss Mary V.., 

the <lyle of the lirni : his work was to ..viisee the 

daughter of A.sil Redtield, of Adrian. She was 

shops. The tirni does a lar,i;e liuMiiess. uliich is ill- 

born Aug. 29, 1K44. in Alb.any. N. Y.. and their 

creasing every year, manuf.actiirino 

union has resulted in tlu' biitli of two eliildreu — 

l.rii'k .and tile machinery, and sending it to .all parts 

John 11. and Minnie. I'he wife and mother de- 

of the country, indeed their niaeliiiKay is sent to 

parted this life in September, 188.'), and the son and 

every State in th,' I'liion. 

daughter remain with their father, occupying a com- 

Mr. Conkling w:is married, in December. 1.S42, 

fortable home. 

to .Miss Caroline, daughter of Hugh .and Mary (Sin- 

->-5->S .-.>,i#,.,^ c s.^-<— 

clair) (iray. She is ;i woman ol much character, kindly intlueiice is felt by all about her. Her 

;p UDSON \V. CONKLINM; is a niend)er of 

iiiiion with Mr. Conkling has been blessed by the 

\l^) the firm of H. Brewer ,\c Co.. manufaelnrers 

birth of four children, two of whom aw living. 

^^ of brick and tile machineiy. ;ind eonduetor's 

namely: Frances K., the wife of L. C. Blood, of 

((^^ of a general machinery business and foun- 

Lansing. Mi(4i.. and Sarah .L. .Mrs. .loseph B. Wan 

dry at Tecumseh, Mich. Mr. Conklingisa native of 





»P ■ 



»» mr < i' 

\' ) 294 




Mr. and Mrs. Conkling are members of the Pres- 
byterian Churcli. Wherever he is known Mr. 
Conkling is regarded as a man of marked ability, 
and one who is strictly honorable in all business 
transnetions. In politics he is a stnnch Repub- 

ELOS M. BAKER, pi-ominent in the lum- 
ber and coal business in the city of 
Adrian, is a native of the Empire State, 
having been born in Buffalo, May 26, 
1838. His father, Albert M. Baker, was a promi- 
nent attorney of this State and was born in the 
town of Eden. He was reared and educated in his 
native town, and came to the West in tlic fall of 
1838, arriving in Adrian on the 27th of November. 
He at once commenced the practice of law, in which 
he actively engaged until life's labors for him were 
over. His death took place July 20, 18(30. 

Albert M. Baker, the father of our subject, was 
thrown upon his own resources earlj'^ in life .and de- 
veloped a manhood of moi-e than ordinary ability. 
Not long after coming to this State he was engaged 
as the attorney of what is now the Lake Shore & 
Michigan Southern R. R. Co., in whose employ he 
continued until the time oi his death. He took an 
active interest in political affairs, although never 
ambitious of office, and devoted his efforts to the 
election of his friends. He had been a member of 
the Republican party since its organization. Before 
coming to Michigan ho was united in marriage with 
Miss Sarah Keeler, of Buffalo, N. Y., in August, 

Tiie subject of this skctcli was the elder of his 
father's family of two children, and received his 
education in the schools of Adrian. His mercan- 
tile experience began as a clerk in the hardware 
store of W. S. Wilcox, in whose employ he re- 
mained for a period of four years. Upon severing 
his connection with this house, he started in busi- 
ness on his own account, becoming a partner in the 
firm of Bury <fe Baker, dealers in lumber, and con- 
tinued with them seven years, until 1873. The 
firm was then dissolved by mutual consent, Mr, 
Bury retiring and Mr. Baker continuing alone. 

In the fall of 1 883 our subject became a mem- 
ber of the banking firm of T. J. Tobey & Co., con- 
tinuing however only until the following year, when 
he withdrew his interests from this concern and de- 
voted his entire time and attention to the lumber 
trade. In 1877 he added the coal trade to his 
other transactions, and now commands an extensive 
patronage from the leading men of the citj-, operat- 
ing two lumber-yards and handling probably tiOO 
carloads of coal in a season. 

Mr. Baker was first married, Jan. 27, l«(i3. to 
Miss Julia E. Blount, of Milwaukee ; she died at her 
home in Adrian in 1881, leaving no children. The 
present wife of our subject, to whom he was mar- 
ried Nov. 18, 1885, was formerly Miss iVIary K. 
Goodman, of Glens Falls, N. Y., and the daughter 
of Eleazer and Mahala Goodman, natives of that 
State. Of this union there has been born one child, 
a son. Albert G. Mr. and Mrs. Baker arc members 
in good standing of the Presbyterian Church at 
Adrian, in which Mr. Baker oificiates as Trustee and 
is one of its chief pillars. He is a gentleman of 
fine business capacities, held in high esteem am(>ng 
his associates, and a valued factor in the business 

Mrs. Sarah K. Baker, the aged mother of our 
subject is still living, and makes her home with her 
son, being now seventy-one years of .age. She re- 
tains in a remarkable manner her old-time health 
and activity, and can relate many interesting inci- 
dents of life in the earlv davs. 

JACOB C. WINNE, one of the most promi- 
nent and promising young lawyers practic- 
ing at the Adrian bar, is a native of the State 
of New York, where he was born at Cherry 
Valley, Otsego County, on the 28th of January, 
1865. His father, John AV. Winne, was born in the 
same county and was a farmer by occupation. He 
was an extensive grower of hops, and was among 
the first to engage in that industry in New York, an 
industry which has since grown to such large pro- 
portions on account of the vast increase in the brew- 
ing interests of the country. 

Our subject's father married Miss Barbara 






Crounse, whose gieat-gT.inclfather was a Polish iioblc- 
mai). She was the daughter of Jacob and Hen- 
rietta (VanVallienbnrg) Crounse, the former of 
whom came into possession of large property and 
was one of the leading citizens of Schoharie County, 
N. Y. She was one of a large family of childim, 
of whom four brothers became eminent physicians. 
The father, after marriage, settled in Otsego Coun- 
ty, N. Y., where he remained upon liis farm until 
ills removal with his family to Lenawee County in 
1870, where he settled upon a farm three miles west 
of the city of Adrian. O'l tl^'s farm he again en- 
gaged in the cultivation of hops, shipping his prod- 
ucts to the city of New York, which at that lime 
was the best market the country afforded. In this 
business he continued until his death, which oc- 
curred on the 2->d of August, 1887. The wife and 
five children, two boys and three girls, survived 
him. The names of the children are as follows: 
Addie, the wife of G. P>. Ililibard, residing in De- 
troit; llattie, who is at lioim'; David, .Tacoli C. and 

Jacob C. Winne passed his early boyhood in his 
native county, where he attended the coniinon 
schools until he was old enough to take a more ad- 
vanced course, and then went two years to the Ames 
Academy in Montgomery County, N. Y. He then 
came to Lenawee County, Mich., witii his parents, 
and entered the Adrian school, pursuing his studies 
for a time, and then began teaching school, in which 
he engaged for three winters. Concluding to adopt 
the law as the profession of his life, he then entered 
the office of Stacey & Underwood, of Adrian, in the 
spring of 1877, for the purpose of pursuing the pre- 
liminary studies, and afterward attended the law 
department of the University of Michigan, at Ann 
Arbor, for one 3-ear. Upon his return from the 
University he In June, 1879, passed a rigid examin- 
ation and was admitted to the bar and began prac- 
tice. Eor a young man he has grown rrqiidly into 
a good practice and is fast jjushing to the fr<iiit 
ranks in his profession. 

On the 28th of October, 188.5, Mr. Winne was 
married to ]\Hss Gertrude Talman, a native of Fair- 
port, Monroe Co.. N. Y. To Mr. and Mrs. Winne 
has been born one daughter, named Beatrice, whose 
birth occurred on the 14th of February, 1887. Mr. 

and Mrs. Winne occupy a pleasant position in the 
societ3' of Adrian, and engage heartily in all pro- 
jects that have a tendency to elevate and improve 
the society of the place. 

j YJ/ ORENZO TABOR, late one. 

I (?g) inent attorneys of Adrian, was born in Brad 


he most prom- 
; born in Brad- 
ford, Vt., Fell. 23, 1815, and died at his 
home in this city on the 28th of April, 1882. From 
early life he had taken an active part in politics, 
and was a stanch Union Democrat at a time when 
it was prudent in some portions of the country for 
a man to be chaiy in expressing his opinions. He 
supported Mr. Lincoln during his candidacy for 
the Presidency and no man rejoiced more when the 
era of peace dawned upon the nation. He sup- 
ported the Republicans until after the second term of 
Gen. Grant and then returned to his old party. 

The sul)ject of our sketch was the son of Thomas 
and Abigail (Drew) Tabor, who were both of New 
England birth and parentage. They left the Green 
Mountain State in 1838, and coining to Southern 
Michigan, settled in Adrian Township, where the 
father carried on farming many years. Subse- 
quently the family removed to Hudson where the 
parents spent their last years; their i-emains were 
taken to Adrian for burial. 

Lorenzo Tabor vvas reared and educated in his 
native town, where he studied law and was admitted 
to the bar, commencing practice among the people 
who had known him during his boyhood and youth. 
A year later, in 1839, in common with scores of 
other young men of that region, he decided to cast 
his lot with the pioneers of the West, and coming to 
Southern Michigan entered into partnership with 
W. L. (Jreeley, at Adrian. Six years later the 
firm of Greeley & Tabor was dissolved by mutual 
consent, and Mr. Tabor then associated himself with 
Josiah L. Ward, with whom he continued until the 
removal of tlie latter to California. Not long after- 
ward Mr. Tabor was elected Alderman of the city, 
the duties of which office he discharged in a suit- 
able manner, and later began dealing largely in 
real estate in connection with his practice. He ac- 
quired a handsome property, and at his death left a 



wife Mild line (laughtev. The latter, Miss .M.'iri:i S. 
Tabor, is a highly accomplished yoniig lady and an 
efficient teacher in the city schools. 

The marriage of Loren/.o Tabor aii<l Miss Maria 
Ormsby lo,,l< |,laci'at Sprin.iiticld. ^■t.. May 1 .".. is:','.). 
The result ..I' llii> union was llu' birlh of three^ 
and one daughter, recorded as follows ; Thomas AV. 
died when three years old; Lorenzo O. at the age 
of eleven years, and Clarence L. at six ; Maria S. 
resides with her mother. 

-Hn- — .^^ 

^^a^AMUKL HHYAX is the scion of an 
''^^ Connecticut family, and was himself boin 
^I^JI near the town of Waterbury, that tStatc, 
Aug. ;j, 181.i. A year later his parents 
removed to Pennsylvania, locating near the town 
of Tioga on tlie Susquehanna River, and thence, 
two years kter, went into Tompkins County, N. Y. 
After a residence there of twelve years, in the 
month of August, 1830, they came to the south- 
eastern part of Michigan Territory, locating on a 
tra(^t of wild land, which for a long time was known 
as the (lilmore farm and was situated on the north 
line of Raisin Township. The father sidisequently 
established the first crockery store in the young- 
town of Adrian, but in the meantime retained pos- 
session of his farm where his family remained. He 
carried on a store until failing health compelled 
hiin to retire, and he died in the eil\' of Adrian in 
the summer of 1860. 

(4ideon Bryan, the father of oiu- subject, was 
born and reared near the town of Waterbury, 
Conn., and in early manhood learned the trade of 
carpenter and joiner, and married Miss Malinda 
Warner, a native of the same State. They became 
the parents of eleven children, seven sons and four 
daughters, one of whom died in early childhood 
and ten were living at the time of the father's 
death. Of these the record is as follows : Samuel 
of our sketch was the eldest born ; JVlary became 
the vvife of Elroy Sisson, of Raisin Township, and 
died when a young woman, leaving a family of 
children; Warner died when about forty -five 3'ears 

of age; Nelson and (Tilbertare residents of Neosho 
and Brown Counties, Kan.; Tillottson is a resident 
of Hillsdale, Mich.; Almira became the vvife of 
Cyrus Briggs, of Michigan, and died several j'ears 
ago; Clarissa is the wife of David Slayton, a well- 
knonn farmer of Franklin Town.ship; Edwin died 
when forty j'ears of age, and (4eorg'e is a well-to-do 
fanner of Macon Township. 

Our subject was a youth of lifteen yeai-s when he 
came to Lenawee County, and after the ordinary 
course of study in the common schools began to lay 
his plans for the future, his intention being to have 
a farm of his own just as soon as possible. Upon 
reaching his majority he set out on his owii account 
and purchased 200 acres of land. This he sold not 
long afterward and purchased his father's old 
homestead, which he occupied six years, and then 
sold it back to its original possessor. He subse- 
quently became the employe of Judge Stacy, and in 
the meantime had been married, in 1844, to Miss 
Laura, daughter of Moses and Voletta Smith, of 
Tecuinseh Township. The young peoi)le not long 
afterward removed to the farm of Mr. Smith, who 
was the proprietor of 200 acres of good lancL and 
subsequently purchased this property. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bryan became the parents of five 
children, and the mother departed this life at the 
homestead where she had spent her childhood years, 
in the spring of 1856. Their eldest son, Newton, 
is now a resident of Raisin; Oscar is in Kansas; 
Delilab is the wife of O. V. Finch, of Raisin Town- 
ship; Wallace is farming in Kansas, and Laura is 
the wife of William Scholield. Mr. Bryan was a 
second time married, in the spring of 1858, to Miss 
Maria Scout, who was then a resident of Raisin 
Township, but a native of Columbia County, Pa. 
She was the third daughter of William and Mary 
(Stine) Scout, who removed from the Keystone 
State to Michigan in 1856, and are now deceased. 

The present farm of Mr. Bryan comprises 120 
acres of valuable land with a neat and commodious 
residence and other good buildings; he also has 
eighty acres adjacent to the town limits of Raisin. 
He commenced in life with modest means and has 
been remarkably fortunate in his investments. 
Upon first becoming a voter he identified himself 
with the Democratic partj', but his warm interest 



in the temperaiico movement has now eonsti^iint 
him to support the Prohibitionists. His estimnli 
lady i? a momlier .nnd regular ntt(iKlant of tl 
Baptist Ciuuvii. 

-„ ,vg-|„r^>, ^^^ 

Tecumseh Township; the most of it is in ;i liiuli 
state of cultivation. He has paid si)ecMnl .-itlciitidii 
to the breedino- of Short-horn cattle, and has nu't 
with marked success in that line. The head nf his 
herd is "Garfield," a fine, well proportioned aninini. 
very well known to stock-breeders in this hicnlity. 

Mr. Kehoe was born in County U'exford, Ire- 
land, May 4, l.S3;5. His fatlier, Patrick Kehdc. 
came of pure Celtic blood, and was a farinei and 
stonemason, which latter occupation lie fnllowccl 
some time after coming to this country, lie mar- 
ried Ann Marah, who vvas born and reared in Wex- 
fordshire, and came of good stock, being of tlie 
family of M. P. Marah, who, for his eloqiuMil an<i 
skillful defense of his country and countiy men, w:i> 
expelled from England. The father of Patrick Ke- 
hoe, Philip Kehoe, was a large I.-ind-ouner and 
farmer, and lived and died in County \\ exford, 
Ireland. He mairied an Irish lady of uoud f.imily, 
who also died .at their home in Irelaml ; they both 
lived to be very old. After the birth of his nine 
children, two of whom died in infancy, Patrick Ke- 
hoe, father of our subject, came alone to the United 
States to make a home for his family in this country, 
and located in Howard County, Md. A year later 
he sent for his eldest son, Philip, and the following 
year, 1851, he sent for the rest of his family. Tiny 
continued to make their homo in H()war<l Cminiy 
for some time. 

In 185/J Philip Kehoe, (.f win mi we write, came 
to Michigan, and after working for two years by 
the month in the employ of others, he bought 
eight}' acres of timber land, which forms part of his 
present farm. In 1856 his i)arents and the other 
six children came to Michigan, and our suljjcct 
gave his father and mother ten acres of land near 

at the age of eighty-tive. .■111. Ulill retains to .-i re- 
in:irk;ilile degree the ability and aetivity wliich 
characterized her in lier younger da\s. 

Mr. Kehoe was seventeen years of .-ii^e when he 
landed in this conntry, and had rec.MVed a ii'ood, 
pnietieal edneation, which well titte(l him for the 
duties of life. He was lirst married, in \'irginia, to 
.Miss M:iiy Malonc, who was born in the North of 
Ireland, where her father, Heniy Malone, a devout 
Catholie, di..d when sl,e was a Miiall child; her 
nnithei- die.l some years .•ifter in her native Ireland. 
.Mary Malone reared l,y an uncle, a Catholic 
priest., with whom she eaine v> America when she 
ua> twenty years of age. She died ut her home in 
Clinlon Township in at the .-loe of twenty- 
eight, leavinu twoehiMren: Elizal>eth A., who was 
well educated, .-iiid is .-i >e.-iinslre>s in Adri.'in. ;ind 
Mary, who receiviMJ .-i i^ood ,.|ii<'atioii, ami i- a lis- 
ter and a teachei in tln' eonvent at .Monroe. 

Mr. Kehoe was a second time married, in 1 SIU, 
m .Maeoii Township, to Mis> .Mary MctJovern. She 
was born in New York State, March ;!, 18;io, and 
ill I s;40 came to Michigan with her parents, who 
are now deceased, having died in Macon Township, 
where they located on their arrival. By this mar- 
riage .Ml-, and Mrs. Kehoe have become the parents 
of eight children — Agnes A., Catherine, Frances 
M,. Martha T., Andrew D., Patrick L., Margaret 
C. and Ellen, all living in the home of their parents. 
Ml-. Kehoe and the family are all Catholics. 

(_)ur subject is a man of much intelligeiu-e and 
shrewd business tact, which make him a valuable 
citizen as well as a successful man, and this has been 
demonstrated by his lilling several of the minor 
ollices of the township to tlie satisfaction of the 

people whom 
-talwai-t DeuK 

politics he is 

fpSjs ICHARD KENT has 
\^J wee County for o\ 

been a citizen of Lena- 
cr fifty years, diiring 
,1[\Y which time he has been engaged inagricult- 
wgi ural pursuits and surveying. He now re- 
sides in the cit}' of Adrian, partiallj' retired from 


lenawef: county. 

business, bis large fann being cultivated by hired 
iielp. During his long residence in the county he 
has established for himself the reputation of one of 
its most solid and substantial citizens. He is a na- 
tive of the State of New Hampshire, and was born 
in Derry, Rockingham County, on the 3d of Au- 
gust, 1825. He continued to reside in that county 
with his parents, who were farmers by occupation, 
until the fall of 1835, in which year they came to 
Michigan, and settled in Logan, now Adrian Town- 
ship, on section 33, about two miles west of the 
center of the city of Adrian. The land was origi- 
nally located by a man named Woodruff, in 18"2y, 
who sold it to Alfred Budlong, who in 1835 sold it 
to Richard Kent, Sr. Ricliard, Jr., assisted his fa- 
ther in clearing up the farm, which has always been 
liis home. At the death of his father he purchased 
the interests of the other heirs in the homestead and 
still owns it. In 1864 ho purcliased a house and 
lot on West Maumee street, in Adrian, where for 
many years he passed his winters in order to l)e the 
better able to educate his children. 

When our subject was about twenty years of age 
he commenced teaching school, and during seven 
years he taught in Woodstock, Dover, Madison and 
Adrian. He had also studied civil engineering, 
and had considerable experience in assisting his fa- 
ther, who was an engineer. He has followed sur- 
veying more or less ever since. He has been a can- 
didate seveial times on the Democratic ticket for 
County Surveyor, but was beaten by his brother 
Burton, who was a Republican, and tiiat party was 
largely in the majority in the county. In the spring 
of 1868 he was elected Supervisor of Adrian Town- 
ship, and was re-elected the following spring. He 
also held the office of School Inspector for about 
ten years. 

On the 24th of February, 1859, Richard Kent 
married Miss lillen M. Reynolds, daughtei' of Ste- 
phen and Sallic Reynolds, of Derry, N. II., by 
whom he had two children, both born in Adrian 
and living at home — Lucy M., born July 5, 1861, 
and Louise S., Jan. 2, 18G4. Mrs. Ellen M. Kent 
was born in Derry, N. H., July 15, 1828. Her fa- 
ther was born in Derry, in 1767, and died there on 
his farm in 1848. He was the son of Gen. Daniel 
Reynolds, who was also a native of Derry, and 

served as a cominanding officer through the Revo- 
lutionary War. Stephen Reynolds married Sallie 
Ela, daughter of Samuel F. Ela, of Derry, N. H., 
by whom he had eight children, Mrs. Ellen M. Kent 
being the youngest. Mrs. Sallie Reynolds was born 
in Derry, June 2, 1786, and died there in Septem- 
ber, 1861. 

Our subject's father, Hon. Richard Kent, was 
born in Newburyport, Mass., Oct. 30, 1786, and 
was the son of Mariner and Sarah Kent, of New- 
buryport, Mass. The former was the son of Rich- 
ard Kent, Jr., and grandson of Richard Kent, Sr., 
of England. M.ariner Kent was born Aug, 14, 
1757, and in 1798 moved to Londonderry, N. H., 
where he died Dec. 7, 1843. His wife, Sarah Kent, 
died there the same Richard Kent, Jr., was 
born in 1710, and married Miss Hannah Norton, of 
Boston, in 1734, and died in Newburyiioit, M.ass., 
in 1794. His wife died in 1790. 

Hon. Richard Kent was brought up a farmer, but 
received a good education, being a gr.aduate of the 
Londonderry Academy. He taught a school for 
several years, and practiced surveying at times. He 
owned a farm about two miles east of the village of 
Londonderrj', where he brought up his family. 
Richard Kent lived on his farm in Adrian Town- 
ship until his death, in August, 1867. He was a 
man of prominence in his township, and represented 
Lenawee County in the State Senate about the years 
1852-53. He was twice elected Supervisor of his 
township, and for several years Township School 

About the year 1809 Richard Kent married Miss 
Lois Ela, daughter of David and Nancy Ela, of 
Londonderry, by whom he had five sons and one 
daughter, our subject being the fifth child. Mrs. 
Lois Kent was born in Londonderry, April 1, 1788, 
and died in Adrian,- Mich., Jan. 7, 1876. Her fa- 
ther, David Ela, was a native of the same place. 
Her mother, Mrs. Nancy Ela, was the daughter of 
Deacon .Samuel Fisher, who came to this country 
in 1740, in the nineteenth year of his age. He was 
born in the North of Ireland, but of Scottish de- 
scent. The ship in which he came to this country 
was usually spoken of as the " Starved Ship." The 
vessel was so scantily supplied with provisions that 
long before the voyage was completed one pint of 




oatmeal for ench iiKlividual on board, and a pro- 
portionate allowance of water, was all that remained. 
Mr. Fisher once wont to the mate with a tnlik'S|iooii 
to obtain some water, wliich refnscil him. tlierc 
being- but two-thirds of a junk bottle full on hoiird. 
Mr. Fisher's custom was to take a tal)lespf>onful of 
meal dail_y,and having moistened it with salt w;itei-, 
to e:it it raw. The passengers and crew liiiving 

lengtii reduced to the necessity of eating the bodies 
of those who died. Even this resource failed them, 
and at length Mr. Fisher was .selected to give up 
his life to. preserve the lives of the rest. Provi- 
dentially, however, a vessel hove in sigiit, and their 
signals of distress being observed, they obtaineil 
relief and were saved. So deep an impression did 
the horrors of that passage make upon the mind of 
Mr. Fisher, that in after life lie coidd never see with- 
out pain the morsel of food wasted, or a pail 
of water carelessly thrown upon the ground. 

Mr. Kent has arrived at that period of life at 
which men retire from the active cares of business. 
and devote their remaining days to ense and com- 
fort. ])uriug his prime and vigorous manliood, by 
industry and good management, he so situated him- 
self that he is enabled now to enjoy the fruits of 
his labors. In his business intercourse through life 
he made and maintained a record for the strictest 
integrity, and now enjoys the full conlidence of all 
who know him. 

'^^ M. CAMBURN, Town Clerk, and a success- 
(/m^^ fnl farmerand stock raiser, is now pleasantly 
^^^ located on section 21, Franklin Townshij), 
where he owns sixt3'-four acres of land, part of the 
homestead of 160 acres obtained froni tlic(ic>vern- 
ment bj' his father. Mr. t'amburn was born on the 
farm where he now lives Sept. G, 18:in, and is the 
son of William Cam burn, a native of New Jersej', 
who was born not far from Barnegat Bay. and was 
the eldest child of Levi Camlnirn. a native of New 
Jersey, and of Scotch ancestry. 

Levi Camburn married a New ,Jerse,y lady, and 
during the boyhood of their son William went to 
New York and located at Lockport, where the father, 


a minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church, was 
engaged in ministerial services for some years. He 
afterward came to Michigan, where he died in Hills- 
dale C(junty in I. S42, at eighty years of age. His 
wife had departed this life some time before in 
New^ York State. William Camburn, father of our 
subject, was rearerl in Lockport, N. Y., and there 
married Miss Sobrina Hill, also of Lockport, Niag- 
ara County, whose parents were also York State 
people. William Camburn was a soldier in the War 
of lis I 2, and (iid service as a private, and was also 
on guard dnly on the frontier at Niagara. He came 
to :\lichigan by the Lake njute in I8,S1. then ob- 
taining an (ix-teani at Detroit, he drove across the 
country to Tecumseh, where he located near the 
village, but not liking the situation, he sold and 
came into Franklin Township, where he purchased 
the' southwest quarter of sccti(_in21. This was on 
the line of the old Chicago turnpike, which was then 
lieing laid out and built, and on this road, which 
passed di.agonally through his farm, almost all the 
travel of the State was conducted. Here he built a 
double-log (■.■ibin. and coiidncted a tavern or i)ul)lic 
house for some yi>:irs. 

William C.'imbnrn came here before the town- 
ship was organized, and was elected one of the first 
Justices of the Peace, and was made Postmaster of 
Tipton, which ollice lie held for about thirty-six 
years. He also held the otlice of Justice of the 
Peace till his death, April 7, 1872, at seventy-nine 
years of age. His wife had died about 1849, at the 
.age of fifty -two. The father had been a Repub- 
lican from the beginning of the party in 1856. He 
was a successful man and practical farmer, and was 
prominent in the affairs of his community. The}' 
were the parents of sixteen children. Of this family 
there were two births of twins and one (jf triplets; 
one |iair of twins and the triplets are all married 
and have families. 

The subject of our sketch is one of the youngest 
members of the family, and was educated in the 
schools of Franklin Township. He has a taste for 
reading and study, and keeps well aljre.ast of this 
progressive age. He takes an active part in Repub- 
lican politics, and was elected Supervisor in 1871, 
which ofHce he held seven years. Two years after 
he was elected Town Clerk, and has held the office 





ever since. Mr. Cfimburn was married in the town- 
ship of Franitlin, April 3, 1860, to Miss Elizabeth 
B. Mills, who was born in Franltlin, this county. 
She was the daughter of E. G. and Ann (Breers) 
Mills, the former of whom is now deceased, while 
the latter is living in Franklin, aged seventy-six 
years. They were natives of York State and En- 
gland, respectively, and were married in Franklin 
Township, where they followed agricultural pursuits. 
By his first marriage Mr. Camburn has two chil- 
dren — William E. and Elma S. William E. took 
to wife Nancy Crane, and resides on a farm in 
Franklin ; P^lma S. is at home. The raotlier of these 
children died April 5, 1875. 

Mr. Camburn was a second time married in 
Franklin Township, Sept. 28, 187G, to Miss Jennie 
Mills, a sister of his first wife, and a native of 
Franklin Township, where she was born Dec. 25, 
1845, and was reared and educated. Mr. and Mrs. 
Camburn and daughter are members of the Congre- 
gational Cluircli, of which Mr. C. is Treasurer. 

J- OHN W. BENEDICT is one of the many citi- 
zens of Lenawee County who are profitably 
engaged in farming, and is a much respected 
resident of Tecumseh Township, where he 
owns and occupies a good farm on section 24. Mi-. 
Benedict was born in Warwick, Orange Co., N. Y., 
Jan. 26, 1822, and is the son of John and Phebe 
(Taylor) Benedict, the former of whom was born 
Dec. 7, 1787, in the township of Warwick, Orange 
Co., N. Y., near where the birth of his son John 
also occurred. The mother was born in New Jer- 
sey, Oct. 23, 1792. They became the parents of 
nine children, eight sons and one daughter, of whom 
all lived to maturitj', and seven are still living. 

John Benedict, of this sketch, was the fourtli 
child born to his parents, and was about seventeen 
years of age when they removed from their home 
in Orange County to Steuben County, where they 
resided for nearly eighteen years. He engaged in 
farming, and was married in that county on the 
14th of April, 1847, to Miss Laurinda Wolcott, a 
native of that county, where she was born Jan. 27, 
1825. She is the daught3r of Kalep and Rhoda 

(Hedges) VYolcott, formerly of Long Island, but 
who finally settled in Steuben County. After his 
marriage, Mr. Benedict still continued to reside 
with his parents for some years. 

In the fall of 1 852 the subject of tliis biography 
came to Lenawee County, Mich., to find a suitable 
place to locate, and his father came two years later, 
having determined to become residents of this State, 
and receive the benefits of its superior agricultural 
resources. Our subject obtained some land in 
Raisin Township, where the father also located, and 
in the following year the rest of the family came. 
In 1862 the father, a man of much worth, died and 
was buried in Raisin Township; the mother's death 
occurred in October, 1875. Our subject actively 
took up the work of improving his farm in connec- 
tion with carpenter work, in which be was skillful, 
and continued thus employed in Raisin Township 
ten years. In 1864 he sold his property there and 
removed to his present home in Tecumseh Town- 
ship. This farm is the one formerly owned by his 
father, but after the death of the latter, Mr. Bene- 
dict bought out the other heirs, and obtained pos- 
session of the whole, amounting to 130 acres. It 
had been partly improved during his father's own- 
ership, and some buildings had been erected, but 
Mr. Benedict has brought it to a good state of cul- 
tivation, and has replaced or remodeled the old 
buildings so that now they are among the best in 
the township. During the last twenty years he has 
confined his attention to agricultui-al pursuits, and 
has also paid much attention to sheep-raising, which 
has resulted very profitably to him; lie has a fine 
flock of well-graded animals. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Benedict have been born four 
children, as follows: George J. was born Nov. 4, 
1851, and lives in Harper, Kan.; Ciiarles M. was 
born Sept. 23, 1854, and lives in Tecumseh ^Town- 
ship; Frank H. was born June 26, 1858, and also 
resides in Harper, Kan. ; Rhoda M. was born Oct. 
14, 1867, and lives at home. Mr. and Mrs. Bene- 
dict often extend the hospitalities of their pleasant 
home to numerous friends, among whom they are 
held in deservedly high repute for their many good 
qualities. Mr. Benedict is now serving his second 
term as Justice of the Peace, and was Highway 
Commissioner for several years. He is a promi- 





nent member of the Democratic party, sturdily ad- 
vocating the various measures of that organization 
by voice and vote. Mr. and Mrs. Benedict have 
long been earnest and devoted members of the 
Baptist Church, of which organization Mr. Bene- 
dict has been a Trustee for twenty-five year*. 

L^^HOMAS BOYD. Erin's Green Isle has given 
i(^^\ to the United States some of her worthiest 
^^^y and ni<>st energetic citizens. They have 
been mostly men who commenced in life at the 
very foot of the ladder, and by a course of enei-gy 
and perseverance worked their way up to the top- 
most round. To these scarcely credit enough can 
be given, as none but themselves can realize what 
difficulties and discouragements they encountered, 
overcoming the peculiarities of a new and strange 
country, a foreign tongue, and at times, the indif- 
ference of a people who did not re.-ili/.e the strength 
that lay within them. 

The subject of this sketch, a native of the North 
of Ireland, was born in County Antrim about the 
year 1830, and continued on his native soil until a 
youtii of eighteen years. He received a limited 
education, his parents, William and Jane (Preston) 
Boyd, having been people of very modest means, 
whose chief concern had necessarily been the pro- 
viding their children with the mere creature com- 
forts. Young Thomas had always been a bright 
and ambitious lad, thoughtful beyond his years, 
and at an early age he made up his mind to escape 
from the beaten path which his father before him 
had trodden so wearily and with such unsatisfactory 
results. At the age mentioned he bade adieu to 
his childhood friends and early associations, and 
boarding a sailing-vessel at Liver] 1. fdinid him- 
self six weeks later on the soil of the Dominion of 
Canada and in the city of Quebec, i'henee he 
crossed into th'i State of Vermont, and not long 
afterward made his way to Livingston County. N. 
Y., where be engaged as a farm laborer for a period 
of four years. In the fall of 1851 he joined the 
caravan migrating to the young State of Michigan, 
and for a period of six years thereafter was an em- 
ploye on the farm of Pearley Bills. Afterward he 

worked one year for Peter Adams, and had now 
saved up a little sum of money which he invested 
in eighty acres of land in that township, and proudly 
commenced farming on his own account. 

Mr. Boyd, however, four weeks after commenc- 
ing work on this land, not satisfied with the out- 
look, traded it for 160 acres in Raisin Township. 
This he occupied six years, and then sold out for 
the sum of i^o.OOO, feeling well repaid for his labor 
and the improvements which he had put upon it. 
His next purchase was a farm three miles west of 
the village of Tecumseh, for which he paid $7,280, 
and which he operated five years; this he still owns. 
He subsequently purchased ninety-two acres which 
was familiarly known as the Fuller farm, and which 
he now occupies, and has brought to a high state of 
cultivation. He has remodeled the residence and 
added a good barn and other outhouses. Mr. Boyd 
has been an apt scholar in the school of experience. 
He landed in America with a cash capital of $1, a 
stranger in a strange land, and the fact that he is 
now numl)ered among the wealthy and representa- 
tive farmers of Lenawee County, is indicative in no 
small measure of the resolution and energy which 
have marked his footsteps. 

After he had laid the foundations for a future 
home and a competence, Mr. Boyd, when about 
twenty-five years of age, took to himself a wife and 
helpmeet, Miss Margaret Calhoun, one of his own 
countrywomen, but who at the time of their mar- 
riage, Nov. 22, 185.5, was a resident of Tecumseh 
Village. Mrs. Boyd is the daughter of Robert and 
Esther Calhoun, the former of whom died when she 
was but a little girl. The mother subsequently 
came to the United States, where she died at the 
home of Mrs. Boyd in November, 1874. Mrs. Boyd 
became a resident of this county about 1848, and 
was considered one of the most estimable young 
ladies of her township. Of her union with our sub- 
ject there have been born four daughters and one 
son. The eldest child, Esther A., is the wife of 
Wallace Tilden, and resides in Tecumseh Township; 
Fannj' married Chester A. Haynes, of Tecumseh 
Village ; Maggie is at home with her parents; Ilattie, 
Mrs. Arthur Dibble, lives in Adrian, while Wallace 
Lavern continues under the home roof. 

Mr. Boyd, upon becoming a naturalized American 





lp:nawee county. 

citizen, ideutifled himself with the Democratic 
party, of which he has since been a warm supporter. 
Personally he is a fine representative of his warm- 
hearted Irish ancestrj^ liberal and public-spirited, 
always willing to put his shoulder to the wheel in 
carrying forward the enterprises calculated for the 
general good of mankind. 


S. DEPUY is a worthy ;nid iionored citizen 
of tiie township (jf Clinton, where he has 
owned and occupied a farm since the year 
1854. It comprises 105 acres on section 
12, and eighty on section 13. He has highly im- 
proved it, and greatly increased its value since it 
came into his possession. That part of it lying on sec- 
tion 12 he purchased when he first came to this 
State in 1854, and in 1862 he bought the remaining 
eighty acres on section 13. He is a careful manager, 
endowed with much energy and sound judgment, 
and tills his land to the best advantage, receiving 
in return abundant harvests. 

Mr. Depuy is a native of the State of New York, 
where he was born in Owasco Township, Cayuga 
County, Nov. 21, 1817. His father, Philip De- 
puy, was a native of the same State, his birth oc- 
elli-ring April 24, 1774. He was bred to the life of 
a- farmer, and married, in Oi'aiiue County, Sally 
Comfort, who was born Aug. 2, 177S, and reared in 
the countj' in which she was wedded. After mar- 
riage they settled in Owasco Township, Cayuga 
County, and were among its i)ioneers. Mr. Depuy 
bought and improved a farm in the timber, on 
which they continued to reside till after the birth 
of their four sons and six daughters, of whom our 
subject was the youngest but one, while he and his 
sister, Mrs. Eleanor Smith, of York State, are the 
sole survivors. In 1831 Philip Depuy moved with 
his wife and children to Mt. Morris Township, Liv- 
ingston Co., N. Y., where he bought a farm, on 
which he and his wife continued to make their 
residence till death. The latter's occurred Oct. 
5, 1837, while the former died two years later, on 
the 8th of October, 1839. They 
bers of the Presbyterian Church. 
Depuy was a Democrat. 

.■ere both mera- 
In politics Mr. 

Our subject was educated in the common schools 
o( his native State. .He was first married Dec. 31, 
1837, in Mt. Morris, to Miss Sarah J. Smith, a native 
of Cayuga County, N. Y. She went to Livingston 
County to live when a young woman, where she was 
wedded and passed her married life .at Mt. Morris. 
She died June 29, 1844, and left two children, both 
of whom are now deceased. Eliza was the wife of 
William Butler, and died in Mason, Ingham County, 
after the birth of five children; Harrison at a very 
youthful age enlisted in the service of his country, 
as a member of Company D, 3d Michigan Cavalry, 
under Capt. Kellogg, and after taking part in several 
engagements, died of an illness contracted on South- 
ern battle-fields, his death occurring in Louisville, 
Ky., June 13, 1862, at the age of eighteen. 

Mr. Depuy's second marriage took place in Nunda, 
Livingston Co., N. Y., Feb. 26, 1845, to Milancey 
Chandler, a distant relative of Senator Zach Chand- 
ler. She was born in Coventry Township, Che- 
nango Co., N. Y., Jan. 29, 1820, and is the daugh- 
ter of Henrj' and Sally (Muuger) Chandler. The 
father died in New York State in 1869, and the 
mother afterward came to Michigan and died at the 
home of her daughter, in 187.5, aged eighty years. 
They were members of the Baptist Church, and oc- 
cupied a high social position in the town in which 
they lived. He was a man of much ability, and a 
successful farmer. Mrs. Depuy received a public- 
school education, and remained in the home of iier 
parents until her marriage. 

After marriage Mr. and IMrs. Depuy lived in Mt. 
Morris until they removed to their present home. 
To them have been born six children, of whom the 
following is the record: Josephine is the wife of 
John Hendershott, of Tecumseh Township; Fay- 
ette married Miss Carrie Updilve, of Franklin Town- 
ship; Wellington married Miss Ella Reynolds, of 
Kagle, Eaton Count}', and they now live in Alle- 
gan Coinity ; he is a minister of the Baptist Church. 
Cora is at home; the youngest living is Rose, wife 
of Thomas Taber, of Madison, Wis.; Emma was the 
wife of Ozen Keith, and is now deceased. Mr. and 
Mrs. Depuy have given their children the advan- 
tages of a good education. Wellington, Cora, Rose 
and Emma, were educated principally in Hillsdale 
College, and hold or have held high rank as teachers. 






Mr. anrl Mrs. Depuy are prominenl members of 
the Free-Will Baptist Church, and are imieh lion- 
orecl and esteemed as useful members of society, 
who have assisted in promoting the moral eleva- 
tion of the community where they have long 
been residents. In politics Mr. Deputy is a strong 

OSKPM F. BAKER, one of the most activ.- 
and enterprising men of Lenawee County, 
! came to .Southeastern Michigan with his ta- 
((^// ther when a lad fourteen years of age, and 
is now the proprietor of a valiialilc farm of 192 
acres of land in Adrian Township, lie in former 
years dealt quite largely in stock, but finally be- 
came convinced that mixed farming in this section 
of country was the most profitable, and this he has 
accordingly followed. He has been prominent in 
public affairs, although never an otlice-seeker, and 
aside from serving as Justice of the Peace and Road 
Coniniissioner of his township, has preferred that 
others should bear the responsibilities of more 
weighty positions. He is a stanch Denux'rat, po- 
litically, and has often been sent as a delegate to 
the county and .State conventions. 

Mr. Baker was born in Manchester, Ontaiio Co., 
N. Y., June 18, 1819, and is the son of Joseph M. 
Baker, who in turn was the son of Jose|)ii Baker, 
which name has been given to a son of each family 
for several generations. They trace their geneal- 
ogy back to Joseph Baker, of Narragansett Bay, 
KiSO. He was drowned in the bay near his iiome, 
and left two sons, David and .biM'|ili, uh.i UKcriied 
sisters by the name of Chase. 'I'lic patcinai gicat- 
grandfathei- of our subject was a shoemaker by 
trade, although fond of rural life, and owiumI :i 
small farm in Rutland County, \t. lie married 
Miss Experience Martin, who was a native of the 
Bay State, as were also his father and great-grand- 
father. Grandfather Baker died in Rutland C.niuty. 
Vt., when nearly sixty j'cars of .age. lie had been 
twice married, and the father of onr .subject was a 
son by the first wife. 

Joseph M. Baker was born in North .\dams, 
Berkshire Cip., Mass.. Feb. 19, 1780. He remained 


at home until nineteen years of age, and then tak- 
ing his worldly possessions, which consisted of a 
small package of clothing, he walked to Palmyra, 
N. Y., where he worked by the day or month for 
three years following. On the 27lh of December, 
1801, he was married to Miss Sallie, daughter of 
John and Betsey Cruthers, of Phelps, Ontario 
Comity, and they located upon a farm there, where 
they continued until the spring of 18.33. In the 
nie.intime, Mr. Baker, not satisfied with the resultof 
hi.s l.ibors, had decided to look over the Western 
country, and coming to Monroe County, this State, 
Ioc'iIlmI 21(1 acres in what was afterward Bedford 
Township. Returning to New ^York he gathered 
together his household good.s. and brought them to 
the uevv home which he had selected, and where 
they arrived on the Ath of July, 1833. The jour- 
ney was a tedious one, the facilities for travel at 
that day bearing little comiiarison with of the 

Besiiles the children of the father of onr subject, 
they were accompanied by several grandchildren, 
making altogether a family of fourteen. No house 
in that vicinity would accommodate them, and they 
.accordingly moved into a barn until better quar- 
ters could be provided. Mr. Baker finally decided 
to locate in Rome Town>bip. and on the 7th of Au- 
gust, 183.3, they moved int(j ;i log there, 
which was without door? or windows, and only a 
portion of wliirli u:is provided with a floor. They 
m.-nlf tlicni-fl\c> reasonably ctnnfortable, however, 
and occupied that dwelling five years. Mr. Baker 
then |)nt up .-i frami' house, which he occupied until;, and in that year moved into the second new 
frame house which he built and where he spent his 
la>t years, his life tei-minating at the advanced age 
of ninety-three, in the spring of 1873. He was a 
man of e.xecllent (inalities. who never any 
Irouiile witli his neighbors, and was never involved 
in a lawsuit: the mother died in 1 s.", i . The par- 
ents, religiously, were Universalists. and politically, 
.loseiih .M. l!.-d<er was a Democrat. 

'I'he snbjeet (jf this biography received his earl3' 
education in the subscription schools, pLirsuing his 
studies rnostl.y during the winter seiwou, and in the 
summer making himself useful around the new 
farm. His school days ended when he was less than 






fourteen years old, but he remained under the par- 
ental roof, and finally came into possession of the 
homestead, living there until about 18G5. He then 
purchased a farm about two and a half miles west of 
the city of Adrian, where he now lives, and upon 
which he has effected fine improvements. 

The wife of our subject, to whom he was mar- 
ried Oct. 17, 1.S4,'5, was Miss Cynthia M., daughter 
of Col. Edmond B. and Sarah (Cooper) Dewey, of 
Manchester, N. Y. She was born Jan. 29, 1828, 
and died in Rome, this connty, Oct. 15, 1857. To 
them were born three children, one of whom, Ed- 
mond, is living on the homestead with his father. 
Mr. Baker, on the 17th of October, 1858, was mar- 
ried to Mrs. Anna 1). Teachout, the sister of his 
first wife, and they became the parents of one 
daughter, Cynthia JoAnnfu, who was born in 
Adrian, Jan. 10, 1866, and died Feb. 17, 1875. 
Mrs. Anna ]). Baker was formerly' the widow of 
Alonzo Teachout, and was born Dec. 19, 1822. 
Of her fii'st marriage, there were born three chil- 
dren : Oscar L., a resident of Denison, Tex.; Sarah 
A., the wife of Samuel B. Gambee, of Rome, and 
who died Nov. 21, 1870, and Frank D., who is 
farming in Rome Township. A son of Mrs. Baker 
served in the late Civil War, in the 28th New York 
Infantry, two years. 

Alonzo Teachout was Liorn in Ontario County, 
N. Y., May 19, 1819, and was the son of Jacob and 
Rachel (Curtis) Teachout, a descendant of May 
Wiley, of Revolutionary f:ime. To Jacob and Ra- 
chel Teachout were born twelve children, of whom 
Alonzo was the fourth in order of birth. He mar- 
ried the eldest daughter of Col. E. B. Dewey, in 
1840. In 1855, he died in Manchester, Ontario Co., 
N. Y. Of his brothers, one, 0. L. Teachout, served 
in the late Civil War, and for the last five A'ears has 
been Postal Clerk at Denison, Tex. 

*>)BENEZER G. PRICE. The sons of the pio- 
neers are largely taking up the mantles of 


their fathers before them, and carrying on 
the agricultural pursuits in which their elders en- 
gaged, although under vastly different circum- 
stances. The latter were obliged to contend with the 
dlQiculties of which their sons have comparatively 

little knowledge. Many of the early settlers located 
upon tracts of timber land, from which the forests 
must be cleared before the ground could be culti- 
vated, and thus experienced, in addition to labor- 
ing upon a new soil, the added toil of removing 
and destroying these trees and tlieir roots. We 
can imagine the fields filled with the blue smoke of 
the burning stump-fires, and how perhaps this labor 
would consume a whole season, and the pioneer must 
wait another year before he could put in his crop. 

The subject of this sketch is the son of one of 
those men who came to Michigan over thirty years 
ago. and located upon land in Tecumseh Township. 
Here he remained until 1877, laboring diligently to 
secure a home and a competency, and his efforts 
were fairly rewarded. He is still living to tell the 
tale of his labors and hopes, and in a comfortable 
home at Tecumseh is spending his last days enjoy- 
ing the rest to which he is so amply entitled. 

George Price, the father of our subject, was born 
and reared in Wales, where he remained engaged in 
farming until thirty years of age. He married, not 
far from his birthplace, one of his own country- 
women. Miss Mary Walker, and after the birth of 
five children, being anxious to better their condi- 
tion on account of their little family, thej' deter- 
mined to cross the Atlantic. They took passage at 
Liverpool on a sailing-vessel, and after a tedious 
voyage of sixteen weeks, set foot upon American 
soil and proceeded directly to this State. Mr. Price 
employed himself at whatever he could find to do, 
being without capital — in fact $30 in debt — and at 
first it required all his efforts for the maintenance 
of his family. In time, however, he obtained a 
f(»othold and was enabled to save something from 
his limited earnings. His first purchase of land was 
the half of section 2, in Ridgeway Township, which 
is 710W owned and occupied by his son, our subject. 
He was blessed with a sensible and industrious wife, 
and while she managed their domestic affairs in a 
judicious manner, Mr. Price carried on his farming 
operations and soon found himself on the high road 
to prosperity. His straightforward honesty drew 
around him scores of friends, and no man is more 
highly respected in Lenawee County George 

The subject of tins history was born in Tecum- 





sell Township, Feb. 10, 1855, but was reared in 
Ridgeway and remained under the home roof until 
beginning in life for himself. When his father left 
the farm Ebenezer toolv possession of it, and has 
since operated it in the old-time successful manner 
with which it has been managed since it liecame 
known as a possession of the Prices. On the 21st 
of March, 1878, he was married to Miss Emma 
Dubois, and soon afterward brought to his home 
the lady who still presides over his household affairs. 
Mrs. Price is the daughter of John Dubois, a sketch 
of whom will be found elsewhere in this Album. 
She -was born in 1S60, in Ridgeway Township, but 
early in life was deprived of the care of the devoted 
mother, and was then reared by her father. 

Mr. and Mrs. P. have two children, onl}' — ]>ydia, 
born Jan. 17, 1881, and George W., Jan. 7, 1883. 
Our subject politically affiliates with the Demo- 
cratic party, aud religiously, with his estimable 
lady, is a member of the First Christian Church 
at Ridgeway. In addition to general farming he 
raises thoroughbred horses and Short-horn cattle. 

) occupies the old well-knt 

Adrian Township, 
wn Marshall home- 
/^^^ stead, of which he took possession in the fall 
^ra) of 1880, soon after the death of the worthy 
pioneer who had built it up from the wilderness, 
and whose daughter had just Itecome the bride of 
our subject. Since that time Mr. W. has looked 
after the propertj' and cultivated the soil in a judi- 
cious and profitable manner. He is comparatively 
a young man and is numbered among the res|)onsi- 
ble and reliable citizens of his townslii]). 

Our subject was born in Bristol, Ontario Co., N. 
Y., Feb. 7, 1844, and is the son of Ephraim Wilder, 
a native of the same locality. The i)aternal grand- 
father, John O. Wilder, a farmer by occupation, 
and a native of New York, was born in 17'.).'s, ami 
with his excellent wife spent his last yeais in the 
town of Bristol, passing away at the age of sixty- 
three years. Grandmother Wilder survived hei' 
husband some years. Their son Ephraim. the fatlier 
of our subject, was born in September, l.sil. .-uid 
died at Adrian, in 1869. He was married when 

Mary L., 
born Oct. 


about twenty-two years old to Miss Catharine Case, 
.also a native of the Empire State, and the daughter 
of a well-to-do farmer of Ontario County. Of this 
marriage there were born four children : Martha, 
the eldest, wife of T. J. Batterson, of Buffalo, N. 
Y. ; Henry J. of our sketch was the se<'ond born. 
The others were Erastus M. and Ozro, the Latter of 
whom is deceased. 

]\Ir. Wilder continued a resident of his native 
county mitil reaching his majority, in the meantime 
being variously employed. He came to Michigan in 
186;{, locating first in Lenawee County, where he 
lived until his marriage, which occurred Aug. 24, 
1880. The lady of his choice was Miss Joseijhine 
P. Marshall, who was born in this county. Feb. 18, 
1847. She is the mother of two (4iildren: 
born July 15, IS82, and a child nnnamed. 
14, 1887. 

Charles M. Marshall, the fathei- of Mrs 
and a gentleman well known throughout this 
section, was born in Connecticut, M.ay 10, 1806, 
and de|)arted this life at his home in Adrian Town- 
ship, Sept. 5, 1880. He was first married, Oct. 14, 
18:33, to Miss Harriet Osborn, and they became the 
ixirents of two children, one of whom died in in- 
fancy. The other, Jane M., was born Aug. 4, 1834, 
and became the wife of Theodore Nash, who is now 
deceased; they had four children, two of whom are 
living. Mrs. Harriet Marshall died at the home- 
stead Dec. 19, ISoS, and Mr. Marshall a second 
time married, to Miss Mary Pruden, May 19, 1840. 
This lady is the daughter of Daniel and Eliza- 
beth Priiden, of Morris Township, N. J., and her 
union with Mr. Marshall resulted in the birth of five 
children, as follows: Frederick D. was born .lune 4, 
IS II, is nun lied, :iiid is now a successful practicing 
physician of Chicago: he attended the Michigan 
University at Ann Arbor and was subsequently 
graduated from a medical college in New York 
City. M;iry E. was born May 15, ls4;i, and mar- 
ried Jefferson Scoonover, who was graduated from 
the same college as his brother-in-law, and is practic- 
ing medicine in Texas. Both these gentlemen 
served as soldiers in the Union army during the late 
war. being members of Michigan regiments: Fred- 
erick Marshall served three years and made a fine 
record. Caroline A, Marshall was born March 10, 



1845, and rlied at her home in Adrian Township on 
the 24th of June, 1 859 : Josephine, the wife of our 
subject, was the fourth child ; Charles H. was born I 
Aug. 1, 1850, and died Dec. 12, 1858. Charles IM. 
Marshall was a man of much force of character 
and was quite prominent in the political affairs of 
Lenawee County. He was an earnest supporter of 
Republican i)rinciples. and while no office-seeker, 
contributed largely to the popularity of his party in 
this district, and was frequently entrusted with im- 
portant matters connected therewith. His wife, the j 
mother of Mrs. Wilder, was a very excellent lady I 
and a devoted member of the Congregational Church, 
of which her grandfather was Deacon for a period | 
of forty years. i 

Mr. Wilder is kee|iing up the liomestcad after its 
old-time reputation and votes the straight Re- 
publican ticket. He belongs to the Methodist 
Church, while his wife in religion is a Congrega- 



YSANDER ORMKBY, Notary Public and 
) conveyancer, has for many years been act- 
X; ive in that line of business which, properly 
carried on, contributes largely to the prosi)erity of 
growing cities and towns, and the country in general. 
Mr. Ormsby is eligibly located on Carey street in the 
ambitious little town uf Deerfleld, and from an am- 
ple experience in his line of business he has done 
some excellent work, has built up a good busi- 
ness and enjoys a comfortable income. 

The birthplace of our subject was in the town of 
Westhampton, Hampshire Co., Mass., and the date 
thereof July 5, 1816. The family isan old one in New 
England, the grandfather of our subject, Nathaniel 
Ormsby, having crossed the Atlantic from England 
to America in the Colonial days. Grandfather 
Ormsby settled in Norwich, Conn., where he was 
married to Miss Elizabeth Perkins, and they owned 
a home at that place. They resided there until 
1776, when they removed to what was then called 
the "Far West" and was the part of Hampshire 
County which is now included in the town of Hunt- 
ngton. Here they were among the earliest pioneers, 

and the year after their arrival the young husband 
was called upon to volunteer in the Continental 
Army and assist the Colonists in their fight for in- 
dependence. Upon this eiTand he went most 
cheerfully, but was only permitted to serve a short 
time, his death taking place that same year at 
.\lbany while in the service. 

Among the children of Nathaniel and Elizabeth 
(Jrnisby was Samuel, who was born in Norwich, 
Conn., in 1775, and who became the father of our 
sulijeet. He was but an infant when his parents 
removed to Massachusetts, and after the death of 
his father, his mother was married to Deacon Miller, 
a fai-mer of Norwich, where she spent the remain- 
der of her life. Samuel, when quite young, went 
to Springfield to learn the trade of a saddler, which 
he followed thereafter in Westhamptoil and Chester, 
and died in the latter place on the 10th of Septem- 
ber, 1853. His wife, the mother of our subject, 
was Miss Rachel Day, and was born in Chester, 
April 1, 1785, and died near there Oct. 15. 1830. 
The parental family included twelve children, of 
whom eleven grew to mature years, our subject 
lieing the seventh in order of birth. 

Young Ormsby received a good schooling, com- 
l)leting his studies in an advanced class at West- 
hampton. He resided in his native State until in 
April, 1837, when, resolving to see something of the 
great West, he started out, making his way bj' team 
to Albany, the nearest point to the Erie Canal, and 
thence by canal to Buffalo. At this ptiint he was 
obliged to wait two weeks for the ice to break up, 
:ind then hiring a team to Dunkirk, he there took a 
steamer for Toledo, which was then a small village. 
Thence he made his way to Blisslield, this county, 
via the Erie & Kalamazoo Railroad, which had just 
been completed to Adrian; the cais were drawn by 
horses over wooden rails. 

Mr. Ormsby spent the sumr 


in Bliss- 

field and then removed to Somertield Township in 
Monroe County, one and one-half miles from Deer- 
lield. where he purchased thirty-five acres of timber 
iMud and put up a log house. He had in the meantime 
Ih'cu iniuiied. and under this humble roof he and 
his y.jung wife commenced life together and labored 
Lo build up a home. In due time a large proportion 
of the soil was under a good state of cultivation 

Residence OF W!5.Whelan, Sec. 15 Franklin Township 

Stock Barn,. Property of W».Wil5EY, Sec 26.WouD6iuLt\ iovvim5hip. 



30 f) 

and a substantial frame dwelling took the place of 
the log cabin. Fifteen years later they removed to 
Deerfield, giving up farming, and liere Mr. Ormsby 
has since resided. Wliile residing in Monroe 
County, he was School Inspector nine consecutive 
years and also taught sciiool one term ; he was also 
Assessor and Highway C'otnmissioncr of his town- 

Our sut)jecl upon leaving Ills little farm. cngagtMl 
,as a clerk m tlie general store of Jason Iliiuienwuy 
two years, and then set up in business vn his own 
account. In connection with his merchandising, in 
which he occupied many years, he bought a 
stave mill in company with Fordyce Hunter, which 
they operated a few ycMis. and then Mr. ( ). pur- 
chased the interest of his partner, and suliseqiiently 
took his brother, K. 1). Ornisby, into business with 
him. A few years later they sold out, ami Mr. 
Ormsby erected a l)uilding and opened a gmcer}- 
store, which he operated a few years by himself and 
then associated with him Charles F. Bliven as part- 
ner. This firm dissolved about 1877, and Mr. 
Ormsby thereafter devoted his time and attention 
to the duties of his office. He had been appointed 
Notary Public in 1855, and received the appoint- 
ment each four years after tliat until the present 
time. He served as Postmaster of Deertield for a 
period of ten years and lias been Village Attorney 
since 1880. No man has been more actively inter- 
ested in the growing town since its establishment 
than Mr. Ormsby. 

The wife of our subject, to whom he was married 
Feb. 27, 1840, was in her girlhood Miss Olive C. 
Burnham, a native of Montague, Franklin Co., Mass., 
and born Dec. 2i), 1821. .Mrs. O. is the daughler 
of Calvin and Lucinda (IJliss) Buiiihaui, :ind her 
ui ion with our subject resulted i the bi: th of six 
children, recorded as folows: Eliza C. died when 
twent3--four years of age; Edwin S. is a resident uf 
F^mmetsburg, lnwa: he is \'ice I'residi'rit and Ivistern 
agent of the American lii\ I'slinent C'()iri|iMny, with 
headquarters .at Emmetsburg. Alvin C. res.des in 
New York City; A. died when ;i child of 
six years; Lilly C. married Charles F. Bliven, now 
of Emmetsburg, low;,, and 'I'reasurcr i.l the r.iunty ; 
EttaB. was the wife of William Fedenuan. and died 
at her home in Deertield, in March, 1»«4, Mrs. 

Olive C. Ormsby departed this life at her home in 
Deerfield, July 28, 1884. 

Mr. Ormsby, on the 24t.h of February. 1.S87. was 
married to Miss Mary E. Masters, who was born in 
Monroe County, N. Y., and is the daughter of 
William M.-isters, a native <>f the same county. 
Nathaniel Ormsby, the grandfather of our subject, 
was accompanied to America by his two brothers, 
Amos and Ephraim. One of these settled in New 
Hampshire, and the other was soon lost sight of. his 
whereab.Hils being afterward unknown to his rela- 

.Mr. Ormsby c.-ist his first Presidential vote for 
Martin \'an Hiiren, and supjxirted the Democratic 
party until the repeal of the i\Iissouri Compromise, 
when he became a Rcpublic.-in, which he has since 
remained. K'eligionsly he is a believer in Spiritual- 

^•J^i:^EE^J«- - 

C^EORfiE L. OLIVER. One of the finest 
-, farms in Ridgeway Townshii) consists of 1 20 
J4! acres pleasantly located on section 36, and 
came int(j pf)ssession of the sid)ject of this biog- 
raphy in the spring of 1 HC I . Here he has since 
made his home and devoted his time to its improve- 
ment and embellishment. In addition to general 
farming he has made a specialty of sheep-raising, a 
department of agriculture which receives compara- 
tively little attention in the I'raiiie State, but of 
which Mr. Oliver has made a success. 

Besides being a thorough and skillful farmer, Mr. 
Oliver po.ssesses excellent business capacities and is 
quite prominent in the affairs of hi> township. As 
one of the pillars of the Christian Church he offici- 
ates as Deacon and Superintendent of the Sabbath- 
school, and is one of the most liberal supporters of 
the church in this i)lace. He is a decided Demo- 
ciat, politically, has lepresented the township in the 
County Board of .Supervisors, and .-served as Road 
Commissioner and Treasurei-. Krietly stated, he is 
one of those nun wIkj cannot lie very well spared 
in his community. 

George L. Oliver i> a native of Tompkins County, 
N. Y., and was born April '.I. 1832. His father, 
Simon Oliver, was born and reared in the same 





county as his son and lived there until reaching 
manhood. He then took up his residence in Alban\- 
County, and was subsequently married to Miss 
Mary AVright, who was born and reared in tlie lat- 
ter county and whose first child was George L., the 
subject of our sketch, whose birth took place after 
their removal to Tompkins County. When the lat- 
ter was a lad about thirteen years of age and there 
had been born to the parents six more children, 
all set out for the young State of Michigan, where 
the father hoped to better his financial condition. 
The journey was made overland with teams, and as 
was customary with the travelers of those days, they 
carried with them their household goods and pro- 
visions, camping and cooking by the wayside. The 
journey occupied twenty-six days, and although in 
some respects it was tedious, upon the whole tliey 
rather enjoyed the experience. 

Upon leaving New York the father of our sub- 
ject had determined to locate in Lenawee County, 
and they landed in Rome Township July 6, 1844, 
where he purchased eighty acres of land and at once 
commenced its cultivation. Upon it stood a rude 
frame dwelling, which was put in as good repair as 
possible, and which the family occupied until they 
could do better. Four years later Mr. Oliver dis- 
posed of this property and secured land in Tecum- 
seh Township, which he operated on shares six 
years. At the expiration of this time he purchased 
eighty acres in Ridgeway Township on section 35, 
which became their permanent homestead and 
where they now live. They are quite aged, the 
father having passed his eighty-first birthday and 
the mother her seventy-seventh. They are spend- 
ing their last years in the enjoyment of the com- 
forts which the3' so amply deserve, and are sur- 
rounded by scores of friends who long ago learned 
to value them for their kindly Christian character 
and their sterling worth. They were the parents of 
thirteen children, of whom twelve are now living, 
and four are residents of this county, while the 
others reside in Colorado, Kansas and Mexico. 
Simon Oliver upon coming to this county at once 
identified himself with its various interests, rejoic- 
ing in its growth and prosperity, and aiding, as he 
had opportunity, the enterprises set on foot for the 
general welfai'e of the people. He is a stanch Dem- 

ocrat politically, conscientious in his views and teni- 

I perate in the expression of them. 

George L. Oliver remembers many of the inter- 
esting events connected with the journey from his 
native State to Michigan. He assisted his father 
in building up the homestead, and remained a mem- 
ber of the i)arental household until reaching his 
majority. He then started out for himself, employ- 
ing his hands at whatever he could find to do, and 
on the 3d of January, 185G, took unto himself a 
wife and helpmeet. Miss Mary Wyrill, their wedding 
taking place at the home of the bride in the city of 
Adrian. Mrs. Oliver was born in Yorkshire, En- 
gland, Dec. 5, 1833, and at an early age was de- 
prived of a mother's care by death. She remained 
with her father until reaching womanhood and came 
with him to the United States. Proceeding west- 
ward immediately upon their arrival, they located in 
Tecumseh Township. Soon after their marriage 

i Mr. and Mrs. Oliver settled at their present home- 
stead and became the parents of seven children, of 

I whom but three are living, namely: Olive E., who 
was born Nov. 19. 1865; Cora B., Jan. 14, 1868, 

j and Ernest H., Jan. 7, 1870; these are at home with 

j their parents. The deceased wei'e Anna, Nanc}^ M.. 
George W.. and a babe who died unnamed. 

Our subject and his wife are members in good 
standing of the First Christian Church, in which 
Mr. Oliver is Deacon and Superintendent of the 

' Sunday-school. He has served as Supervisor, Road 
Commissioner and Township Treasurer. 

UGUSTUS W. BRADISH. The honored 

name of the subject of this sketch will be 

remembered long after he and those who 

are perscnally acquainted vvith him have 

passed away. He is one of the pioneers of Lena- 

I wee County, a man of great energy and force of 

ciiaracter. His parents were Calvin and Nancy 

(Post) Bradish, natives of Massachusetts and Long 

Lsland, N. Y., respectively, and supposed to have 

been of English extraction. After marriage they 

1 first settled in Wayne County, N. Y.. and lived 

j there quite a number of year*. In June, 1831. 

I they moved with their family to Lenawee County^ 



Mich., and settled in Madison Tonnship on sec- 
tion 23. 

Three years prior to this time .Mr. Hradisli luid 
bought a tract of 240 acres of land fruni the Gov- 
ernment, and afterward becauie ])ossessor of l.CiOO 
acres in Lenawee and Hillsdale Counties. He Ijc- 
came actively engaged in farniiug, and also took a 
prominent part in aiding the future growth and 
prosperity of the town and county. Realizing that 
railways furni one of the most important factoi-s in 
the building u[) of new countries, and are most po- 
tential in the advancement of our civilization, he 
ardently advocated the building of the Erie & Kal- 
amazoo Railway, and contributed ^SI.OOO to further 
the enterprise: it now forms n pai'i of the Lake 
Shore & Michigan Southern Railway. In 1.^34 he 
erected substantial farm buildings, which are now 
in a good state of preserv.ation. Here he and his 
good wife passed their declining years, her death 
occurring in 1839, and his, Sept. 17, 18.51. They 
left behind them an honorable record of good deeds, 
and their admirable traits of character still endure 
in their posterity. Mr. Bradish was Justice of the 
Peace in Madison Township for several years. They 
were the parents of twelve children, namely: Men- 
tha M., CuiTan, Nelson, Sarah, Luther, Calvin, John, 
Hannah, Augustus W., Amanda G., Myron W. and 
Norman F. Of these only three survive: Au- 
gustus W. ; Amanda, wife of Melvin T. Nickerson, 
and Norman F., all residents of Madison Township. 

Our subject was the ninth child of this family^ 
and was born in Macedon, Wayne Co.. N. Y., Jan. 
24, 1815. He was a youth of fifteen years when he 
came with the family to Lenawee County, and has 
been a resident of Madison Township ever since. 
He was reared on a farm and has always been act- 
ively engaged in agricultural pursuits. He now 
owns 300 acres of land in Lenawee County, and in 
improving his farm he has spared no expense, cul- 
tivating it with intelligent judgment, wliile he has 
largely utilized the experience of others. Some 
years after the death of his mother he marr 
took possession of the old homestead, hi 
living with him the remainder of his life. 

The marriage of A. W. Bradish witii Klsie .M. 
Appleby was solemnized in Madison '['(jwnship, 
April 13. 1847. She is the daughter of Jacob 

and Mary (Peck) Appleby, natives of New Jersey 
and Massachusetts respectively, and both suipposed 
to be of English ancestry. After their marriage 
they settled in Erie County, Pa., where they made 
their permanent home. They became the parents 
of six children, namely: Elsie M., Rosetta. Nancy, 
William, John and Julius. Nancy is deceased; El- 
sie M. was born in Erie County. Pa., Dec. 18, 1825. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Biadish eight children have been 
born, namely: C;ii'olinc A.. Clarence M.. Herbert 
II., Carroll E., William R., Josephine E., Frank A. 
and RLary E. Herbert married Ella Ai)pleby, and 
resides in Fairlield Township; Carroll married Ad- 
dle Spaulding, and resides in INLidison Township; 
William and Josephine are living at home; Frank 
A. married Miss Alice Harwood, and resides on the 
homestead with his parents: Caroline, Clarence and 
Mary are dead. 

AL-. Bradish is prominently identified with the 
interests of the town, county and State. His large, 
experience, progressive mind and energetic spirit 
have had a salutary influence on the connnunity. 
He has l)een Superintendent of tlie Poor two years. 
Township Treasurer one term, Town Clerk twenty 
years, and has been one of the Supervisors of Mad- 
ison Township six terms. He is now serving his 
tenth term as Justice of the Peace, which will make 
foi'ty consecutive years of service in this office. 
For fifteen years he has been a Director of the Lena- 
wee County Mutual Fire Insurance Comp:uiy. In 
politics he is a Republican. Mrs. Bradish is -.} val- 
ued member of the Baptist Church, and socially, 
she and Mr. B. are held in high esteem by a 
large circle of friends among their contemporaries 
.and the rising generation. 

->!^ --^^\'f^-^ «5^- 

HORTON is a gentleman 

-nt in 

- ... lii' affairs of Clinton Township, and 
l\ a practical general farmer, pleasantly lo- 
cated on section l."i, where he owns 160 acres of 
well-improved land. He first purch.ased eighty 
.acres of it in 1 SG4, bnt did not m.ake his home on it 
until the next year. He bought the other eighty 
'. •>. 






acres in 1881 and 1882, buying forty acres each 
year. Since settling iiere he has made steady and 
rapid progress in attaining a competency in his 
chosen calling. He has been a resident of Lenawee 
County since he came iiere in 1831, in the early 
days of its settlement, when lie was himself but a 
few years old, as he was born in Orange County, in 
the township of Middletown, N. Y., Feb. 14, 1826. 
Richard fS. Horlon, father of our subject, was a 
wagon-maker, and a very skillful workerat his trade. 
He was born and reared in Orange County, N. 
Y., and there he married the maiden of his choice, 
Miss Keziah Valentine, of German ancestry'. In 
1830 Mr. Horton came to Michigan to purchase 
some Government land for himself, and was also on- 
trusted with money to make a like purchase for two 
neighbors. He bought 160 acres for iiimseif on 
section 13, Raisin Township, and two tracts of the 
same number of acres for his neighbors in the same 
township. He then went back to New York, and 
in 1831 returned to Michigan with his wife and 
their five children, two daughters and three sons, 
who had been born to them in their old home. 
They came via the Erie Canal and Lake to Detroit, 
where Mr. Horton purchased an ox-team, and with 
a wagon laden with their household goods pro- 
ceeded toward their destination. After the first 
day's journey the oxen wei'e stolen, and more had 
to be procured before they could complete their 
journey to Tecumseh, whence they went soon after 
to locate on their land in Raisin Township. The 
father many years afterward closed a long and use- 
ful life on his farm in that township, where he had 
built a home in the wilderness, his death occurring 
in January, 1863, at the age of seventy -three j-ears. 
He was passionately fond of the chase, and had 
killed as many bears, wolves and deer as any of the 
settlers who were not professional hunters. He 
supplied his own table with game, and many a deer 
and wild fowl that had been brought down by his 
unerring aim found its way to his neighbor's larders. 
He was very popular among his fellow-citizens, and 
was known far and wide as "Uncle IJick," and re- 
spected wherever known as an honest man. His 
good wife, who was held in like estimation, died in 
1867 at the age of seventy-one years. 

Our subject was the fourth child born to his par- 
•4* • 

ents, and was but five years of age when he came 
with them to this State. Here he was bred on a farm 
to the occupation which he has followed since attain- 
ing manhood. He was married in Eaton Rapids, 
Mich., May 14, 18.50, to Miss Cornelia S. Long, 
who was born in Alabama Township, Genesee Co., 
N. Y., March 30, 1825. She was the second 
daughter of the family of eleven children bovn to 
Appolosand Sarah (Green) Long, who were natives 
of Massachusetts, and of New England parentage. 
Immediately after marriage they went to Living- 
ston County, N. Y., and settled on a new farm 
in Caledonia Township, where they encountered the 
trials incidental to pioneer life. They later went to 
Genesee County, but afterward returned to Living- 
ston County, where the father died in 1 K4."), nt the 
age of fifty-five years. Soon after the death of the 
father the mother and children came to Michigan 
and made their home in Raisin Township. A few 
years later the mother and a part of her family re- 
moved to Eaton Rapids, where her death occurred 
at the home of one of her sons in isfi.i, at the age 
of seventy years. 

Mrs. Horton was well trained to the practical 
duties of life, and received a good education, vvhich 
enabled her to successfully follow the vocation of 
teacher before her mai-riage. After marriage Mr. 
Horton owned and managed a sawmill in Raisin 
Township, which after two yefU'S he exchanged 
for a farm in Tecumseh. He afterward sold his 
property in that township, and removing to La- 
grange, Ind., he purchased a tract of land, and 
lived there four years; he then disposed of his 
property there, came to Clinton Township, and 
settled on his present farm. To him and his wife 
have been born two sons, Frederick A. and Henry 
L , both of whom live at home with their parents, 
Frederick married Miss Hattie I. Long, of Eaton 
County, where she was born and grew to woman- 
Mr. Horton and his sons are IJemocrats, and Mr. 
Horton has ably filled the offices of Township 
Treasurer and Justice of the Peace for some years. 
Mrs. Horlon is a much esteemed member of the 
Baptist Church of Tecumseh. and the family stand 
deservedly high in the community on account of 
their inherent worth and ability. 



lenawep: county. 


•ILLIAM R. WILSON, one of the repre- 
sentative men and successful agricultur- 
ists of the township of Ridgeway, has lived 
in this township a longer time than any other man 
living here. He was born in Genesee County, N. Y., 
and is the son of Robert Wilson, a native of New 
York, who was reared partly in W.-iyne County, 
and was united in marriage in Genesee County with 
Miss Phrebe Robertson, a native also of the Empire 
State. Mr. Wilson came of German ancestry, 
his wife of Scotch and Irish. After "marriage Mr. 
and Mrs. Robert Wilson lived in Genesee County 
for a few years, and during this time tlicir onl3- 
child, the subject of our sketch, was born. 

When Robert Wilson left New York for the [jur- 
pose of establishing for himself a home in Southern 
Michigan, he started with a team and wagon and 
$300 in money. He went l)y the canal to Bnffalu, 
tlience by Lake to Detroit, where he loaded all his 
earthly possessions on the wagon, and followed tiie 
trail to Lenawee County, stopping at Tecumseh, 
where he remained one year. He then came to 
Ridgeway Township, and invested iS20n of his 
money for 160 acres of land, where lie settled and 
on which our subject now lives. He olilniiud his 
land of Uncle Sam, and the purchase p.-ipn- were 
signed by President Jackson. On this pl:icc. on 
section 32 of what was then called Macon Town- 
ship (now Ridgeway), he built his primitive caliin, 
a pleasant little log house, which became his home 
for some time. In course of time this gave place 
to a larger and finer residence, one of the best then 
in the township, and now the lioiiie of the only 
child. The father lived to see almost .•ill the f:irm 
well improved, and owned at the time of his death 
nearly 200 acres. Mr. VV^ilson lost his first wife, 
the mother of William R., in 1855. She was a 
member of the German Reformed Church, and an 
esteemed member of society. He married IiIn sec- 
ond wife, Hannah E. Van Nostrand, and died Oct. 
8, 1866; the widow is now living in Clinton Town- 
ship. He was an old-line Whig, casting one of 
the first four Whig votes cast in the township, and 
later a solid Republican. He was an active, ener- 
getic man, and accomplished a great deal in the de- 
velopment of this township and county. 

The subject of our sketch was educated at Te- 

cumseh, and has always lived on the homestead 
which he inherited from his father. On the 5th of 
Ma.y, 1 852, he was united in marriage in Raisin 
Township with Miss Mary A. Kelley, who was born 
in the township of Sidney, Kennebec Co., Me., 
March 26, 1831. She is the daughter of Wayne and 
Anne (Varner) Kelley, natives of Maine, where they 
were reared .and married. The father for some 
years followed the trade of a blacksmith in connec- 
tion with the cultivation of a farm in Maine till 
1839, when the family came via canal and Lakes to 
Toledo, Ohio, and thence to Tecumseh by the 
" horse-car railroad," where they located in Raisin 
Township, securing a f.arm which they made their 
home until their death, the father dying Feb. 19, 
1854, the mother Dec. 1, 1886. They belonged to 
the Society of Friends, and in politics the father 
was a Whig. 

Mr. and Mrs. Wilson are the parents of three 
children: Julia E., who was liorn Dec. 12, 18G2, 
and died Aug. 30, 1864; Henry C, who took to 
wife Agnes Willett, of Blisstield, Mich., and lives at 
Constantine, St. Joseph Co., Mich., a teacher by 
profession, a graduate from the schools at Tecumseh 
and Ypsilanti, Mich., and Superintendent and Prin- 
cipal of the High School at Constantine; and 
Eugene A., who married Miss Kittie E. Fessenden, 
and lives in I'etoskey. Emmet Co., Mich. Both 
are teachers, .ind Mr. \\. is a graduate tR)m the 
schools at 'J'ecumseh and Ypsilanti, and is Principal 
of the High .School where he lives. 

Jlr. and Mrs. Wilson and their children are 
members of the Methodist Church at Ridgeway. 
Mr. W. is a Re|, and has been Township 

|[_^ GRACE BREWER. During the year 1837, 
when the young township of Tecumseh was 
struggling to assert itself, foremost among 
the energetic, and enterprising spirits who 
pitched their tents in the wilderness was the sub- 
ject of this sketch. He was then in the strength 
and vigor of early manhood, eager to put his 
shoulder to the wheel, and was soon acknowledgeil 
as a leading spirit among the various interests which 
resulted in the growth and progress of the com- 





IS amply hip-isetl 
I the close of a 
ivialilc position 


miinily. As years passed hy. lie \v 
ill the result of his labors, and unti 
long and itseful life occupied an e 
among his fellow-citizens. 

Mr. Brewer, a native of Hartford. Conn., was 
bom Aug. 13, 181G, and closed his eyes upon earthly 
scenes at his home in Tecuraseb, Dec. 11, 1881. He 
was reared in his native .State, and before reaching 
his majority became an expert car|)eiiter and joinei-, 
in which he engaged some time after coming to the 
West. His first vvork in Lenawee County was on 
the Presbyterian Church, and he here met with an 
accident which came very near putting an end to a 
useful and successful career. While upon the roof 
with a bundle of shingles, he missed his footing and 
fell to the ground, receiving injuries which it was 
supposed at the time could not be otherwise than 
fatal. His excellent constitution, however, survived 
the shock, while his extraordinary will-power assisted 
greatly in his recovery. The following morning he 
got up from his bed and rode with .Indge Stacy to 

Mr. Brewer continued at his trade some years, 
and among other important buildings put up the 
first steam sawmill in the county, located in Ridge- 
way Township. This was his own enterprise, and 
he operated it successfully for a number of years, 
when he subsequently eng.aged in the same business 
at Toledo, Ohio. In 1 848 he purchased an interest 
in the 'I'ecumseh Foundry and Machine-Shops, of 
which in time he became sole proprietor, and oper- 
ated alone until his son Albert had grown to years of 
discretion, when he and Mr. H. W. Conkling were 
taken into partnership, the firm name becoming H. 
Brewer & Co. From a very small beginning this 
enterprise grew to a large and lucrative business. 
Mr. Brewer was a natural mechanic, possessing an 
ingenious hand and a correct eye, and whatever 
enterprise he undertook he insisted upon having it 
carried out in the best manner. He was a man at- 
tentive to hi.s business, straightforward in his trans- 
actions, lionored and beloved by all. The univer- 
sal testimony summed up was that "Every man 
with whom he came in contact, whether in the busi- 
ness or social circle, was his friend." A large con- 
course of people attended his funeral, and among 
the most sincere mourners were his force of em- 


ployes. to whom lie liad ever lieen a kind and con- 
siderate friend and benefactor. 

Mr. Brewer was married, Nov. 4, 1H41 , in Tecum- 
seh Township, to Miss Maria, daughter of Isaac 
Ketcham. To Mr. and Mrs. Brewer there were 
born three sons and one daughter, of whom Albert 
L. is the only survivor. Mrs. Maria Brewer died at 
the family residence in Tecumseh, June 25, 1884, at 
the age of sixty-six years. She was a native of 
New York, and born March 18, 1817. Both she 
and her husband were devoted members of tiie 
Presbyterian Church. 


JOHN DUBOIS. The old adage, "His word 
' is as good as his bond," is sometimes used in 

^.,^1 connection with the names of men of well- 
(^^' known honesty, but never in reference to a 
man who enters into an obligation without seriously 
contemplating its discharge when the time mentioned 
arrives. Lenawee County is generally peopled 
with admirable citizens, whose good qualities are 
known far and wide, and of those who live in 
Ridgeway Township the subject of this sketch 
stands prominent. He is a good citizen and suc- 
cessful farmer, whose home is located on section 34, 
of the fractional part of the township. He first set- 
tled on this farm about the year 1845, and has since 
made his home here. 

Mr. Dubois was born in Countj' Antrim, Ireland, 
in 1820, and is the son of Alexander Dubois, a na- 
tive of the same county, and Susan Grier, who was 
also a native of Ireland. After the birth of six 
children, of whom our subject was the youngest, 
the parents came to America, landing at Quebec, 
and afterward came to the United States, where 
they began life on forty acres of wild land seven 
miles south of Ogdensburg, N. Y., where they re- 
mained until their death at a ripe old age; the farm 
is still owned by one of the children. The parents 
were of the Presbyterian faith of the North of Ire- 
land people. Our subject was only one year old 
when his parents landed in this country, and he 
lived at home with them until seventeen years of age, 
when he began to earn his own living. From New 
York he came to Michigan, where he learned the 

-► ■ "<* 



trade of » c-arpciiler, liut tlwit biisiiies> imt Miitiui;- 
his taste, lie only followed it foi' a few years, wlicii 
he changed his occni)ation for that of a farmer. He 
purchased the land he now owns, and soon after- 
ward married, in Ridgeway, Miss Mary Osteiliuut, 
who was born in Seneca County, N. Y., and came 
to Michigan with her parents, John and Sallie (Hai- 
lej') Osterhout, when she was very young. Airs. 
Osterhout was the mother of four children: Kli/,a- 
beth, Mrs. G. W. Smith ; Eva, wife of Joseph Cone. 
now of Cone's .Station, Monroe County; Enuna. 
wife of E. Price, who lives on a farm in this luuii- 
ship, and Mary, wife of our subject; I'^li/.abetli is 
now deceased. 

Mr. Dubois was again married, in Mooreville. 
Washtenaw County, to Mrs. Johanna Deni.soii, 
who came from Westport, N. Y., when a young 
woman, marrying David Denison in Monroe County. 
He died, leaving her two children — lane, now de- 
ceased, and Carrie E. This wife died at hei' home 
in this township, in 187.5, at the age of thirty-seven 
years. She bore Mr. Dubois two children — Ollie 
and Fred. Ollie married Oliver Curry, and they 
now reside on a farm in Milan Township, Monroe 
County. Mr. Dubois' third wife was Miss Maria 
McFall, who was born in Monroe County-, Mich., on 
the •23d of November, 1841. She was the daughter 
of Cornelius and Catherine (Denison) McFall, both 
of whom are now deceased, and was reared in Mon- 
roe County. She is the mother of one child, Floyd 
by name. 

Mr. and Mrs. Dubois both belong to the Meth- 
odist Church, and are active participants in all its 
undertakings. In politics Mr. Dubois is an ail- 
heient of the Democratic party, in which he is an 
active and effective worker. Tliey both occupy a 
creditable position in the neighborhood in which 
they reside, and are universally esteemed and re- 

eLARK W. DECKER. The building inter- 
ests of Adrian, as may naturally be su])- 
posed, have formed one of its most impor- 
tant features, and the general aspect of the town 
denotes with what skill and good judgment these 
have been conducted. Among the builders and 
contractors who have been kept busy for a long 

period of years and whose works have been the best 
exijonent of their ability, the subject of this sketch 
occupies an enviable position. 

Mr. Decker has spent his entire life amid the 
scenes of his present labors, having been born in 
Adrian Township on the 17th of May, 1838. His 
parents were Uriah and Experience (Baker) Decker, 
natives respectively of Columbia and Ontario 
Counties, N. Y. ;the former was born Oct. 24, 1805. 
riie mother, whose early home was near the town 
of Manchester, was born about 1808. They were 
married in the Empire State and came to the Ter- 
ritory of Michigan in the summer of 1833, locating 
on section 7, in Adrian Township, where the father 
opened up a good farm, cultivating the soil and 
erecting a substantial set of frame buildings. Here 
he spent the remainder of his life and rested from 
his earthly labors in December, 188^. 

i'he parental family included four sons and four 
daughters, all living, married and settled in com- 
fortable homes of their own ; the mother occupies 
the old homestead. Our sul)ject was the third son 
and fifth child and remained on the farm until a 
youth of sixteen years, when he chose a sailor's life, 
which he followe<l on the Laljes two years there- 
after, making trips pi-iiicipally from Chicago to 
Buffalo, employed l)y parties dealing in grain. 
When taking up his abode upon terra firma again, 
in the spiiiig of 1855, he commenced learning the 
carpenter's trade in Adrian. That fall he repaired 
to South Haven, where he spent the following winter 
working at his trade, and in the spring engaged 
with a party of surveyors bound for Minneapolis, 
Minn. He was employed thereafter in assisting to 
make the Government survey, at which business he 
continued until the severe winter weather com- 
pelled them to abandon their labors. 

Mr. Decker, in the spring of 185G, returned to 
Adrian and was idle for some time on account of 
an attack of measles. Upon his recovery he re- 
sumed work at his trade in the town of Rome and 
other points throughout the county, following car- 
pentering until the spring of 1861. The outbreak 
of the Rebellion broke in upon his plans as upon 
the plans of thousands of other men, and he, in 
common with them, considered it his duty to assist 
in the preservation of the Union. He accordingly 





enlisted, soon after the fiist call for troops, in Com- 
pany K, 1st Michigan three-months men, and took 
part in the first battle of Bull Run. In August 
following, his time having expired, he returned to 
Adrian and commenced work at his trade, under 
the supposition with man^y others, that the Rebell- 
ion was a comparatively slight disturbance which 
would soon be quelled. In the winter of 1862, 
however, finding that the conflict .seemed no nearer 
its close, he turned his attention again to his 
country's need and assisted in raising Company H, 
11th Michigan Cavalry, of which he was at once 
commissioned Second Lieutenant. He marched to 
the front with his regiment, and in December they 
fonnd themselves in Kentucky under command of 
Gens. Stouemau, Burbridge and Schofield, and 
took part in all the skirmishes and more serious en- 
gagements with the enemy in that region. 

In January, 1864, Mr. Decker was promoted to 
First Lieutenant, with which rank he was mustered 
out in October, I860. Upon his return to Adrian 
he was married to the maiden who had been watch- 
ing the results of the war with extreme anxiety, 
and in common with others had nerved herself to 
meet the worst, if necessary. This was Bliss 
Emma Halsted, of Rome Township, and the wed- 
ding was celebrated Oct. 14, 186.5. After marriage 
the young people took up their abode in a modest 
home in the town of Rome, where they resided two 
years during which Lieut. Decker followed his 
trade. At the expiration uf this lime he traded 
his property there for a house and lot in Adrian, to 
which they removed in .lune, 1. Silts. This lias been 
theii- home since that time, and one to which they 
have given much time and thought in embellishing 
it and contributing to its value, so that it has be- 
come one of the most desirable homes in the citj'. 
Lieut. Decker branched out as a builder and 
contractor soon after his marriage, in which he has 
since been engaged with the exception of three 
years, during which time he was foreman of the 
Adrian Car Manufacturing Company. He is a 
tirst-class woi'kman, possessing much natural genius, 
and has been concerned in the erection of some of 
the best buildings in the city, including the Rowley 
& Farrar block, besides various stores and some of 
the best residences. 

Mr. and Mrs. Decker are the p;n-ents of two 
children <)nly, Zoe L. and Leon E. The father of 
our subject served as Justice of the Peace in Adrian 
Township continuously for a period of sixteen 
yeai'.s, during which time among other duties he 
joined in marriage a large number of the young 
people of that locality. Clark W. takes an active 
interest in politics and is conservative in his ideas, 
reserving the right to support the candidate whom 
he "considers the best qu.iliiied for office. Socially 
he belongs to Adrian Lodge No. S, I. O. O. F., 
the K. O. T. M. and the (i. A. E. 

(»m. LBERT G. BURTON. The subject of this 
^O sketch belongs to that large class of cnlt- 

|rii! ured, intelligent and enterprising people 
l^ who came into Michigan from the Empire 

State during its pioneer period, and became such 
imi^ortant factors in developing the resources with 
which nature has so generously provided it. This 
element of Michigan's population has not onlj' con- 
tributed vastly to the cultivation of a naturally 
rich soil and establishing its reputation as one of 
the first grain-producing sections of the Northwest, 
but has stood as a champion of enlarged educa- 
tional facilities and the encouragement of those 
genial, social qualities without which no community 
can attain to its highest degree of perfection. 

These thoughts naturally spring to the surface in 
reflecting upon the character of such a man as Mr. 
Burton, the nature of which the biographer has 
gathered from the involuntar3' expressions of 
those who have known him for a long period of 
years. His early home was in the township of 
Vernon, Oneida Co., N. Y., where his birth took 
place on the Uth of May, 18-24. His father, George 
Burton, a native of Norwich, Vt., was born near 
the town of Hanover, and when a single man, in the 
year 1812, made his way to New York State, set- 
tling first in Madison County. Thence he removed 
to Oneida County, where, under the instruction of 
his brother Minor, who had located in Clinton, N. 
Y., he learned the blacksmith's trade and married 
Miss Charlotte Lockwood, who had been born and 
reared in Madison County. Soon after his marriage 
George Burton put into operation a mill for grinding 


,-fj^fl§,f ~l '■ "■ 


plaster, but after a time it was swept away by a ttood, 
and he then removed to Clinton and e^tnllli<hed n 
shop where he carried on general lihuk^inilliinu and 
carriage-making. lie also built at Ncinun llic lirst 
elliptic spring buguy inOncid.-i ('(iiinly, :iiid wliirli 
for a long time wn- ilsimI lu (•(uncy llie rnitiil 
htates mail between iuiportaut i)oinls. 

In 1835 George Burton sold out his interots in 
the Empire State, and gathering together his poi-- 
sonal effects started fc.i' the 'riTrilory of Michigan, 
accompanied by hi> wifr .•iiid four children. Tlicy 
made the journey via canal to niirfalci and thence 
by steamer to Detroit, where they liircil team^. .-nid 
completed the journey to the iKHthern part of this 
county over a cordur<_iy road, airiviiig in ( linlou 
Townshii) on the 2l'd of .lune. where Mi'. ISinton .-it 
once engaged at his trade of lilaeksnuth with a Mv. 
Foreman. Later, in company with John Nicholas, he 
established a foundry which they operated togelliei' 
three years. During the finaiici;i! crisi- of l.'SoT. 
which resulted in the breaking up of the '-wilih^it" 
lianks. Mr. Burton was tinanei.-dly ruine.i and 
obliged tosU>pend lill>ine--. Snh>e<,iielil ly. with the 

coming a bride. This child, George, is married 
and makes his home in Chi<-ago. being employed as 

ricil in 1S.-.7. was formerly M i>s .lane K. Roland, 
and they licc-inie the ptirciits of twi, children— Hat- 
tic ■■uid Katie, both now nianied. ."Mrs .lane E. 
I'.iuton died in l.^i;;;. She was .-i remarkalily intelli- 
gent l.-idy, and fullillcd lier duties a> wile and mother 

TIk' third wife of our ,snl)jeet. to whon) he was 
in.airi,.d in Isc, |. w;is Mis.s V. Smith, a 
native of New York State, who came to this county 
when a younu lady and die.l at her home in Clin- 
ton. FcL. ■.'■_'. She iiad become the mother of 
four children, llnce of whom li\e to bless her mem- 
ory. Tlie eldest. Carlton S.. is a teacher of instru- 
mental music and a resident of Chicago, 111.: .Inlia 
died in 1 s.s 1 when sevcnt<-en years of age: Christine 
and William are at home with their fathei'. Air. 
Burton, politically, is a straight Republican. 

indebtedness and spent his last years amid the com- 
forts of a good home. George Burton was born in 
1797, and departed this life in Clinton A'illage in 
the spring of 1873. His wife survived him until 
1883, dying after summing up her fourscore years. 
Both were devoted members of the Baiitist Church. 
in which the father officiated as Deacon for .-i long 

Our subject was the second .-hiid of his paicnts. 
who.^e family consisted of foui sons and fourdanuh- 
ters. Of these. Albert O. an<l thi'ee si^icrs are yet 
living. Mr. Burton learned blacksnnthing and 
carriage-making in the shop of his father, with w liom 
he commenced regular work in l.s.'S'.l, and eonlinned 
with him until reaching his maj(M-ity. I'pon the 
failure of his father the son succeeded to the busi- 
ness, and much of the time has given employment 
to as many as ten men. Of late years, howe\ei', he 
has reduced this number con-iderably. IjuI still 
carries on an extensive business. 

i\Ir. Burton was first married in Clinton, in Is.'.l'. 
to Miss Ilari-iet Seymour, who liee.imc the nn.tlier 
of one child and died about thicc vears aft.a- hc- 

ATHAN (iANUN is one of the most cnter- 
Itrising and successful citizens of Palmyra 
^ Town.ship, where for several years he has 
been actively engaged in the manufacture of lum- 
ber, and more recently- has lj<'come an extensive 
land-owner and farmer, lie i.s .-i unlive of Putnam 
Connly. N. I., wlieiv his birth occurred Sept. 15, 
is;!(;.. His f;ithei-. Lewis ( lannn. was :dso a native 

of Putnam C ity, and there his father. .leremiah 

Oannn. w.-is engage(l in Inruiing. and is supposed to 
ha\e passed his entiie life there. The father of our 
subject was rcaied in his native county, and there 
married Mary Z. KnitHu, a native of Put- 
nam County. Her father, Sylvanus Kniffin, was a 
native of the adjoining I'onnty of \Ye>tchester, and 
was a farmer. Shortly ;dter lus marriage Lewis 
(ianun bonuht a farm ouc-half mile distant from 
his lather's homestead, and four miles from the 
t,,wn of Carmel. He lived there for a few years 
when he sold his iiiopcrtv an<l ei-<issed the border 






spent the remainder of their live;*. They were the 
parents of four children, namel}' : Belinda and 
Eniilinda (twins), Nathan and Newman. Emilinda 
married Newman Wonlen, and lives on her father's 
old homestead in Connecticut; Belinda and New- 
man are deceased. 

Nathan Gannii, of whom we write, grew to man- 
hood in the place of his birth, and in assisting his 
father in the. labors of the farm gained the knowl- 
edge of how to work to the best advantage and 
how to make himself useful in whatever position he 
might be placed. This schooling has been of 
inestimable value in shaping his fortunes since 
thrown on his own resources. At the age of six- 
teen he commenced to learn the trade of carpenter, 
and devoted three years to obtaining a thorough 
mastery of the business in all its details. The first 
year he received $25 for his services, the second 
year $50, and the third year $75. By careful econ- 
omy he managed to save $25 out of the sum of his 
three years' wages. He worked at his trade as a 
journeyman until 1863. 

Mr Ganun was married in Westchester County. 
N. Y., Dec. 23, 1857, to Jane A. Reynolds, daugh- 
ter of Jared and Jane (Worden) Reynolds. The 
Reynolds were old residents of Westchester County. 
as also were the Wordens. They were farmers and 
highly respected. Mrs. Ganun's mother died when 
she was nine'years of age and her father when she 
was only fourteen ; thus it will be seen slie was left 
an orphan at an early age. She was boi-n Feb. Hi, 

Mr. Ganun removed to Berea, Oliio, and lived 
there until 1866, then came to tiiis State and 
bought five acres of land on section 12, Palmyra 
Township and section 7 of Blissfield Township. He 
removed a steam sawmill from Ohio to this county 
and (ujmraenced the manufacture of lumber. He 
was very successful in tliis venture, to which he 
confined himself entirely until 1878. He then 
branched out in other directions, investing in land 
to a considerable extent, and adding farming to his 
previous occupation. In this undertaking he has 
also been greatly prospered. He now (jwus 285 
acres of land, on which he luis erected a substantial 
-set of farm buildings, adniii'ably suited to the re- 
quirements of a large farm, and his commodious 

dwelling is one of the finest in the township. A 
fine picture of his residence and its beautiful sur- 
roundings will be found on an adjoining page of 
this work. 

Mr. and Mrs. Ganun have had born to them four 
children, all of whcmi are living, viz: Francis L., 
who was born Nov. 13, 1858, married Carrie S. 
Dean, and they have four children — Mabel L., Lillie 
M., Oliver D. and Elsie. Addison, the second child, 
was born March 3, 1861. married Clara Bancroft, 
and they have three children — William L., Ethel 
and Eleazer H. Newman J. was born March 7, 
1863, and married Ella Jones; Malvina A. was born 
July 7, 1865. The two elder sons live in Blissfield 
Township and the youngest in Palmyra Township, 
and all close to the old homestead. Mr. Ganun 
gave liis sons the benefits of a good common-school 
education, while their daughter was graduated by 
the college at Adrian. 

Mr. Ganun's life since he left the home of his 
parents has been a busy one. The practical lessons 
that he learned in his Eastern home have been of 
much use to him since he became a citizen of this 
part of the country, and to them, together with his 
business ability and persistent labor, he owes his 
present prosperity. In the prosecution of his varied 
business interests Mr. Ganun has promoted tlie in- 
terests of tiiis town. In politics he is a Republican. 

It is with much pleasure that we present to their 
many frieutls fine lithographic portraits of Mr. 
(4;uiun and his wife in connection with this brief 

OSES BOWERMAN, a pioneer settler of 
Lenawee County, established liimself in 
Raisin Township in the fall of 1832. He 
was one of the first to brave the dangers 
anil difficulties of life in a new settlement, and 
l)ears tlie distinction vf being one of the most use- 
ful members of a community to nhicli he came 
when it was just struggling into existence. Amid 
the vicissitudes of a long and changeful life he h<HS 
acquitted himself in a most creditable manner, 
having been enterprising, industrious, liberal, 
minded, and in all respects an honest man and a 
good citizen. He contributed his full quota toward 





the development of the resources of Rsiisin Town- 
ship, and enjoys the universal esteem of a lari>e 
circle of friends and a(_'((u:iinlanres. In liis some- 
what lenothy journev <ii life he has Deen accom- 
panied by one of the most excellent of women, who 
has proved to him a faithful wife and helpmeet, been 
his wise counselor in times of toil and dithcnlty, 
and is now the honored shai-cr of his lallcr suc- 
cesses and the comfortable home which Ihcy have 
jointly built up from the wihicrness. 

Our subject was born in Providence Township, 
.Saratoga Co., N. Y.. Nov. 27. LSI 1. His father. 
also Moses, was a native of i\lassa<-husetts, ami was 
twice mari-ied. his sccouil wife licing .Miss Kunice 
Dexter, who became the mother of our subject. 'I'lie 
latter was four years of age when his parents mi- 
grated from Saratoga to Wayne C'ounty and locatid 
in Ontario Township, whci-e the death of the f.-itlier 
took pl.'iee eight years Later. The mother with h<'r 

County, where they reiiKiined uiilil is.'I'J.and when' 

our subject developed into manhood. Si aftci- 

reaching his nineteenth birllid:iy he wa- mairied, 
and aceom|)anied by his wife and a number ot 
families, mainly his relatives. sl,-uteil toi- I hi- ■l'<.|-ii- 
tory of Michigan. 'Jhey .-di look up theii- .-d.o.h' 
upon a portion of the uneulli\ated land in Raisin 
Township, and Mi-. Uciwcrnjaii w.-is the pioneer of 
the timber tract, taking the le.-id in expjorini; its 
wilds and entering eighty acres from the Covern- 
meut. Their first dwelling consisted of a shanty 

with a shake roof, and here the youna eouple ( - 

uienced life t<jgethej-. \\'ild game was pUaitifid. and 
their larder contained some of the ehoii-esl meats to 
be fouiul then or now. It is proljahle that lliey 

were far more contented and happy ihi lany of 

the househoUls estalilisiied lo-<lay with more bixni- 
ious surroundings: tliey had nioic i:d>oi- and more 
real, substantial comfort. They c-m remember at 
least how glad they were I.. Mud a rest ing-plaec. .as 
the journey ti-om \ew Voik had been a<-eoniplished 
laboriously, first l)y canal to Ihiftalo, thence by Lake 
to Detroit, and from tlieic with o.\-t,e;ims. 

When Mr. IJowerman -tartcMl out with his yon ni; 
wife to seek his foitun<' in the West he po~>c>sed a 
capital of *170. Aftci' be iiad pureliaM-d his land 
and a cow, he had nothing left, and began to work 

for his neighbors by the day or mouth as he eoiild 
secure employment. 'I'he people about him re- 
spected him for his determination and indnstry. 
The pioneers njade it a rule to help those who had 
a disposition to help themselves, and though many 
of them were in the same condition as oiu' subject, 
where there was a will there was a way, and if they 
couM not give money they frecpiently bestowed its 
equivalent, and uith a mutual inti-rcst .all worked 
together, usually with the happiest results. 

Young Bowerman pursued the even tenor oi his 
w.ay, undismayed by hardships and <litliculti<'s, and 
in due time began U< rcaliz,' the r.'ward of his 
labors. lie felled the trees ari.uml his pioneer 
dwelling, and as time passed by <jra,<lnally brought 
the laud to a good State of cultivation. Not many 
years laba- the wilderness was transformed into smil- 
inii fields with gidwinn giain. and the shanty on sec- 
tion :!:l super,-,edcd by ;i brick dwell- 
ing on section 20. Adjacent to this there soon 
appeared :i uood barn and various other out-build- 
inL;s, .-nid iJie homestead is now one of the most de- 
sirable in IJaisin Tounship. The property includes 
IL'I) a.a-es of land, and Air. an<l .Mrs. liowerman in 
their declining years are enjoying the fruits of their 
industiy. l)les.-cd with the confidence and esteem of a 
host of friend-. There is a sung bank aca'onut and 
plenty to Mipply them with every c(jmfort as long 

th,. (,)u; 

on the 
latter | 
thai p. 

N. v., 



was !•( 


d by his e.xcelh 

lit par- 




which the 


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le ha( 

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igidly atll 



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. sim| 

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lid honest 


utes of 


>le. an 

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Ml and 


in tl 

Knipire State. 


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the orga 


of the 

sin ■ 



and has Tieen on 

■ of the 




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in this 

i lil 



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ml n 

cans to 




to uhom 1 







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and a 


a liali\e o 

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ritod as a minister of the (Jiiaker Chuveh. He mar- 
ried in early manhood, Miss Esther Mosher, also a 
native of New York State, and a bright light in the 
Society of Friends, in which she was also a talented 
speaker. Mr. Haviland and his wife came to 
Michigan in the spring of 1833, and located in 
Kaisiii Township, where they spent the remainder of 
their lives. The mother passed away on the 10th 
of January. 1840, and the father, surviving seven- 
teen years, died Dee. 17, 18"i(l. Tiieir household in- 
eluded twelve children, of whom Zilpha w;is the 

Mrs. Bowermnn was carefully trained in all 
housewifely duties by her excellent mother and re- 
mained under the home roof until her marriage. 
Of her union with our subject there have been born 
thirteen children, of whom seven are deceased, 
namely: Eunice, who died in infancy; Martha, when 
twenty-two years old: Eunice, (2d), at the age of 
two years; Daniel when one j'earold; Cordelia Ann 
at the age of three years; Rosalinda at forty -five 
years, and Mary at forty-three years. Esther, the 
eldest daughter living, is the wife of Solomon Dye, 
a farmer of Nebraska; Moses is married and en- 
gaged in the lumber business in Summit City, this 
State; Nancy, who married James Kennedy, i.s 
living at home with her parents; Louisa is the wife 
i)f James Starm, and a resident of Raisin Township; 
Sarah married Charles Widney, and is a i-esident of 
Louisiana, while Ellen J. liKirrieil Orlando \\"est- 
gate, and lives in Raisin T()\vnshi|). 

The picture of this excellent old couple, jmssing 
their last years together in the home built up by so 
nuuiy years of labor and patience, and which is now 
rei)lete with comfort, is one eminently |)leasing to 
contemplate. They have lived long and worthily, 
and their names will be held in kindly remembrance 
years after the places that now know them shall 
know them no more. 

ff^, ETER KLSHPAUCiH. This gentleman rep- 
resents the grain and farm produce trade 
in Clinton Townshii), with whose business 

ciated for many yc;iis I pun first coming tu this 
section of countiy he local-eel in Franklin Township, 

and going over the line subsequently- secured a 
tract of land on section 3.5, in Manchester Town- 
ship, Washtenaw County. A large portion of his 
life has been spent in agricultural pursuits, but his 
home is now in the village of- Clinton, where he 
took up his residence in September, 1882. He 
possesses excellent business qualiflcations and has 
secured a competence for his old age. 

Our subject was born in Sussex Count}', N. J.) 
June 3, 1833, and is the son of Jonas Kishpaugh, 
who was born and reared in Warren County, N. J. 
The family was originally from Germany and has 
been largely engaged in agricultural pursuits for 
generations. Jonas Kishpaugh removed to Sussex 
Countj^ when a young man, and was there married 
to Miss Rachel Ousted, a New Jersey lady, also 
reared in Sussex County. After the birth of six 
children, one of whom died in infancy, the parents 
left their home on the New England coast and 
sought the wilds of Southeastern Michigan. They 
landed in Adrian Township, this county, in 1849, 
but later removed to Tecumseh Township, where 
the father purchased a tract of land, on which both 
parents continued the remainder of their days. The 
father of our subject became an extensive land- 
owner, having at one time a clear title to 500 acres. 
The mother departed this life about 1869, and 
Jonas Kishpaugh followed his faithful and affec- 
tionate companion four years later, his death oc- 
curring in February, 1873, when he was .seventy- 
seven years of age. The parents had for many 
years been devoted members of the Baptist Church, 
and the father, i)olitically, was independent. 

Peter Kishijaugh continued under the home roof 
until his marriage, which took place in Dundee 
Township, Moinoe Co.. .Mich., the bride being Miss 
Ann E. Lambert, who was born in Palmj-ra, this 
county, Sept. 18, 1840. Her parents, Ansel C. and 
Sarah (Dillingham) Lambert, were natives of New 
Yoik State, where they were reared and married. 
They came to Michigan in 1833, while it was still 
a Territory, and located on a tract of wild land in 
Palmyra Township. The father subsequently re- 
moved to Lambert Village, in Monroe County, and 
thence to a farm in Dundee Town-hiii. where he 
was engaged in agricultural piusiiits for .several 
years. Upon retiring from active labor he took up 

LENAA^^E^: county. 



Ill's residence in the viJln^ir <if 1 )iin(lie. \\lici-c lii^ 
death toolv place Oct. ."), ls.s2. when lie was seventy- 
three years oM. lie li.'id l.ceii :i nieuilicr ..f the lie- 
publican party since ils (i|-n:ini/.a.t ion and \v:is a of standing- in liis conminnity, luildinu niu>l 
of the township offices. The mother is yet livin;:, 
mailing lier iioiiie witii lier cliildren, and is sevenly- 
four years of age. 

Mrs. Kishpangh received lier edncation in tlio 
district schools of her native township. aii<l at lionic 
became familiar with all iionsewifcly dntics. ()f 
her marriage with our subject there hav<' liecii l)orn 
se^en children, of wliom ime daugliter dicil when 
nine years of age. .loini I,, inaii'ied Miss Carrie 
Brown, and is operating his father's farm in Man- 
chester Township, Washtenaw County; George W., 
a gradii.ate of the Medical De|)artment of Michigan 
State ITniversity, is a practicing piiy>ician; .Saraii 
is the wife of \V. II. Dorr, ;i well-to-do farmer of 
Franklin Township, this county; Mary E. is a 
teacher by profession and makes her home with her 
parents; Ansel .1. is tlie assistant of his father in 
the extensive business affairs of (he latter; Albeit 
F. continues under the home roof. .Mr. Kishpangh, 
politically, is a decided Democrat, and both he and 
his most estimable lady are regular attendants of 
the Episcopal Church at Clinton. 

JT/OHN F.ECKLEY occupies a good farm lying 
on the Ridge road, on section ■_>«, Macon 
Town-hii). whic^hhe purchased in the fall of 
!i is.ll. The land, under a goo. I pn.ccss of 
cultivation, yields in abundance the choicest crops 
of this section of countr}', and the present proprie- 
tor has effected the improvements, which are viewed 
l)y the passing traveler with unmixed admiration. 
Mr. Beckley was born in New York City, Oct. 
25, 1825, and is the son of Christopher and Eliza- 
beth (Bigle) Beckley, who were of (ierman pnrcnt- 
age and born and reared in the Fatherland. They 
were married not far from the place of their birth, 
hi Baden, where they rem.ained until after the birth 
of three children, and then emigrated to the tfnited 
States, where the elder Beckley pursued his oecu- 
patioii as a gardener some ^ears. Our subject con- 

state until 
luc to this 

Iwi'iily-si.x years of age, wlieii 1 
county, and was siibsequeully joined b\ Ihem. and 
they made their home with him until theii- decease, 
'i'hc mother ji.assed aw.ay in isC,",. at the age of sev- 
iiity-flveyears, while the fatlnr Mirvivcd his wife 
three yea-s, and died at almost eighty-nine years of 
age. They are i-eineinbcicd as jieoplc of sterling 
woi-th and integrity, and were inembcrs in good 
standing of the Methodist Church. They 
((ossessed in a marked degree the reliable and sub- 
stantial traits of their excellent German .ancestors, 
which they transniitted lo their children, whom they 
trained to h.abits of in.iustrv and princijiles of 

Mr. Beckley, liefore leaving the metropolis, was 
married, July 1."), 1851, to Miss Margaret Schreyer, 
who was also of German birth and parentage, her 
childhood home being in the little Kingdom of Ba- 
varia, where she was born March 24, 18;',.3. She 
came to the United States with her parents, Fred- 
erick J. and Kuiiiguhda (Martin) Schreyer, when a 
child eight years of age. They located in New 
York City, where the father engaged in general 
merchandising and also carried on the manufacture 
of matches for a good many years. In 18()2 they 
joined their children in lliis county, locating on a 
farm in Macou T.iwnship, where the father died 
Oct. i), 1871. The mother subsequently made 
her home with her daughter, Mrs. Beckley, where 
her death took place in April, 1879, after she had 
liassed her eightieth birthday. Mr. Beckley, like 
his father before him, is a stanch Democrat, politic-' 
ally, and although taking an interest in the general 
welfare of his township, is no ollice-seeker, prefer- 
ring to give his time and attention to his private 




COVEL C. STACY is a Lenawee County 
1, and proprietor of the Tecnmseh Jler- 
, with which he has been connected since 
November, 1874. He was born in Tecnm- 
seh Milage, Aug. 2, 1841, and has continued a res- 
ident of his native town his entire life. His boy- 
hood was spent in school and on his father's farm, 
and at the age of nineteen years he had completed 




!i full course of study in the Tecumseh High School. 
In September, 1860, he entered the State Univer- 
sity at Ann Arbor, took the regular classical course, ' 
and was graduated in June, 1864, prepared for the 1 
more serious business of life. ! 

Upon his return from college, ynuiig Stac\' be- 
gan the study of law in the office of his father, act- 
ing. at the same time as clerk, until October, 1867. I 
He then returned to his Alma Mater, and took a 
six months' course in the law department of the I 
university. During his first attendance there, he [ 
ranked well in his class, excelling in the languages 
and rhetorical studies. In his senior year he was 
considered one of the best debators in the college, j 
He was a member of the " Delta Kappa Epsilon j 
Secret Society," and in his senior year he joined j 
"The Owls." Upon entering the law department 
he at once took an advanced position, became a 
prominent member of the Webster Society, and I 
ranked as one of the most fluent speakers in that 
department. Mr. Stacy was admitted to practice 
in the courts of Lenawee Countj-, May 29, 1.S68, i 
and to the United States Circuit Court of Detroit, 
on the 25th of March, 1 870. While yet a student | 
in his father's office, he had begun trying cases in i 
Justice's Courts, and acted as attorney in over 
thirty such trials, before his admissio.n to the bar. ! 

Mr. Stacy commenced his regular practice in 
partnership with his honored father, the firm being 
C. A. & S. C. Stacy, and continued until Novem- 
ber, 1874. He had been considerably interested in 
newspaper work for some time, and now purchased 
the Tecumseh Herald, for a consideration of §1,200. 
At this date, November, 1887, the office rejiresents 
an investment of i;9,000, and from a circulation of 
700, the present proprietor has brought the sub- 
scription list up to 1,500. In August, 1885, Mr. 
Stacy purchased the plant of the Addison Courier, 
and in October, 1887, added the outfit of the Brit- 
ton Eagle. He still continues the proprietorship 
and publication of both, employing Mr. A. J. 
Kempton as local manager of the Courier, while 
Mr. M. S. Hendershott holds the s.ame position in 
connection with the Eagle. 

Mr. Stacy has been quite prominent in local pol- 
itics, and uniformly works with the Democratic 
party, of which his paternal ancestors have been 

adherents since Jefferson's time. At the town meet- 
ing in April, 1866. he was elected Justice of the 
Peace for the townshii) of Tecumseh, his term be- 
ginning on the following 4th of July and continu- 
ing four j^ears. louring the ensuing ten years, he 
ran twice for member of the Lo\ver House in the 
Legislature, and twice for Prosecuting Attorney of 
Lenawee County, on the Democratic ticket, and 
was handsomely beaten in all four contests. It is 
hardly necessary to state that he was on the minor- 
ity side, but upon each occasion he polled more 
votes than the straight party ticket. 

In September, 1869, Mr. Stacy was chosen a 
School Trustee in the Union District, comprising 
the village of Tecumseh, and was elected Director, 
in which position he served until resigning to enter 
upon his law practice at Adrian. He returned to 
Tecumseh in the spring of 1871, and in September, 
1872, was again chosen School Trustee, and filled 
the position of Director of the Board for twelve 
successive years, retiring in 1884, when he declined 
a re-election. The present reputation of the Te- 
cumseh Union School is largely due to the labors 
and zeal of Mr. Stacy during these years. In April, 
1871, Mr. Stacy was elected Supervisor of Tecum- 
seh Township, on the Democratic ticket, although 
the township gave a normal Republican majority 
of nearly 100, and discharged his duties so satisfac- 
torily that he was re-elected in the spring of 1872. 
In April, 1873, he was defeated for the same office 
by Alfred D. Hall, Republican, by a majority of 
two, and was afterward twice defeated by the same 
gentleman. He goes, however, upon the principle 
that all is fair in a war of this kind, and takes his 
defeat in the best manner possible. After the Dem- 
ocratic administration came into power, and the 
term of Frederick Rosecrans, the Republican Post- 
master at Tecumseh, was about to exjHre, S. C. Stacj' 
was one of the prominent candidates for that office, 
Init his father. Judge Stacy, carried off the prize. 

Mr. Stacy has been for man3' years connected 
with the Universalist Church of Tecumseh. He 
was Superintendent of the Sunday-school for twenty- 
years, and served as a member of the parish 
Trustees for about the same length of time, most of 
the time acting as Clerk of the board. Mr. Stacy 
suffers somewhat from the infirmity of partial deaf- 



iics>. :ni.l il u:i.- wi, :i<-<.,,init ,4 thi> tlmt li,' iv 
from liis law practi.-e ■■nid t'iit.eiv<l iiim,ii th.' |>r 
sioii of joiirnalisiii. With the exception of 
Applegate, of the Adrian Times, he is now Ihr 
est editor in continuous sei-vice in Lenawee ( oi 
He wiehls a ready pen, is an enthusiastic lo\ c 
his profession, and is recognized by his lirelhii 
the craft as one of the leading joni'uaJisl- of S( 
ern Michigan. 

ROF. L. 

) prietor 

BROWN, Principal ami pid- 
Brown's Business University. 
(^I^ one of the well-known institutions of 

I I Adrian, has contributed largely to the ed- 
ucational facilities of the city in having established 
one of the best colleges of its kind in the State, [t 
comprises a thorough and comi)lete course of i)rae- 
tical education, which cannot fail to be of use to 
men in all de|)artments of trade, and is fully of .is 
much advantage to the artisan, mechanic and 
farmer, who often labor at a disadvantage because 
of their limited knowledge of the rules which gov- 
ern general business transactions, as to those con- 
fined principally to commercial transactions. 

Mr. Brown has the advantage of being well known 
in this section of the country, where he has passed 
the greater part of his life. He is the son of a well- 
to-do farmer of Raisin Township, and was born at 
the homestead, north of the city, on the 2()th of 
October, 1860. His parents, Samnel and Rhoda 
(Knapp) Brown, were natives of Rochester, N. Y., 
and came to Jllchigan with their parents early in 
life. The Knapp family settled in Adrian Town- 
ship, and the young people after their marriage be- 
gan life together on a farm in Raisin Township. 
They are now numbered among the most highly 
respected residents of this township, where they oc- 
cupy a comfortable homestead and are spending 
their later years in peace and comfort. 

Prof. Brown pursued his first studies in the com- 
mon schools, and completed his literary course in 
Raisin Valley Seminary. For a more practical ed- 
ucation he entered the Detroit Business University, 
where he took a full course, and soon afterward put 
his acquirements to the test by engaging as book- 

B. Cook A 
if residence i 

of De- 


keeper for the lirm of (). B. Cook A Co., 
troit. His next eliange o 
to Adrian, where he as.-un 
to his tastes, becomiiii; 1' 
ciril Department of the 111 

view the estalilishnient of .'Mi institution which 
should vary in some particulars from anything of 
the kind heretofore projected, and he commenced 
operations on the third floor of the VA'heeler Block, 
at the corner of Maumee and Winter streets. From 
that modest beginning has grown the university 
which is now attracting favorable attention from 
lioth educators and students. The course includes 
double and single entry book-keeping, actual busi- 
ness practice and correspondence, banking, com- 
mercial law, penmanship, political economy, busi- 
ness arithmetic and spelling. The |inpil who mas- 
ters these in this institution will be indeed finely 
equipped for the ordinary business of life in com- 
niercial circles. 

The university started in Decenilier, 1<S«4, with 
a class of five students, and in December, 1887, 
there was a regular attendance of over 100. Fur- 
ther comment is scarcely necessary, and another 
year will probably report a still more generous ap- 
preciation of one of the most lauthible undertakings 
in the citv. 

EMUEL McCORMICK, a i)rosi)erous farmer 
of Riga Township, may well be considered 
pioneer of this county, as the farm which 
he now owns was covered with the primeval forest 
when it came into his possession, and he had to un- 
dergo all the toils and privations of the early pio- 
neers in clearing it and rendering it fit for cultiva- 
tion. This part of the county was settled more 
slowlj- than some other portions, owing, doubtless, 
to the swampy character of some of the land, 
though when it was cleared and drnined it was 
found to be rich and productive. 

Mr. McCorinick was born in Butler C(.>unty, 
Pa., March 21, 1832, and is the son of Will- 
iam and Margaret McCormick. (For their parental 
history see the sketch of M. McCormick). His 
earl}' training was such as to make him manly, 




solf-ivli;u,t. iiiul iiHlu>l,.i.m>. mu.'l. lH-ynii,l his 
years. After ;ui atlvinlniirc .if a tVw years at a 
public school he was sent out lo work to assist ill 
the support of the lauiiiy, and reinlered this service 
to his parents until he attained his majoi'ity, when 
the 3'ounger meniliers of the family were old eiioiigli 
to work, and the parents' burdens were lightened. 
He then started out into the world beyond his na- 
tive State to make a home for himself, and came 
directly to Riga Townshii). Here he procured 
work at farming, receiving $10 per month for his 
services. He carefully saved his earnings until he 
had enough to buy a yoke of oxen, and then he 
rented land, doing themostof his farm work and the 
greater part of his marketing for several years with 
cattle. In the year 1854 Mr. McCormick's parents 
and their family came to Riga and settled in the 
southern part of the township. The father con- 
tracted for a tract of land, lint died before his plans 
were matured for the removal of his family. 

When our subject first settled on the place he 
now owns it was heavily timbered, and for some 
years after he continued to rent land until he had 
enough of his own cleared for profitable cultivation. 
He now owns 100 acres of land, sixty -five of which 
are cleared and under good tillage, while he has 
erected good frame buildings, well adapted to farm- 
ing jiurposes. 

Mr. McCormick was united in marri.age, .July 1, 
1877, with Miss Sarah Hamilton, a native of But- 
ler C^ounty, Fa., and daughter of John and Mary 
Hamilton. Her father was born in Ireland and 
came to America when a young man, locating in 
Pennsylvania, where he met and married Mary 
Gibson, also a native of Ireland. After their mar- 
riage they made their home in Butler County, Pa., 
and there the father died Jan. 29, 1852. Some 
years later the mother removed to Riga Township, 
where she spent her last j'cars, <lying Nov. IG, 
1881. Mr. and Mrs. McCormick's marriage has 
been blessed by the l)irth of one son, (ieorge E., 
Nov. 10, 1878. 

The haril years of toil have early brought their 
reward to Mr. McCormick, who is scarcely past the 
prime of life. Thirty -three years have passed 
since he left his Pennsylvania home, with little if 
any capital, except youthful energy and a deter- 

iniiialion to make his own way in the worhl, to 
make a pia.-e and a for liiiuself. He is now a 
citizen of a community to whose |)rosperity he has 
contribute<l much, and is the owner of a good 
farm and a pleasant home, where, with the attend- 
ant blessings of a good wife and child, he may pass 
the years in comfort and enjoyment before old age 
comes. Mr. JleCorniick is an active and hearty 
su|i|iorter of the IJepublican party. 

^^^ OLOMON BROWN is at present repvesent- 
^^^^ ing several insuranc^e companies, among 
ljjl/j| which are the Hartford, Phrenix, Connecti- 
cut, of Hartford, Conn., and the U. S. 
Mutual Accident Association, besides some others. 
Mr. Brown is an attorney and has lieen Justice of 
the Peace for some time; he has also a collecting 
agency. He came to Clinton more than fifty years 
ago, and has transacted business here for twenty 
years, and been Justice of the Peace for four years. 
The subject of this notice was born in Monroe 
County, N. Y., on the 22d of July, 1824, and is the 
son of K. N. Brown, who was also a native of Mon- 
roe County, where he operated a distillery and 
conducted a hotel. He was there united in mar- 
riage with Miss Margaret Smith of that county, and 
remained until after the birth of seven children. 
They then came to Michigan and settled in Bridge- 
water Township, Washtenaw Count.y, where Mr. 
Brown resided until his death, which occurred in 
1874, at the age of seventy-four; his wife died in 
1883, at the age of eighty years. 

Our subject was the eldest son and second child 
of the parental family. He came to this State with 
his parents, and lived at home until his marriage, 
in Fayette Countj', Ind., with Miss Sarah Mcll wain, 
a native of that State. Early in life her parents 
came from South Carolina, and settled on a farm 
in Fayette County, where they resided most of 
their lives. Mrs. Brown was reared under the 
parental roof and clied at her home in Clinton in 
1879, leaving five children — Calista, Francis E., 
Lou A., Ida and Carrie. Calista was formerly a 
teacher and lives at home; Francis E. is engaged in 
the hardware trade in Clinton: Lou A. is a teacher 








Ciirric is ilu! wile (,f .lulm I.. Kislil.:iu-h. 
one child, Ralpli: Mi-. Ki,-lil.:in-h i- :i I'^hhh 
Our snlijcft \\-;ls ;i secniKJ tiinr m.-iniccl. 
ton, to Miss Jane A. Lid.lel!,:! naiive of Ni 
State. Mr. Brown xv;is oiiua-eii in the li 
business here six vears. ,an<I opcratcil llie 
water mill near Clinton for six years. 
Mrs. B are members of the C'ongrci>ati(in.-iI 
In politics he is a Democrat, and has luc 
dent <jf the Village Cmincil fi.r some time. 

^^. AMUEL UNDERWOOD. Am(mo the well- 
^^^ known families of Lcn.awee County I, hat of 
(^£^1 the Underwoods occupies a prominent and 
honorable place. John Underwood, the 
father of our subject, was one of the early settlers, 
became a well-known and highlj' respected citizen, 
and was a most excellent man. He was one of the 
hardy and industrious pioneers of this section of 
the West, and during his life chopped and logged 
more than 200 acres of heavily timbered land, thus 
helping to prepare a rich and pleasant heritage for 
the younger generation who should come after him. 
He died at his home in Ridgeway Township of j)ar- 
alysis, Nov. 13, 1880, at a ripe old age. 

Our subject was the seventh child of his parents, 
and first saw the light of day on his father's farm 
in Ridgeway Township, Sept. 2, 1845. He was 
reared at liome and remained under the parental 
roof until a year before his marriage, when ho went 
to Ontario, Canada, where he purchased a piece of 
wild land. He was not satisfied with the outlook 
there, however, and sold out and returm'd to the 
county of his birth on fot)t. Soon .■iftcrward. 
May 30, 18G8, in Clinton, Mich., he was united in 
marriage with Miss Mary Mill.son, who was al^o a 
native of Michigan, where she was born at Bridge- 
water, Washtenaw County, and was the daughter of 
John and Ann (Guiett) Millson. both now de- 
ceased. They were natives of England, the father 
being of Yorkshire and the mother of Leicester- 
shire. They came to this country ami wvw mar- 
ried in Detroit, and settled in the then unbroken 

forest, in P.ridgcwatcr Tnwnslii|.. Wa>ht(>ii:iw ( onn- 
ty, being among the earliest sellh'i~ of that .si^dion- 
Here, hy iudefatigal.I.. induMry. they elinnnated 
fr,m] 111,. wilderiKss a go.xl farm, whirh continued 
to lie Ihcii- home until their death. Th.' mother 
<lied -At the agv of liflyHvo .-uid the f^itluT at the 

>ur sii 
o hei' 

ly her inarriasie 

■n H. 


M IS. 


It the lime of his ma 
e has continued to li 

■ since. He now 
has a fine bod.y of 140 acres of well-improved land, 
which is drained by more than seven miles of un- 
derground tile ilrainage, making it well suited to 
the production of ail kinds of cereals and oiher 
farm products. The land is exceedingly fertile, hav- 
ing produced as high as 100 bushels of oats to the 
acre, and other crops in proportion. There is a 
good set of farm buildings and all other appliances 
necessary to the modern agriculturist. Mr. Under- 
wood is a stanch Democrat in politics, and has 
been Township Treasurer two years. Socially he 
is a member of P>bie Lodge No. 09, in Tecumseh, 
of which he is Junior Warden, and belongs to the 
Chapter in Council No. 2."., in Clinton, and to 
Adrian Conimandery No. 1, and i- the lirst Knight 
•j' ever made in Ridgeway. 

EDWARD P. ALLIS. The |ieople of to-d.ay 
who are enjoying all the comforts of civil- 
; ized life in the West, seldom pause to con- 
sider how the present state of affairs has been 
brought about. If they give a glance backward to 
the pioneer days, the past seems more like a dream 




th;m !i reality, whoso scenes nnd Incidents can by no 
means beappreeiatefl by the present generation, and 
wiiich. even to those who partiei|i:ited in the events 
of that time, seem more like a fal)l<' nf another 
sphere than auythins' connected even remotely with 
the present. A large majority of the men who 
came to this section in the forties, arrived here 
forewarned and forearmed, not with gold or imple- 
ments of agricultnre, but with strong hands and 
brave hearts. Necessity made them fertile in ex- 
pedient and prepared them for every emergency. 
They did not expect lives of ease, or couches of 
down, but bravely camped out under a tent or in 
their wagons, if necessary, until they cduld prepare 
a more suitable liabitation. 

The subject of this biography was in nowise be- 
hind those of his compeers who were willing to 
make sacrifices and endure iiardships for the sake of 
their posterity. He emigrated from a comfortable 
and well-appointed home in New England, where he 
spent his early life and where his birth took place in 
Franklin County, Mass., Feb. 9, 181!). He was 
reared on the farm of his father, and in 1844 set 
out for the great West. Although intending to 
eventually become a tiller of the soil he could not 
at once enter upon a career which he had marked 
out for himself, but wisely chose that which appeared 
most expedient, and first engaged in running a saw- 
mill. He was thus occupied for two or three years, 
until he enough dollars in his pociiet to secure 
for himself a tract of land. He located first in Rome 
Township, where he lived for a period of twenty 
years, and whence he removed, in 1864, to Mad- 
ison Township, locating on section 8, where he built 
up a good homestead and has since remained. His 
property embraces seventy-two and one-half acres 
of land, which by his perseverance and industry is 
now valuable, and he has a snug dwelling, tasteful 
within and without, a good barn, and other improve- 
ments nece.ssary to the comfort of the modern 

Our subject was married in Hudson Township, 
April 2, 1851, to Miss Hannah Jennings, who has 
now been the partner of his joys and sorrows for a 
period of thirty-seven years. Their union has been 
blessed by the birth of three children, the eldest of 
whom. Elliott W., still remains with his parents 

under tlie home roof; Lucius F. married Miss Sa- 
mantha Gander, and is farming in Madison Town- 
shi]); he was born in Rt)me Township, July 11, 
1H.")7, and his wife Ajn-il 2(5, 1859; they have two 
children^ — Edward D. and Arthur L. Miss Mary 
AUis, the only daughter of oui' subject, re- 
mains at home with her parents. Mrs. Allis was 
born in New York State, Aug. (3, 1821, and is the 
daughter of Zera and Polly (Whaley) Jennings, 
natives respectively of Massachusetts and New 
York. They spent the latter part of their lives in 
the Empire State, where their remains are buried. 

The parents of our subject, Solomon and Anna 
B. (Dickinson) Allis, were natives of F'ranklin 
County, Mass., where they spent their entire lives, 
the mother dying about 18()3, and the father about 
1823. Mr. and Mrs. A. .'ire regular attendants of 
the Presbyterian Church, to which they give their 
support and influence, and our subject, in politics, 
affiliates with the Republican party. He has held 
some of the minor offices of the township, and is 
distinguished as a law-abiding and order-loving cit- 
izen, who is always willing to make sacrifices for the 
good of those around him. He has inherited in a 
large degree the substantial traits of his New En- 
gland ancestry, who were of Scotch and English de- 
scent, and early settlers of Blassachusetts. His pa- 
ternal grandfather, Lucius Allis, located in Franklin 
County in 1764, where he became a wealthy and 
prominent man, serving as Selectman of the town 
of Conway, while he was also Captain of the militia, 
and later, represented his county in the Legislature 
of the Bav State. 

,^^EORGE EXELBY. Under the modern 
II ^— , method of conducting business the volume 
^^^ of travel in all sections of the country is 
much increased. The time was when the merchant 
went once or twice a year to the market, but now 
the market, through its thousands of representatives, 
visits the merchants half a dozen times a year, and 
thus there is a constant stream of travel up and 
down the land. Like begets like, it is said, and 





this going and eoniing of husiiic^ mhu \i:\> 
iiarl its effect upon the general puiilic ;inil they 
travel iiiore tlinii tlicy iliil ht-l'orc the iii.'.'ins (if 

of the pe(.)plo has ealleil into existence in cveiy city- 
village, town and hamlet in the country, houses of 
public entertainment, and the business of a hoti'l- 
keeper has grown to be on<' ol' the most iuipoiluiil 
in the country, tor his rchitions with the |iublic :\w 
very intimate. 

Mr. Exelby, who was formerly >iiic<ir the »ell- 
known general farmers of Ridge way 'I'ownshii), where 
his home was on section 9, is now the pr^pi-ietor of 
the Exelby House iu the town of Hritton. Besides 
120 acres of land on section 9 he owns IGO acres on 
section 14, and 80 on section 15, and 180 acres of 
the various tracts are under a good state of cultiva- 
tion. Mr. Exelby was born on the .sth of March, 1 s;i(;, 
at the old homestead on section 9, and is the son n( 
George Exelby, who came from England in 1831. 
and immediately located on a new and unbroken 
farm on section 3, in Ridgeway Township. After- 
ward he removed to section 9, and purchased what 
is now known as the old homestead, where he re- 
sided until his death, April 18, 1861, which was 
occasioned by being thrown from a, wagon by a 
runaway. The mother of our subject was Mary 
Thaekray, who was born and reared to womanhood 
in Yorkshire, England. She died at the home of 
our subject in 1880. The parents were both active 
members of the Methodist Church, and during his 
life the father held nearly all the local ollices of the 
township in which he lived. 

The early life of the subject of this sketch was 
spent at home with his parents, where he engaged 
at work upon the farm during summer and attended 
the district schools during the winter months. In 
the fall of 18(j2 Mr. Exelby was married in Ridge- 
waj' Township to JMiss Ann, daughter of Eenner 
Palmer, an old and respected citizen of Lenawee 
Count}'. After their marriage Mr. and Mrs. Exelby 
settled on a part of the old homestead, where they 
made their home until October, 1887, when they 
came to Britton and took possession of the hotel 
which now bears their name. On account of his 
genial and sociable nature there is no doubt that 
Mr. Exelby will prove to be an excellent landlord. 

tlie iiifthi 
■A\\an> n( 
d Mr>. K 




I'.-dter married Jane 
(• hotel with their 
mcd Allen: Edgar 
I they liv<' (in the 

was born on the 


Its. Mrs. Exelby was b. 

nestead on the 4tli of August, 1841. 
Slie was ('(luc-atcd at Ridgeway and resided at lu^me 
with her [larents until slic liecame the wife of the 
subject of this >kctrli. in politics Mr. Kxelhy is a 
stanch Democrat, and labors for the success of In's 
l)arty upon all proper occasions. He has filled the 
ollice of Township Treasurer, the duties of which 
he discharged to the satisfaction of the people. In 
his new calling Mr. Exelby will receive the en- 
couragement and good wishes of all his friends, and 
the time is not very far distant when his house will 
become very popular with the traveling public. 

lUi-; men of Macon T 

Among the intelligent 
shii), who have been 

!Mi\\ l!ii'gpl.V identified with its business and agri- 
^^ cultural interests, none occupy a more hon- 
orable position than the subject of this biography. 
He is a gentleman by birth and breeding, high 
minded and honorable, and one who in the many 
years he spent among the jieople of Lenawee 
County, has never deviated from the path of recti- 
tude or been led to perpetrate a mean action. To 
the best of his ability he has dealt justly with his 
fellowmen, and enjoys the esteem and confidence of 
all who know hiiu. 

JMr. Cailmus came to Lenawee County more than 
fifty years ago, arriving here in the fall of 1833, 
when a lad ten years of age, with his father, Abra- 
ham Cadmus, who had made the removal from Lodi 
Township, Seneca Co., N. Y. There our subject 
was l)orn Aug. 27, 1823, and his first recollections 
are of farm life and his early pursuit of knowledge 
in the district school. Abraham Cadmus was a na- 
tive of New Jersey, and was the .son of Richard 




Cadimis, Si'., who was also born and maiTierl in that 
■State. Tlie first representatives of the family in 
this country emigrated from Holland during the 
Colonial days, and most of them were tillers of the 

Richard Cadninsand his wife became the parents 
of four children, three sons and one daughter, of 
whom Abraham, the father of our subject, was the 
second child. They left New Jersey and located 
in Seneca County, N. Y., the children all being 
reared in Lodi Township. Abraham Cadmus was 
there married to Miss Johanna YanVleet, whi> was 
of the same ancestry as her husband, but a native 
of New I'ork State, it is believed. They took up 
their abode at the old homestead and in due time 
became the parents of four childi'en: Mar^' A., who 
married J. M. Miller, .and died in Clinton County, 
Mich., in 188G, leaving two children; Peter, who 
died when a young man in Macou Township; Rich- 
ard, of our sketch, and John, who is married and 
one of the well-to-do farmers of Raisin Township. 

In 1833, Abraham Cadmus, accompanied by his 
family, started for the Territory of Michigan, in 
the hopes that in due time he would improve his 
condition financially. They made the journey via 
canal and lake to Detroit and thence by ox-team to 
Macon Township, this county. They traveled 
laboriously over a rough road, in many places 
scarcely marked out of the heavy timber. The peo- 
ple of the present day who journey in their palace 
cars have but a faint idea of the discomforts to 
which the early emigrants were subjected, and the 
heroic courage required in their undertakings. We 
read, however, of few who turned back discouraged 
at the prospect, for they were men and women of 
undaunted resolution and admitted no such word 
as "fail." 

The Cadmus family located on section 32, upon 
a tract of land which had scarcely been visited by 
white men. and upon which there was not even a 
path from the main thoroughfare, which for want 
of a more suitable name the settlers dignified as a 
"road." The father secured eighty acres from the 
Government, and moved his family into the log 
iiouse which had been erected for their accommo- 
dation. They made themselves as comfortable as 
possible and formed their plans for the future, which 

were destined, however, to grievous disappointment 
by the death of the father a few months later, which 
oecui red under the most distressing circumstances, 
lie had occasion to visit Tecumseb, and during his 
absence the weather turned extremely cold. Upon 
his return he became so chilled and benumbed that 
he was unable to reach home, and froze to death 
within a half mile of those who, had they known 
his condition, could quickly have I'escued him. 

The widowed mother, after this calamity, kept 
her children together and provided for them as well 
as possible under the circumstances, and they in 
turn assisted her in supplying their common wants. 
She was subsequently married to Simeon Davidson, 
whom she survived a few years, and spent her last 
days with her daughter in Clinton County, her 
death occurring after she was seventy years of age. 
A few years after the arrival of Abraham Cadmus 
in this county, his father, Richard Cadmus, with his 
wife, also journeyed to Michigan, where they spent 
the last years of their lives in Macon Township, 
dying at a ripe old age. 

Our subject remained with his mother until reach- 
ing his majority, andthen received as his portion of 
the estate forty acres of the old homestead, upon 
which he put up a house and began to make other 
improvements necessary to a complete home. He 
subsequently added to his landed area, and has now 
Ifjd acres under good cultivation and with suitable 
buildings. He was married in Ridgeway Township, 
Aug. 12, 1845, to Miss Elizabeth, daughter of Asa 
and Lydia Russell, who came to this county in 183-1. 
The father spent his last years in Raisin Township; 
the mother is still living, being now eighty-six 
years of age, and makes her home with her son 
Asa, of Macon Township. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Cadmus was born in Plainfield, 
N. H., Aug. 16, 1824, and came with her father to 
Michigan when a child ten 3"ears of age. She was 
the eldest of the family and the offspring of Chris- 
tian parents who reared their sons and daughters to 
those principles which rendered them desirable and 
valued members of society. Mrs. C. continued 
under the home roof until her marriage with our 
suliject, and by this union became the mother of 
three children, tw(_> now living. The mother died 
on the 2iJth of March, 187.5, at her home in Macon 




Township. The eldest 8011, Wallace P., is operat- ! must have been a small, stniggiing village with but 
ing the homestead; he married Miss Mary Haiglit. few inhal)itants, presenting a very different ippear- 

a native of Canisteo, Steuben Co., N. Y., who laim 
with her parents to Miciiigaii. where they iuciited ii 
Ridgeway Township. The nidlher. whii>c iiiMiilei 
name was Polly Green, died in Cass Coinily ; th- 
father, Stephen P. Haight, a shoein.Mkor by tradr. i 
.still living and a resident of Hidi^ewny TowuMii| 
Wallace P. and, his wife ftlary are the parents ,,( and afb 
one child, a son, Herbert R., and .are livii,- in .Ma- lilteen 
con Township. The deceased dauuliler. Ibiiinab |ii>rket. 
A. Cadmus, became the wife of*;. 1'. Waring, a ofeigbl 
sketch of whom will be found el.-i'wbere in llii- vcl- his .linn 
ume; Mr. Waring subsequently married lli'lcai A. if. Tli; 
Cadmus. j Green. 

Our subject and wife were active ineiuliers of the ! the eml 
Methodist Episcopal Church, in which .Mr. Cadmus enable I 
is Class-Leader and Trustee. I'cilltically. he and uc'd lai 
his son vote the straight Demi)cratic ticket. The 
homestead is one of the most valuable and well a|>- 
l)ointed in the towii.ship, and indicates on all sides 
the hand of taste and the exercise of good judgiiuait 
in its operations, yir. Cailnms i> one ni' the rep- 
resentative men of his t.ownsliiii. and his opinions 
are held in universal resi)ecl. 

e from the thrivin,^ .-ity of to-day o 

rbitants. with its lai-e buMiiess bl, 

nianidactnring interests, institu'id 

. an<l tlie inultitndinous things that 

val in that town he spent in Freii 

d su 


J^OHN CAIN is of the lea.lmu tanners 
Fairfield Township, win, ha- won pro.-peri 
solely by the exen-i,-e of an indonnlal 
energy and perseverance. He u:,~ b, 
April 2, 1819, in (Jenesee ('(nnity. N. 'I'., .and 
the son of Pati'ick and iMary C.ain. Our snbjc 
was a lad of more than usual pluck .and en<iL;y.a 
at the early age of eightei'ii spirileilly delerniin 
to go out into the world to .see life for liiniM'If. a 
seek his foitnin' in the ureal \Ve>l. A.a-ordin^ 
he turned te.ward the Tiaiitory of Mielii,-an. tliou 
he had onl^ money eiiuugh to p.av his fare li df 
the way. He was obliged to peilorni the rest 
his journey on foot, working his w.ay .alonu'. .anil 
whole year was thus consiuned in llii- e\ entl'nl joi 
iiey. At length, weary and )'oots<nc. with lii> p:i 
on his Itack, he entered the town of Adrian, wh 

years nmger, aim mm seuieo on nis o 
the midst of a dense forest, which llieii 
large a [wrtioii of the county. 

Then conuneneed for .Mr. Cain years of un- 
remittinu toil whieli on!)' the early settlers of a 
countrv <'an know, who have forests to fell, Stumps 
to uproot, and sometimes swamps t<, drain, before 
the soil is even fit for the plow, .and he must be 
possessed of splendid eouiagi'. -reat [xiwer of en- 
durance, and must not l,e lacking in [Kitiencc. who 
would accomplish this beivtdean task. Our subject 
lacked none .,f these essentials of Mi.aa-s. He af- 
terward tr.ade.l the Land lie bad taken up for .an- 
otlna- cii;lity a(ics on section Id of the sanie town- 
ship, .\ftcr li\ inii in Kiijlinteii years. he exchanged 
bis land Ibei'c. n\ enty aca'cs of which he had cleared, 
!■,„■ cioblv on' se,-t,ion IH n( Fairfiehl Towu- 
sliip. whi<-h forms a part of hi< [.resent farm. This 

..nllnr,'. He lias sin.a' added fifty .acres, and now 


,s. He may wl 
ha-a,'hieved si, 







plish, and his is an example worthy to be followed 
by the youth of the present generation. 

Mr. Cain has been married three times, his first 
marriage taking place in Rolliii Township, with 
Sophia Marlott, in November, 1842. She was born 
in 1823, ill Seneca County, N. Y., and was the 
daughter of John Marlott. She bore Mr. Cain two 
children, one of whom died in infancy; Charles, 
the surviving child, was born in Fairfield Township, 
and still resides here, where he has married Mar- 
garet Stuck, and has one son, John. Mrs. Cain 
died in Fairfield Township, about 1857, aged thir- 
ty-four years. Jlr. Cain's second marriage oc- 
curred in 1858, in Fairfield Township, with Miss 
Ann Scoville, who bore him one child, who died 
in infancy; the mother died in 1859. Mr. Cain 
was again married in Fairfield Township, to Miss 
Patience Sprague, June 17, 1860. She was born in 
Schuyler County, N. Y., July 4, 1844, and is the 
daughter of Amasa and Mai'y Sprague. She came 
to Jackson County, Mich., in 1847, and in 1860 
came to Lenawee County, where she was married 
to our subject. 

Mr. Cain takes an active interest in all that per- 
tains to the advancement of the town, and in his 
administration of several minor offices to which he 
has been elected by his lellow-townsmen, he has 
done all in his power to further the cause of good 
government, and to insure the prosperity of the 

EBENEZER FJSK. The name uf tliis genlk- 
tleman is widely and fiivorably known 
throughout this county, as he was one of its 
early settlers, and has been largely instrumental in 
assisting to bring it to its present importance. He 
was endowed by nature with those qualities of mind 
and heart which naturally inclined him to liberality 
and benevolence, and has never been liackwinil in 
contributing of his time and means to |)r()jccts 
set on foot for the development of the resources of 
this section of country. He was brought up a Con- 
gregationalist, and rendered material assistance in 
erecting the chiiii'li of this (Ifiiciniiuntiuii in West 
Adrian, andsincv that lime has lu'cii /ictiN e in keep- 
ing the society together, and raising llie necessary' 

< » 

means to sustain it. In politics he is a stanch Re- 
publican, and in business has been uniformly suc- 

Mr. Fisk is a New Englander b}' liirth, having 
first opened his eyes to the light in Franklin County, 
Mass., Aug. 28, 1815. His father and his grand- 
father were both named Ebenezer, and both were 
natives of the same county as our subject. The lat- 
ter has had in his possession since a lad of thirteen 
years, a cane which was then 300 years old, and 
which, as may be supposed, is held as a iniceless 
relic of the past. libenezer, the third, like his 
father and grandsire, was bred to farm pursuits. 
Both his father and grandfather learned the cooi)- 
er's trade, and his grandfather spent his last years 
in Franklin County, where his death took place at 
the age of ninety-one years. He had survived his 
excellent wife a quarter of a century. The latter, 
before her marriage, was a Miss Barnard, also a na- 
tive of Franklin County, Mass. The great mission- 
ary laborer, Miss Fidelia Fisk. was a cousin of our 
subject, and pursued her pious labors until her 
death, July 26, 1804, when she was forty-eight years 
of age. 

The father of our subject married, at the age of 
twenty-five, Miss Hannah Terrell, who was born in 
Abington, Mass., and was of New England parent- 
age. They settled upon a farm near the old Fisk 
homestead in Franklin Count}', where they remained 
until 1822. Mr. Fisk then purchased 200 acres of in the same county, and there spent the remain- 
der of his days, dying in 1 847, at the age of sixty-two 
years, and leaving a large property for those days. 
The mother continued at the homestead, remaining 
a widow until her death, and living to be eighty- 
two years of age. The parental household included 
nine children, seven sons and two daughler.s. Of 
these four are living besides our subject, and re- 
corded as follows: Daniel, the eldest, is a minister of 
tlie Congregational Church at Newburyport, Mass. : 
Isaac lives on the homestead; Frank, Mi-s. Mather, 
lives in Paincsville, Ohio; Chnriolte, Mrs. Slate, in 

Our subject coiilinued at home inilil twenty-three 
years of age. lecciving a limited education, and 
working on llie iMrm and in a sawmill until the fall 
of 183.S. Then, determining to come to the West 





and grow up witli the country, he marie the journe}' 
mostly overland, after leaving tlie Lakes, and after 
reaching Michigan, only remained twenty-four 
hours, going back the next day to Toledo. In the 
fall of 1839, he returned and located on property 
which his brother had secured two years previously, 
but after a year's residence here returned to M.assa- 
chusettsand lemained until 1S41 llelnd not how 
ever, given up hi> wcsteiii sp(i_ulition uid ictnin 
ing, again purcliased the piopcit^ wIikIi h( hid lu 
fore occupied, upon which wrs (nil> i lo_ hou^^ 
Upon his marriage, Nov is lh41 hi md hi-- 
bride took possession of till II liinubU K^iduKt in<l 
proceeded to establish a homi In 1^42 Mi 1 isk 
erected a modest frame buihhu^ whith >u)hced 
initil 1S70, when the present moiU ni md lonitoit 
able dwelling was erected 

The wife of our subject w i^ (oiiin iK Mi^- 1 li/ i 
beth Smead, daughter of Liitu^ md \^un i Suu id 
who came to this county in \'^ti «hdc ]\lKhiL,in 
was a Territory, making the longjoume} tioni then 
birthplace, Shelburnc, Mas-- Mi Smtid ( unt of i 
fiimily of farmers, and in (common with his limther 
pioneers vigorously engaged in llie cultivation of 
the soil. He and his estimable wife, as the result 
of temperate habits and good morals, lived to an 
advanced age, Mr. Smead dying at the age of eighty- 
seven, and his wife when ninety-four years old. 
They were the parents of a large family of children, 
of whom Elizabeth, the wife of our subject, was 
born in January, 1817. She was mai-ried at the 
age of twenty-five and became the mother of five 
children: The eldest son, Rufus 11.. was boin .Vug. 
17, 1.S44, married Miss Eliza Cordelia Harder, of 
New York, and hiis three children; he is canying 
on farming in Adrian Township. Ebenczer was 
born in 184(3, and died in 1.S4!); Edward P. was 
born Nov. 15. l.S4s. married 
daughter of Abraham Pmn-her 
the}' have one daughter, Anna 
years of age; this son remains 
Herman S. w:is born Aug. 3, 1 1S5 
peuter and joiner; Anna E. wai 
and is the wife of Clarence Fn 

The father of our subject wa; 
and was particularly active in 
school work. Indeed this seems to h: 


1C(•^ I'., 
ra, and 

^anra, i 

ow llnee 

1 the 1 


5.-), and 

is a, car- 

)rn Sept 

ID, I85(), 

of Adr 


nan of* 

ee|) piety, 

irch am 

1 Sunday- 

characteristic of the Fisk family. Rev. Pliny Fisk, 

an uncle of oui' subject, was a missionary to Smyrna, 
.■md a br(jther has Ijeen in the ministry I'or the last 
forty years, lie has attempted to witlidr.Mw, but 
his congregation wi.iuld not acce|it ids resignation. 


I n,Hs (1,1(1 Lipo-sitii, 
m I ni,luid Junt 8, 
I t tin- (oiintiN with his initnts 
lodi \( II- old 11r\ lind(d in 
NoN \oik lui 1 is-lt md m tin suniimi ot tint 
\LU mo\ultoUtKi N ■i whiit OUI subject it 
tended the public schools When theSchocjl lins 
tK- ot Utica oiginizcd i f u e ic idi nn he wis one 

o( tiR hist diift ot schohi- sdc( t(d S i ittu 

w 11(1 hi-, pueiits umoved to Roim N ^ uid that 
ended his att( nd lUK. it m hool Surc tlieu lu h is 
puisued his stiidus 111 tliit bioaikifuld tin punt 
iiig office 

In .Tunc, 1 .S55. Applcgatc entered the ofticc 
of the Rome Dallii SphUik^K and served .-i four years' 
api)renticeship, at the expiration of whic^h he went 
to New York, and worked at the case, doing an 
o(!c.asional job at reporting. He cast his first vote 
tor President for Abraham Lincoln ill l.sdl). The 
work on which lie was engaged in New York was 
interrupted by the riots of 1S(;3, and he went to 
his home in RcMiie. While there, learning that the 
Adrian W'nlrli Tourr was for .sale, he visited the 
city, purcha.scd an interest in the paper, .-md took cliariie of it in the last week in October, 
1KG3. In Septemlier, 1 sC.".. (ien. ilumplirty having 
inirchased an interest in the li'((/'7/ 'l'nire,\ that 
pa,per was sn|ierseded by tin' Tluu s, Ww tiist num- 
ber of which made its appearance Sept. II. ISC,,-,. 
A consolidation w:is effected .Ian. I, |,S(;7, with the 
A'.i7»<,sv7o;-. and the publication has since been carried 
oil under the name of the Tivien and Exjiosiior, and 
the \\'(,lf/i Tniri'i- snspendeii publication. Mr. Ap- 
plegate lias contiimed hi^ editoiial coime<-fion since 
he first assumed it. 

Mr. Applegate has never aspired to the holding 
of any public oflice. He was elected a member of 
the Bepulilican State Central Committee, when 





• ^m ^ 

Zachariali ^Chandler was Chairman, and was ap- 
l)ointed by him a member of tlie Executive Com- 
mittee of that body. When James McMillan was 
chosen Chairman of that committee. M r. Applegate 
was, also a member, and was again appointed a 
member of tlie Executive Committee, which posi- 
tion he holds at this writing (November, 1887). 
He was appointed by Gov. Croswell, a member of 
the Board of Commissioners to locate and establish 
a. State school for the blind. When that board had 
concluded its labors, he was appointed l)y (Juv. 
Alger, a Trustee of the instit tion for a term of 
six years, which position he now holds. On the 1st 
of July, 188C, Mr. Applegate purchased his pai-tner's 
interest in the Times mid Exixtsitur, and has since 
been its sole proprietor. 

This paper occupies an enviable position in the 
annals of Michigan journalism, and as an expo- 
nent of political thought and policy, stands among 
the foremost of the Republican papers in the State. 
Its pages are clean and its arguments dignified and 
convincing, while it wields an influence within tlie 
region of its circulation second to none. Mv. Ap- 
l)legate, its i)ropvietor, deserves credit for the emi- 
nent position in whi<'li be has i)laced the paper. 

,^^ TErilEN ALLEN. This gentleman, laic 
^^^^ a resident of Madison Townshiji, was liorn 
lft/_J)) not far from, the Atlantic coast, in i\IorrJs- 
town, N. J., where he spent his early life 
up to the age of eighteen years. Pie was born Dec. 
•Jl, 1795, and in 1836 set out for the young State 
of Michigan, during its early settlement ;nid but a 
short time after Lenawee County had been ex- 
plored. He was accompanied by his wife and eight 
children, and his outfit consisted of two covered 
wagons drawn by hoi'ses, and containing the house- 
hold goods and i)i-ovi.Hon>. They traveled .-ifter 
tlie manner of tlie eiiii"i-;iiit,s of those days, camiiini. 

Ill CO. 
i,w C( 

Lo(li. Washte- 
Mr. Allen had 
Township, this 

county, where there was a log house and small barn, 
and taking possession later, he lived there with his 
family from February until June. Then finding a 
more desirable location in Madison Township, on 
sections 4 and I), he secui'ed possession and at once 
began the building up of a homestead, which he oc- 
cupied until called from his earthly laboi-s, on the 
!)th of March, 1 880. The first purchase of Mr. Al- 
len in Madison Township was 820 acres, for which 
he was to pay $15 per acre. He cleared the entire 
tract, and erected a brick house and other sub- 
stantial buildings. His farming operations were 
conducted with uniform good judgment, and the 
estate in due time was regardeil as one of the most 
valuable in the township. 

Mr. Allen was married, while a resident of Sen- 
eca County, N. Y., to Miss Deborah Sutton, who 
was born Oct 27, 179G, and was the daughter of 
Benjamin and Mary Sutton, of Scotch- Irish de- 
scent and natives of New Jersey, whence they re- 
moved, after their marriage, to Seneca County, 
during its early settlement. The nine children 
born to Stephen and Deliorah Allen are recorded as 
follows: Benjamin S is married, and farming in 
Madison Township; Mar}' is the wife of Elihu B. 
I'ond, of Ann Arbor, Mich. ; Esther was first mar- 
ried to C. D. Y. Alexander, who died in Madison 
Township in 1860, and she is now the wife of James 
A. Bayless, of Kansas City, Mo. ; Silas L. is farm- 
ing in Hudson Township; John W. is fanning on 
section 9, in Madison Township; Gilbert T. died 
July 20, 1858, when twenty-seven years of age; 
Louisa C. married James Bayless, and crossed the 
Mississippi into Missouri, where she resided a few 
years aiid where her death took place in 1871; Lewis 
T. died in ijifancy in Seneca C'ount}', N. Y. ; Ph<ebe 
M. died at the parental homestead in Madison 
Township in Februarj', 1854, when an interesting 
maiden of seventeen j'ears. The wife and mother 
departed this life at the homestead, April 6, 1877. 
She was a ti'ue type i:)f a jiioneer matron, and was 
ill all respects the suitable comiianioii of her hus- 
b.Miid, enduring bravely with him the eai-ly strug- 
,^les and the toils incident to building up a home in 
a new country. 

Mr. Allen sei'ved as Justice of the Peace for a 
iiLimlier of years and for several years was County 




set hi 

U\ pi'K 

.Superintendent of the Poor. He po.^si 
peculi.'ir ideas of human liberty which 
bitter oppositi..n t.. tlic iii^l ilulicn ..r ~Im\ 
he fougiit witli hi,- v>>\rr .mihI lii> iiiMiK'iu 
as tliere was any necessity for bnttiing .-i 
monstrous wrono-. He was ;i delegate ti 
Convention that assisted in the oruanizai 
Republican party in .bick-oii ('(iiinty, in 
is credited with tiie hnudr of h.-ivinuMiivc 
to the organization, lie was liberal a 
spirited, and often contributed lo ih,. ua 
poor and needy from lii> o\\n pii\alc 
was often remarked that the nnfortnnalc 
turned e,mpt}'-handed fi-oni his door. ' 
record as this his children may well be pi 
descendants years hence, ivhen they pern 
perfect record of his life, will point witl 
one whose name is held in affei 
hrance throughout Lenawee Coniil 

I^SAACN. PILP.EAM is one of the prosperous 
I and well-known farmers of K'idgew.ay 'I'own- 
J ship, residing on secti<ui 17. wlini' he [lur- 
chased a farm in 1867, wliicli lie lias -luce o\vncd 
and cultivated. He has eighty ancs of line laud 
under a high state of cultivation, well sl(ic'kcil with 
good farm animals, and supplied "ith a coiufort- 
able residence and coniniodions out-buildings. 

The father of our subject was Joseph Pill)e:im, 
who was born in Kent County, England, and came 
alone to the United States when eighteen years of 
age. He landed in New York, and after living in 
that State for a short time emigrated to Michigan, 
locating in Tecumseh. He did not remain there 
long, however, but removed to Hidgew.ay Town- 
.ship, and after living for a year with a Mr. I.ain- 
liertson, who was the first settler in the township, 
entered a tract of timber land on section !), where 
he proceeded to laboriously clear a farm, and 
where he made his home until his death, which oc- 
curred in 1862. He was twice married, his first 
wife being Sarah Bolton, who became the mother 
of six children, and then departed this life. After- 
ward i\Ir. Pilbeam married Mrs. Mary A. Bodkin, 
formerly Frampton, who was a native of England, 

whence she came to the United States alone when a 
young woman. She is still living with her daugh- 
ter. Mrs. .Margaivl ('a>well. of Milan 'i'ownship, 

Monroe Co.. Mich.. ,at a g 1 old age. By her 

iiuioii Willi .Mr. I'ilbeaiii >lie became the mother of 

fi\e ehil.beu. of wlicuii our subject was the eldest. 

K.aae N. I'ilbeaui was born Feb. :i, 1846, and 




. The only injui 
the impairment 
-.hii^s and exposur 

' roi )f , a.ssisting in 
ulmg the neigh- 
)ffered. Sept. 1, 
Isiuan in the United States 
i Ki\or, and joined the 
iveiil lo the front ami was 
al varbuis p<u-ts along the 
le received in the service 
his health by the varion.s 
if army life. At 
lionorable discharge, and 


Feeling now 
time to .selecl 


ing on his own ac- 

xin deemed it 

uianied in Cliiitcui County, Mich., in 1867, to Miss 
.4rlett,a llobhui, who i,- a native of New York State, 
and vMuc when a young woman with her parents to 
Michigan. Her father, Samuel Holden, still lives 
in Tecumseh; her mother died in Blissfield, Mich. 
(;)ur snbjeetV household contains five ciiildi-en — 
Chester, Lavinia, Gertrude, Irene and Sylva. In 
politics Mr. Pilbeam is a Republican. He is re- 
gaided as one of the reliable men of the township, 
and is .-i pi-ogressive and successful .agriculturist. 

— :>'^^^Vt^^t5<^^ 



innected with 
e of the old- 
1 is at present 

the Clinton \Vo< 
I est settlers <if tli 
' repi-esenting this iudiistiy in the various 
States adjacent, a position for which he is eminently 
qualified by his general knowledge of men and 
things, and his naturally fine business capacities. 
He has lieen a resident of this county since the 
spring of 182!), when his parents made the long 
journey from Cayuga County, N. Y., to seek their 
fortunes in ihe western (country. 

Our subject was born Jidy 13, 1820, in Cayuga 





County, mill .accompanied his parenU to tlii> State. 
The jouniev was made via canal fvoui Buffalo, and 
thence they started by the lake steamer " William 
Penn " to Detroit. Tiiis boat was commanded by 
Capt. Hoyt, an old friend of Alpheus Kies, the 
father of our subject, and after they had been ont 
two days it became disabled and they were obliged 
to put in at Dunkirk. From there they took the 
steamer " Enterprise," and arriving in Detroit six 
days later secured a team, and loading their effects 
upon a lumber wagon they and the goods were by 
this means conveyed to their destination. Their 
route was scarcely marked by a wagon track, and 
in some places almost impassable. Upon their ar- 
rival within the limits of Clinton Township they 
found there one building, a "shanty," near the site 
of the present town and standing in the woods 
between what is now Clinton and Saline. Alpheus 
Kics took up a tract of Government land, 240 acres 
in extent, lying on sections 4 and 5, Clinton Town- 
ship, and embracing the greater part of the present 
corporation of Clinton Village. Mr. Kies donated 
from this a lot of one acre each to a carpentei' and 
a blacksmith, to encourage them in establishing 
their business. This was in keeping with the char- 
acter of the man all the way through ; he took a 
heart-felt interest in the progress and development 
of his adopted county, and employed the best means 
in his power to assist in bringing about this result. 
The place upon which the village of Clinton now 
stands was then known as Oak Plains. Here the 
elder Kies put up the first house, and there was but 
one building within forty miles on what is now 
the Chicago Turnpike. The log house which Mr. 
K. put up for the use of liis familj- hi time became 
the stopping-place for many a traveler through that 
section. As time passed on he began dealing in 
real estate, and was permitted to behold the trans- 
formation of the wilderness into smiling farms and 
valuable homesteads. Mr. Kies named the town of 
Clinton in honor of DeWitt Clinton, an early Gov- 
ernor of New York State, and at one time a candi- 
date for Vice President on the Democratic ticket, 
which Mr. Kies uniformly voted. The death of 
this early pioneer and thoroughly good man took 
place at the homestead of his son Joseph, after 
many years' labor, in October, 1864. 

rill' subject of our sketch spent his early yenrs 
under the home roof, and after starting out 'for 
himself engaged in farming for a time, and also 
carried on a nursery fcjrsome years. He early gave 
evidence that he had inherited the capabilities of 
his honored father, was wide-awake, ambitions, and 
never idle. He became the owner of considerable 
real estate and was- foremost in the organization of 
the industry with which he is at present connected. 
This enterprise was inaugurated under many difH- 
culties and discouragements, and iiad it not been 
for the determined man at its head, would soon 
have succumbed to the pressure. The buildings 
were put up in 1 867, and the following year Mr. 
Kies was made President of the company, and had 
the general supervision of its affairs until 188(i. 
The Clinton Woolen Mills are now one of the most 
flourishing manufactories of the kind in Michigan, 
averaging now 1,800 yards per day, and have been 
kept in operation since the wheels were first put in 
motion. This can be said of only one oth